JBBootstrap-to-titleEmergency response to HazMats - First Responder - Placard Table

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How to Respond to Chemical Spills
Placards and the NFPA 704 Hazard Identification and First Response System

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  • General Spills regulations and guidance
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    Hazardous Materials Guide for First Responders - 
    General Approach to a Hazmat Incident

    The NFPA diamond

     

    The US National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) has a marking system ("the NFPA fire diamond") designed for the benefit of first responders in chemical accidents. Though often used worldwide in transportation of chemicals and dangerous goods it is not required in transportation. It is intended for use on fixed installations storage containers, storage rooms and warehouses, entrances to laboratories, and chemical processing equipment.

     

    Figure A6 - 2


    International labelling of dangerous goods

     

    IMDG Code labels, marks and signs

     

    Class

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

    1

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

    2

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

    3

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

    Elevated

    temperature

    mark

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

    4

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

    5- 6

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

    7

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

    8- 9

     

    Fumigation

    warning sign
     

     *Insert details

    as appropriate

     

     

     

     

    Figure A6 - 1

     

     

    USFA Hazardous Materials Guide for First Responders
    National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) Fire Diamonds
    (NFPA No. 704-1991)

     

    Identification of Health Hazard
    Color Code: BLUE

    Identification of Flammability
    Color Code: RED

    Identification of Reactivity
    Color Code: YELLOW


    Type of Possible Injury

    Susceptibility of Materials
    to Burning


    Susceptibility to Release of Energy

    Signal

     

    Signal

     

    Signal

     

    4

    Materials that on very short exposure could cause death or major residual injury.

    4

    Materials that will rapidly or completely vaporize at atmospheric pressure and normal ambient temperature, or that are readily dispersed in air and that will burn readily.

    4

    Materials that in themselves are readily capable of detonation or of explosive decomposition or reaction at normal temperatures and pressures.

    3

    Materials that on short exposure could cause serious temporary or residual injury.

    3

    Liquids and solids that can be ignited under almost all ambient temperature conditions.

    3

    Materials that in themselves are capable of detonation or explosive decomposition but require a strong initiating source or which must be heated under confinement before initiation or which react explosively with water.

    2

    Materials that on intense or continued but not chronic exposure could cause temporary incapacitation or possible residual injury.

    2

    Materials that must be moderately heated or exposed to relatively high ambient temperatures before ignition can occur.

    2

    Materials that readily undergo violent chemical change at elevated temperatures and pressures or which react violently with water or which may form explosive mixtures with water.

    1

    Materials that on exposure would cause irritation but only minor residual injury.

    1

    Materials that must be preheated before ignition can occur.

    1

    Materials that in themselves are normally stable, but which become unstable at elevated temperatures and pressures.

    0

    Materials that on exposure under fire conditions would offer no hazard beyond that of ordinary combustible material.

    0

    Materials that will not burn.

    0

    Materials that in themselves are normally stable, even under fire exposure conditions, and which are not reactive with water.

    Figure A6 - 3

     


    USFA Hazardous Materials Guide for First Responders
    First Responder Strategy Using the NFPA 704 Diamond
     

     

    NFPA Reactivity Rating 0 - 1 (Rating 2 - 4 Defensive Only)

     

     

     

    N

    F

    P

    A

     

    H

    e

    a

    l

    t

    h

     

    R

    a

    t

    i

    n

    g

     

     

    4

    Defensive operation only.

    Defensive operation only.

    Defensive operation only.

    Defensive operation only.

    Defensive operation only.

     

     

    3

    Defensive operation only when materials identified and deemed safe.

    Defensive operation only when materials identified and deemed safe.

    Defensive operation only when materials identified and deemed safe.

    Defensive operation only when materials identified and deemed safe.

    Defensive operation only when materials identified and deemed safe.

     

     

     

    2

    Attack from safe distance in full SCBA. Decontaminate personnel/equipment thoroughly when complete.

    Attack from safe distance in full SCBA. Decontaminate personnel/equipment thoroughly when complete.

    Attack from safe distance in full SCBA. Decontaminate personnel/equipment thoroughly when complete.

    Attack from safe distance in full SCBA. Decontaminate personnel/equipment thoroughly when complete.

    Attack from safe distance in full SCBA. Decontaminate personnel/equipment thoroughly when complete. Consider extra attack lines.

     

     

    1

    Attack with full protective clothing and SCBA. Decontaminate when finished.

    Attack with full protective clothing and SCBA. Decontaminate when finished.

    Attack with full protective clothing and SCBA. Decontaminate when finished.

    Attack with full protective clothing and SCBA. Decontaminate when finished.

    Attack with full protective clothing and SCBA. Decontaminate when finished. Consider extra attack lines.

     

     

    0

    Attack with full protective clothing and SCBA.

    Attack with full protective clothing and SCBA.

    Attack with full protective clothing and SCBA.

    Attack with full protective clothing and SCBA.

    Attack with full protective clothing and SCBA. Decontaminate when finished. Consider extra attack lines and master stream appliances.

     

    0

    1

    2

    3

    4

    NFPA Flammability Rating

    Last Updated: November 3, 1998

    Figure A6 - 4

     
     

    The ADR Hazard Identification Number HIN

    ("The Kemler Code")

     

    The ADR Hazard Identification Number HIN, also known as the Kemler Code,  is carried on placards on tank cars and tank containers running by road under international ADR regulations. Identification numbers are shown in such a way, that the upper number is indicating the danger and the lower number identifies the substances with the UN-number given in the UN Recommendations on the Transport of Dangerous Goods.

     

    An orange blank placard without any numbers indicates vehicle carrying dangerous load (drums, packages, etc.) or multi-load tanker.

     

     

    The ADR Hazard Identification Number HIN

    (The Kemler Code)

     

     

    The substance's UN Number

     

    Figure A6 - 5

     

     

    The first figure of the Kemler Code

    indicates the primary hazard:

     

    The second and third figure

    generally indicate

    secondary hazards:

     

     

     

     

     

     

    0

    the hazard is adequately described by the first figure

    2

    gas

     

    2

    (flammable) gas may be given off

    3

    flammable liquid

     

    3

    fire risk

    4

    flammable solid

     

    4

    fire risk

    5

    oxidizing substance or organic peroxide

     

    5

    oxidizing risk

    6

    toxic substance

     

    6

    toxic risk

    7

    radioactive substance

     

     

     

    8

    corrosive substance

     

    8

    corrosive risk

    9

    miscellaneous/environmental hazard

     

    9

    risk of spontaneous, violent reaction

    X

    reacts dangerously with water

     

     

     

     

    Doubling of a figure indicates an intensification of that particular hazard. Where the hazard associated with a substance can be adequately indicated by a single figure, this is followed by a zero.
     

    If a hazard identification number is prefixed by letter 'X', this indicates that the substance will react dangerously with water.
     

    The hazard identification number combinations have following meanings:

     

    20

    inert gas

    22

    refrigerated gas

    223

    refrigerated flammable gas

    225

    refrigerated oxidizing (fire-intensifying) gas

    23

    flammable gas

    236

    flammable gas, toxic

    239

    flammable gas, which can spontaneously lead to violent reaction

    25

    oxidizing (fire-intensifying) gas

    26

    toxic gas

    265

    toxic gas, oxidizing (fire-intensifying)

    266

    highly toxic gas

    268

    toxic gas, corrosive

    286

    corrosive gas, toxic

    30

    flammable liquid or self-heating liquid

    323

    flammable liquid which reacts with water emitting flammable gases

    X323

    flammable liquid which reacts dangerously with water emitting flammable gases

    33

    highly flammable liquid (flash point below 21 degrees C)

    333

    pyrophoric liquid

    X333

    pyrophoric liquid which reacts dangerously with water

    336

    highly flammable liquid, toxic

    338

    highly flammable liquid, corrosive

    X338

    highly flammable liquid, corrosive, which reacts dangerously with water

    339

    highly flammable liquid, which can spontaneously lead to violent reaction

    36

    self-heating liquid, toxic

    362

    flammable liquid, toxic

    X362

    flammable liquid, toxic, which reacts dangerously with water emitting flammable gases

    38

    self-heating liquid, corrosive

    382

    flammable liquid, corrosive, which reacts with water emitting flammable gases

    X382

    flammable liquid, corrosive, which reacts dangerously with water emitting flammable gases

    39

    flammable liquid, which can spontaneously lead to violent reaction

    40

    flammable self-heating solid

    423

    solid, which reacts with water emitting flammable gases

    X423

    flammable solid, which reacts dangerously with water emitting flammable gases

    44

    flammable solid, in molten state, at elevated temperature

    446

    flammable solid, toxic, in molten state, at elevated temperature

    46

    flammable or self-heating solid, toxic

    462

    toxic solid, which reacts with water emitting flammable gases

    48

    flammable or self-heating solid, corrosive

    482

    corrosive solid, which reacts with water emitting flammable gases

    50

    oxidizing (fire-intensifying) substance

    539

    flammable organic peroxide

    55

    strongly oxidizing substance

    556

    strongly oxidizing substance, toxic

    558

    strongly oxidizing substance, corrosive

    559

    strongly oxidizing substance, which can spontaneously lead to violent reaction

    56

    oxidizing substance, toxic

    568

    oxidizing substance, toxic, corrosive

    58

    oxidizing substance, corrosive

    59

    oxidizing substance which can spontaneously lead to violent reaction

    60

    toxic or harmful substance

    63

    toxic or harmful substance, flammable (flash point between 21 degrees C and 55 degrees C)

    638

    toxic or harmful substance, flammable (flash point between 21 degrees C and 55 degrees C), corrosive

    639

    toxic or harmful substance, flammable (flash point between 21 degrees C and 55 degrees C), which can spontaneously lead to violent reaction

    66

    highly toxic substance

    663

    highly toxic substance (flash point not above 55 degrees C)

    68

    toxic or harmful substance, corrosive

    69

    toxic or harmful substance, which can spontaneously lead to violent reaction

    70

    radioactive material

    72

    radioactive gas

    723

    radioactive gas, flammable

    73

    radioactive liquid, flammable (flash point not above 55 degrees C)

    74

    radioactive solid, flammable

    75

    radioactive material, oxidizing

    76

    radioactive material, toxic

    78

    radioactive material, corrosive

    80

    corrosive or slightly corrosive substance

    X80

    corrosive or slightly corrosive substance, which reacts dangerously with water

    83

    corrosive or slightly corrosive substance, flammable (flash point between 21 degrees C and 55 degrees C)

    X83

    corrosive or slightly corrosive substance, flammable (flash point between 21 degrees C and 55 degrees C), , which reacts dangerously with water

    839

    corrosive or slightly corrosive substance, flammable (flash point between 21 degrees C and 55 degrees C), which can spontaneously lead to violent reaction

    X839

    corrosive or slightly corrosive substance, flammable (flash point between 21 degrees C and 55 degrees C), which can spontaneously lead to violent reaction and which reacts dangerously with water

    85

    corrosive or slightly corrosive substance, oxidizing (fire-intensifying)

    856

    corrosive or slightly corrosive substance, oxidizing (fire-intensifying) and toxic

    86

    corrosive or slightly corrosive substance, toxic

    88

    highly corrosive substance

    X88

    highly corrosive substance, which reacts dangerously with water

    883

    highly corrosive substance, flammable (flash point between 21 degrees C and 55 degrees C)

    885

    highly corrosive substance, oxidizing (fire-intensifying)

    886

    highly corrosive substance, toxic

    X886

    highly corrosive substance, toxic, which reacts dangerously with water

    89

    corrosive or slightly corrosive substance, which can spontaneously lead to violent reaction

    90

    miscellaneous dangerous substance

     

    Last Updated: November 3, 1998