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Clean Air Act - Full text of the regulations and amendments - download them here

The Clean Air Act and Amendments


The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 were signed into law as P.L. 101-549 on November 15, 1990. This was the most recent of three significant development in environmental legislation in years, along with the Clean Air Act of 1970 and the 1977 Clean Air Act Amendments.

The 1990 Amendments contain 7 separate titles covering different regulatory programs. They created many new regulatory requirements; from installation of more advanced pollution control equipment, changes in industrial operations and to even community lifestyle to cause reductions in emissions of air pollutants.

The basic framework of the Clean Air Act (CAA) remains basically constant, but the 1990 Amendments do significantly alter and add to the regulatory requirements.

National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS)

Click here for New Source Performance Standards (NSPS)
and Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) information

The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments

This page lists the sections of the Clean Air Act as amended in 1990. Click on a specific title to see a list of that title's sections. Click on a specific section to see the text of that section.


Part A - Air Quality and Emission Limitations

Sec. 101. Findings and purposes.
Sec. 102. Cooperative activities and uniform laws.
Sec. 103. Research, investigation, training, and other activities.
Sec. 104. Research relating to fuels and vehicles.
Sec. 105. Grants for support of air pollution planning and control programs.
Sec. 106. Interstate air quality agencies or commissions.
Sec. 107. Air quality control regions.
Sec. 108. Air quality criteria and control techniques.
Sec. 109. National ambient air quality standards.
Sec. 110. Implementation plans.
Sec. 111. Standards of performance for new stationary sources.
Sec. 112. National emission standards for hazardous air pollutants.
Sec. 113. Federal Enforcement.
Sec. 114. Inspections, monitoring, and entry.
Sec. 115. International air pollution.
Sec. 116. Retention of state authority.
Sec. 117. President's air quality advisory board and advisory committees.
Sec. 118. Control of pollution from federal facilities.
Sec. 119. Primary nonferrous smelter orders.
Sec. 120. Noncompliance penalty.
Sec. 121. Consultation.
Sec. 122. Listing of certain unregulated pollutants.
Sec. 123. Stack heights.
Sec. 124. Assurance of adequacy of state plans.
Sec. 125. Measures to prevent economic disruption or unemployment.
Sec. 126. Interstate pollution abatement.
Sec. 127. Public notification.
Sec. 128. State boards.
Sec. 129. Solid Waste Combustion.
Sec. 130. Emission Factors.
Sec. 131. Land Use Authority.

Part B - Ozone Protection

The 1990 CAA Amendments replaced Part B with Title VI - Stratospheric Ozone Protection , which follows later on this page. The following sections of Part B were replaced:

Sec. 150. Purposes.
Sec. 151. Findings and definitions.
Sec. 152. Definitions.
Sec. 153. Studies by environmental protection agency.
Sec. 154. Research and monitoring by other agencies.
Sec. 155. Progress of regulation.
Sec. 156. International cooperation.
Sec. 157. Regulations.
Sec. 158. Other provisions unaffected.
Sec. 159. State authority.

Part C - Prevention of Significant Deterioration of Air Quality

SUBPART 1 - Clean Air

Sec. 160. Purposes.
Sec. 161. Plan requirements.
Sec. 162. Initial classifications.
Sec. 163. Increments and ceilings.
Sec. 164. Area redesignation.
Sec. 165. Preconstruction requirements.
Sec. 166. Other pollutants.
Sec. 167. Enforcement.
Sec. 168. Period before plan approval.
Sec. 169. Definitions.

SUBPART 2 - Visibility Protection

Sec. 169a. Visibility protection for federal class I areas.
Sec. 169b. Visibility

Part D - Plan Requirements for Nonattainment Areas

SUBPART 1 - Nonattainment Areas in General

Sec. 171. Definitions.
Sec. 172. Nonattainment plan provisions.
Sec. 173. Permit requirements.
Sec. 174. Planning procedures.
Sec. 175. Environmental protection agency grants.
Sec. 176. Limitation on certain federal assistance.
Sec. 176A. Interstate Transport Commissions.
Sec. 177. New motor vehicle emission standards in nonattainment areas.
Sec. 178. Guidance documents.
Sec. 179. Sanctions and consequences of failure to attain
Sec. 179B. International border areas

SUBPART 2 - Additional Provisions for Ozone Nonattainment Areas

Sec. 181. Classifications and attainment dates.
Sec. 182. Plan submissions and requirements.
Sec. 183. Federal ozone measures.
Sec. 184. Control of interstate ozone air pollution.
Sec. 185. Enforcement for Severe and Extreme ozone nonattainment areas for failure to attain.
Sec. 185A. Transitional areas.
Sec. 185B. NOx and VOC study.

SUBPART 3 - Additional Provisions for carbon monoxide nonattainment areas

Sec. 186. Classification and attainment dates.
Sec. 187. Plan submissions and requirements.

SUBPART 4 - Additional Provisions for particulate matter nonattainment areas

Sec. 188. Classification and attainment dates.
Sec. 189. Plan provisions and schedules for plan submissions.
Sec. 190. Issuance of RACM and BACM guidance.

SUBPART 5 - Additional provisions for designated nonattainment for sulfur oxides, nitrogen dioxide, or lead

Sec. 191. Plan submission deadlines.
Sec. 192. Attainment dates.

SUBPART 6 - Savings provisions

Sec. 193. General savings clause.


Sec. 201. Short title.

Part A - Motor Vehicle Emission and Fuel Standards

Sec. 202. Establishment of standards.
Sec. 203. Prohibited acts.
Sec. 204. Injunction proceedings.
Sec. 205. Penalties.
Sec. 206. Motor vehicle and motor vehicle engine compliance testing and certification.
Sec. 207. Compliance by vehicles and engines in actual use.
Sec. 208. Records and reports.
Sec. 209. State standards.
Sec. 210. State grants.
Sec. 211. Regulation of fuels.
Sec. 212. Development of low-emission vehicles.
Sec. 213. Fuel economy improvement from new motor vehicles.
Sec. 214. Study of particulate emissions from motor vehicles.
Sec. 215. High altitude performance adjustments.
Sec. 216. Definitions for part A.
Sec. 217. Motor vehicle compliance program fees.
Sec. 218. Prohibition on production of engines requiring leaded gasoline.
Sec. 219. Urban bus standards.

Part B - Aircraft Emission Standards

Sec. 231. Establishment of standards.
Sec. 232. Enforcement of standards.
Sec. 233. State standards and controls.
Sec. 234. Definitions.

Part C - Clean Fuel Vehicles

Sec. 241. Definitions.
Sec. 242. Requirements Applicable to clean fuel vehicles.
Sec. 243. Standards for light-duty clean fuel vehicles.
Sec. 244. Administration and enforcement as per California standards.
Sec. 245. Standards for heavy-duty clean-fuel vehicles(GVWR above 8,500 up to 26,000 lbs).
Sec. 246. Centrally fueled fleets.
Sec. 247. Vehicle conversions.
Sec. 248. Federal agency fleets.
Sec. 249. California pilot test program.
Sec. 250. General provisions.


Sec. 301. Administration.
Sec. 302. Definitions.
Sec. 303. Emergency powers.
Sec. 304. Citizen suits.
Sec. 305. Representation in litigation.
Sec. 306. Federal procurement.
Sec. 307. General provisions relating to administrative proceedings and judicial review.
Sec. 308. Mandatory licensing.
Sec. 309. Policy review.
Sec. 310. Other authority not affected.
Sec. 311. Records and audit.
Sec. 312. Comprehensive economic cost studies and studies of cost effectiveness analysis.
Sec. 313. Additional reports to congress.
Sec. 314. Labor standards.
Sec. 315. Separability.
Sec. 316. Sewage treatment grants.
Sec. 317. Short title.
Sec. 318A. Economic impact assessment.
Sec. 318B. Financial disclosure; conflicts of interest.
Sec. 319. Air quality monitoring.
Sec. 320. Standardized air quality modeling.
Sec. 321. Employment effects.
Sec. 322. Employee protection.
Sec. 323. Cost of emission control for certain vapor recovery to be borne by owner of retail outlet.
Sec. 324. Vapor recovery for small business marketers of petroleum products.
Sec. 325. Exemptions for certain territories.
Sec. 326. Construction of certain clauses.
Sec. 327. Appropriations.
Sec. 328. Air pollution from outer continental shelf activities


Sec. 401. Findings and purpose.
Sec. 402. Definitions.
Sec. 403. Sulfur dioxide allowance program for existing and new units.
Sec. 404. Phase I sulfur dioxide requirements.
Sec. 405. Phase II sulfur dioxide requirements.
Sec. 406. Allowances for States with emissions rates at or below 0.80lbs/mmBtu.
Sec. 407. Nitrogen oxides emission reduction program.
Sec. 408. Permits and compliance plans.
Sec. 409. Repowered sources.
Sec. 410. Election for additional sources.
Sec. 411. Excess emissions penalty.
Sec. 412. Monitoring, reporting, and recordkeeping requirements.
Sec. 413. General compliance with other provisions.
Sec. 414. Enforcement.
Sec. 415. Clean coal technology regulatory incentives.
Sec. 416. Contingency guarantee; auctions, reserve.


Sec. 501. Definitions.
Sec. 502. Permit programs.
Sec. 503. Permit applications.
Sec. 504. Permit requirements and conditions.
Sec. 505. Notification to Administrator and contiguous States.
Sec. 506. Other authorities.
Sec. 507. Small business stationary source technical and environmental compliance assistance program.


Sec. 601. Definitions.
Sec. 602. Listing of class I and class II substances.
Sec. 603. Monitoring and reporting requirements.
Sec. 604. Phase-out of production and consumption of class I substances.
Sec. 605. Phase-out of production and consumption of class II substances.
Sec. 606. Accelerated schedule.
Sec. 607. Exchanges. [Exchange authority.]
Sec. 608. National recycling and emission reduction program.
Sec. 609. Servicing of motor vehicle air conditioners.
Sec. 610. Nonessential products containing chlorofluorocarbons.
Sec. 611. Labeling.
Sec. 612. Safe alternatives policy.
Sec. 613. Federal procurement.
Sec. 614. Relationship to other law.
Sec. 615. Authority of Administrator.
Sec. 616. Transfers among Parties to the Montreal Protocol.
Sec. 617. International cooperation.
Sec. 618. Miscellaneous [provisions].

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