This rule added hazardous waste lamps to the federal list of universal wastes regulated under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Handlers of universal wastes are subject to less stringent standards for storing, transporting, and collecting these wastes. The EPA concluded that regulating spent hazardous waste lamps as a universal waste under 40 CFR Part 273 will lead to better management of these lamps and will facilitate compliance with hazardous waste requirements. The EPA also thought that this rule, would streamline the Subtitle C management requirements for hazardous waste lamps, and also support energy conservation efforts.
Federal Register Notice
Adobe Acrobat PDF File [172 KB]
Environmental Fact Sheet:
Some Used Lamps Are Universal Wastes
Adobe Acrobat PDF File [13 KB]
ASCII text file
Index to Docket #F-1999-FLEF-FFFFF
Response to Comments Document
Final Economic Assessment,
Final Document, Post-OMB Review - March 11, 1999.
Adobe Acrobat PDF File [585KB]
Regulatory Flexibility Screening Analysis,
Final Document, Post-OMB Review - March 4, 1999.
Adobe Acrobat PDF File [36KB]
Peer Review of the EPA Analytical Model:
Mercury Emissions from the Disposal of Fluorescent Lamps,
Comment Response Document - March 1998.
Adobe Acrobat PDF File [91KB]
Notice of Data Availability for the Study on Mercury Emissions from the Disposal of Fluorescent Lamps,
Comment Response Document - May 1998
Adobe Acrobat PDF File [334KB]
Mercury Emissions From The Disposal of Fluorescent Lamps
Revised Model, Final Report - Post OMB Review, March 31, 1998.
Adobe Acrobat PDF File [363KB]
A User's Guide to the Mercury Emissions Model,
Revised Model - Post OMB Review, March 31, 1998.
Adobe Acrobat PDF File [456KB]
The Electronic Mercury Emissions Model Software
[A self-extracting ZIP file]
- Microsoft Windows 3.1 or higher
- 16 MB of RAM
- 50 MB of disk space
Federal Register Notice
The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is making available to the public a study containing information relating to its Proposed Rule addressing the management of mercury-containing lamps under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Subtitle C hazardous waste management system published in the Federal Register on July 27, 1994, 59 FR 39288. The study consists of an electronic model and report that provides an assessment of mercury emissions from the management of mercury-containing lamps under different approaches, including two that were discussed in the Proposed Rule: A conditional exclusion from hazardous waste regulations and adding lamps to Universal Waste regulations (May 11, 1995, 60 FR 25542). Readers should note that only comments about the study discussed in this Notice of Data Availability will be considered by the Agency during this comment period. The Agency is not reopening the comment period for the July 27, 1994 proposed rule through this Notice of Data Availability.
Quick Link to NODA, PDF files and Modeling Software...
Modeling Software, and Users Guide
June 30, 1997
The disposal of mercury-containing fluorescent lamps and the status of these lamps under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) is controversial. Most fluorescent lamps contain quantities of mercury sufficient to fail the Toxicity Characteristic (TC) and are, therefore, hazardous wastes under RCRA. However, many generators do not recognize that lamps can be hazardous waste, and do not manage lamps as hazardous waste. In addition, not all lamps are subject to hazardous waste regulations (i.e., household lamps and lamps generated by conditionally exempt small quantity generators).
In the 1994 proposal, the Agency identified uncertainties regarding the amount of mercury released from spent fluorescent lamps in the waste management system. The Agency requested information on, among other things, the amount of mercury released from broken mercury-containing lamps and the air transport of mercury from lamps. The Agency has also requested comment on best management practices and controls that might best prevent releases of mercury to the environment under both options. Since the proposal, EPA has continued to compile and analyze information provided by industry and other interested parties on mercury emissions from spent fluorescent lamps.
Three items are contained in this document:
- The electronic Mercury Emissions Model (LampHg),
- A User's Guide To The Mercury Emissions Model - Final Report, June, 30, 1997, and
- Mercury Emissions From The Disposal of Fluorescent Lamps - Final Report, June 30, 1997.
- Each of the above items are designed to support the Notice of Data Availability (NODA): Hazardous Waste Management System; Modification of the Hazardous Waste Program; Mercury Containing Lamps. This NODA was published in the Federal Register on July 11, 1997.
- The Mercury Emissions Model is an electronic analytical tool designed to estimate mercury emissions from the disposal of fluorescent lamps, under alternative disposal scenarios. This electronic model requires no special software but the user must have a PC compatible machine (486 or better) with at least 25 megabytes of free hard drive space, and a color monitor.
- The document, A User's Guide To The Mercury Emissions Model - Final Report, June, 30, 1997, presents instructions on how to use the basic features of the model. It is intended for those who wish to use the model an are unfamiliar with relational databases. The Guide covers installing (from the CD-ROM) and running the model, running data diagnostics, selecting scenarios, report menu, graph menu, edit data menu, and calculating emissions from selected scenarios.
- The document, Mercury Emissions From The Disposal of Fluorescent Lamps - Final Report, June 30, 1997, presents the methodology, data, and assumptions applied in the development of the Mercury Emissions Model. The objective of the Report is to ensure users understand Model functions and outputs. The Report describes inputs into the model for estimating mercury emissions during waste management and disposal activities. It also discusses inputs for estimating the energy savings from using high-efficiency T8 lamps, and effects on mercury emissions from electric utilities. The Report presents estimates for lamp mercury emissions under the baseline and options, including annual and cumulative mercury lamp disposal emissions, and net emissions. In addition, the Report discusses sensitivity runs conducted to evaluate the extent to which selected input assumptions affect disposal emissions. The Report also discusses key model limitations.
Installing the Software - Quick Start - From Windows 3.1 or Windows 95
- Download the file and place it in an empty sub-directory (you must have 20 megabytes of free disk space)
- From DOS or the Windows File Manager/Explorer - execute the file (double click) "lamphg1e.exe" and the 53 files will be extracted
- Execute the file "Setup.exe" (double click) from the File Manager/Explorer and follow the directions on the screen.
- When the process is complete an ICON will be installed on your desktop. Read the users guide for more information on using the program