CFR# 1926.700 - Scope, application, and definitions applicable to this subpart.
(a) Scope and application. This subpart sets forth requirements to protect all construction employees from the hazards associated with concrete and masonry construction operations performed in workplaces covered under 29 CFR Part 1926. In addition to the requirements in Subpart Q, other relevant provisions in Parts 1910 and 1926 apply to concrete and masonry construction operations.
(b) Definitions applicable to this subpart. In addition to the definitions set forth in 1926.32, the following definitions apply to this subpart.
(b)(1) Bull float means a tool used to spread out and smooth concrete.
(b)(2) Formwork means the total system of support for freshly placed or partially cured concrete, including the mold or sheeting (form) that is in contact with the concrete as well as all supporting members including shores, reshores, hardware, braces, and related hardware.
(b)(4) Limited access zone means an area alongside a masonry wall, which is under construction, and which is clearly demarcated to limit access by employees.
(b)(5) Precast concrete means concrete members (such as walls, panels, slabs, columns, and beams) which have been formed, cast, and cured prior to final placement in a structure.
(b)(6) Reshoring means the construction operation in which shoring equipment (also called reshores or reshoring equipment) is placed, as the original forms and shores are removed, in order to support partially cured concrete and construction loads.
(b)(7) Shore means a supporting member that resists a compressive force imposed by a load.
CFR# 1926.701 - General requirements.
(a) Construction loads. No construction loads shall be placed on a concrete structure or portion of a concrete structure unless the employer determines, based on information received from a person who is qualified in structural design, that the structure or portion of the structure is capable of supporting the loads.
(b) Reinforcing steel. All protruding reinforcing steel, onto and into which employees could fall, shall be guarded to eliminate the hazard of impalement.
(c) Post-tensioning operations.
(c)(1) No employee (except those essential to the post-tensioning operations) shall be permitted to be behind the jack during tensioning operations.
(c)(2) Signs and barriers shall be erected to limit employee access to the post-tensioning area during tensioning operations.
(d) Riding concrete buckets. No employee shall be permitted to ride concrete buckets.
(e) Working under loads.
(e)(1) No employee shall be permitted to work under concrete buckets while buckets are being elevated or lowered into position.
(e)(2) To the extent practical. elevated concrete buckets shall be routed so that no employee, or the fewest number of employees, are exposed to the hazards associated with falling concrete buckets.
(f) Personal protective equipment. No employee shall be permitted to apply a cement, sand, and water mixture through a pneumatic hose unless the employee is wearing protective head and face equipment.
CFR# 1926.702 - Requirements for equipment and tools.
(b) Concrete mixers. Concrete mixers with one cubic yard (-8 m(3)) or larger loading skips shall be equipped with the following:
(b)(1) A mechanical device to clear the skip of materials; and
(b)(2) Guardrails installed on each side of the skip.
(c) Power concrete trowels. Powered and rotating type concrete troweling machines that are manually guided shall be equipped with a control switch that will automatically shut off the power whenever the hands of the operator are removed from the equipment handles.
(d) Concrete buggies. Concrete buggy handles shall not extend beyond the wheels on either side of the buggy.
(e) Concrete pumping systems.
(e)(1) Concrete pumping systems using discharge pipes shall be provided with pipe supports designed for 100 percent overload.
(e)(2) Compressed air hoses used on concrete pumping system shall be provided with positive fail-safe joint connectors to prevent separation of sections when pressurized.
(f) Concrete buckets.
(f)(1) Concrete buckets equipped with hydraulic or pneumatic gates shall have positive safety latches or similar safety devices installed to prevent premature or accidental dumping.
(f)(2) Concrete buckets shall be designed to prevent concrete from hanging up on top and the sides.
(g) Tremies. Sections of tremies and similar concrete conveyances shall be secured with wire rope (or equivalent materials) in addition to the regular couplings or connections.
(h) Bull floats. Bull float handles used where they might contact energized electrical conductors, shall be constructed of nonconductive material or insulated with a nonconductive sheath whose electrical and mechanical characteristics provide the equivalent protection of a handle constructed of nonconductive material.
(i) Masonry saws.
(i)(1) Masonry saw shall be guarded with a semicircular enclosure over the blade.
(i)(2) A method for retaining blade fragments shall be incorporated in the design of the semicircular enclosure.
(j) Lockout/Tagout procedures.
(j)(1) No employee shall be permitted to perform maintenance or repair activity on equipment (such as compressors mixers, screens or pumps used for concrete and masonry construction activities) where the inadvertent operation of the equipment could occur and cause injury, unless all potentially hazardous energy sources have been locked out and tagged.
(j)(2) Tags shall read Do Not Start or similar language to indicate that the equipment is not to be operated.
CFR# 1926.703 - Requirements for cast-in-place concrete.
(a) General requirements for formwork.
(a)(1) Formwork shall be designed, fabricated, erected, supported, braced and maintained so that it will be capable of supporting without failure all vertical and lateral loads that may reasonably be anticipated to be applied to the formwork. Formwork which is designed, fabricated, erected, supported, braced and maintained in conformance with the Appendix to this section will be deemed to meet the requirements of this paragraph.
(a)(2) Drawings or plans, including all revisions, for the jack layout, formwork (including shoring equipment), working decks, and scaffolds, shall be available at the jobsite.
(b) Shoring and reshoring.
(b)(1) All Shoring equipment (including equipment used in reshoring operations) shall be inspected prior to erection to determine that the equipment meets the requirements specified in the formwork drawings.
(b)(2) Shoring equipment found to be damaged such that its strength is reduced to less than that required by 1926.703(a)(1) shall not be used for shoring.
(b)(3) Erected shoring equipment shall be inspected immediately prior to, during, and immediately after concrete placement.
(b)(4) Shoring equipment that is found to be damaged or weakened after erection, such that its strength is reduced to less than that required by 1926.703(a)(1), shall be immediately reinforced.
(b)(5) The sills for shoring shall be sound, rigid, and capable of carrying the maximum intended load.
(b)(6) All base plates, shore heads, extension devices, and adjustment screws shall be in firm contact, and secured when necessary, with the foundation and the form.
(b)(7) Eccentric loads on shore heads and similar members shall be prohibited unless these members have been designed for such loading.
(d) Reinforcing steel.
(d)(1) Reinforcing steel for walls, piers, columns, and similar vertical structures shall be adequately supported to prevent overturning and to prevent collapse.
(d)(2) Employers shall take measures to prevent unrolled wire mesh from recoiling. Such measures may include, but are notlimited to, securing each end of the roll or turning over the roll.
(e) Removal of formwork.
(e)(1) Forms and shores (except those used for slabs on grade and slip forms) shall not be removed until the employer determines that the concrete has gained sufficient strength to support its weight and superimposed loads. Such determination shall be based on compliance with one of the following:
(e)(1)(i) The plans and specifications stipulate conditions for removal of forms and shores, and such conditions have been followed, or
(e)(1)(ii) The concrete has been properly tested with an appropriate ASTM standard test method designed to indicate the concrete compressive strength, and the test results indicate that the concrete has gained sufficient strength to support its weight and superimposed loads.
(e)(2) Reshoring shall not be removed until the concrete being supported has attained adequate strength to support its weight and all loads in place upon it.
CFR# 1926.706 - Requirements for masonry construction.
(a) A limited access zone shall be established whenever a masonry wall is being constructed. The limited access zone shall conform to the following.
(a)(1) The limited access zone shall be established prior to the start of construction of the wall.
(a)(2) The limited access zone shall be equal to the height of the wall to reconstructed plus four feet, and shall run the entire length of the wall.
(a)(3) The limited access zone shall be established on the side of the wall which will be unscaffolded.
(a)(4) The limited access zone shall be restricted to entry by employees actively engaged in constructing the wall. No other employees shall be permitted to enter the zone.
(a)(5) The limited access zone shall remain in place until the wall is adequately supported to prevent overturning and to prevent collapse unless the height of wall is over eight feet, in which case, the limited access zone shall remain in place until the requirements of paragraph (b) of this section have been met.
(b) All masonry walls over eight feet in height shall be adequately braced to prevent overturning and to prevent collapse unless the wall is adequately supported so that it will not overturn or collapse. The bracing shall remain in place until permanent supporting elements of the structure are in place.