|Air Pollutant: Any substance in air that could, in high enough
concentration, harm man, other animals, vegetation, or material. Pollutants
may include almost any natural or artificial composition of airborne matter
capable of being airborne. They may be in the form of solid particles,
liquid droplets, gases, or in combination thereof. Generally, they fall into
two main groups: (1) those emitted directly from identifiable sources and
(2) those produced in the air by interaction between two or more primary
pollutants, or by reaction with normal atmospheric constituents, with or
without photoactivation. Exclusive of pollen, fog, and dust, which are of
natural origin, about 100 contaminants have been identified. Air pollutants
are often grouped in categories for ease in classification; some of he
categories are: solids, sulfur compounds, volatile organic chemicals,
particulate matter, nitrogen compounds, oxygen compounds, halogen compounds,
radioactive compound, and odors.
||Air Pollution: The presence of contaminants or pollutant
substances in the air that interfere with human health or welfare, or
produce other harmful environmental effects.
||Air Pollution Control Device: Mechanism or equipment that cleans
emissions generated by a source (e.g. an incinerator, industrial smokestack,
or an automobile exhaust system) by removing pollutants that would otherwise
be released to the atmosphere.
||Air Pollution Episode: A period of abnormally high concentration
of air pollutants, often due to low winds and temperature inversion, that
can cause illness and death. (See:
||Air Quality Control Region:
||Air Quality Criteria: The levels of pollution and lengths of
exposure above which adverse health and welfare effects may occur.
||Air Quality Standards: The level of pollutants prescribed by
regulations that are not be exceeded during a given time in a defined area.
||Air Sparging: Injecting air or oxygen into an aquifer to strip or
flush volatile contaminants as air bubbles up through The ground water and
is captured by a vapor extraction system.
||Air Stripping: A treatment system that removes volatile organic
compounds (VOCs) from contaminated ground water or surface water by forcing
an airstream through the water and causing the compounds to evaporate.
||Air Toxics: Any air pollutant for which a national ambient air
quality standard (NAAQS) does not exist (i.e. excluding ozone, carbon
monoxide, PM-10, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxide) that may reasonably be
anticipated to cause cancer; respiratory, cardiovascular, or developmental
effects; reproductive dysfunctions, neurological disorders, heritable gene
mutations, or other serious or irreversible chronic or acute health effects
||Airborne Particulates: Total suspended particulate matter found in
the atmosphere as solid particles or liquid droplets. Chemical composition
of particulates varies widely, depending on location and time of year.
Sources of airborne particulates include: dust, emissions from industrial
processes, combustion products from the burning of wood and coal, combustion
products associated with motor vehicle or non-road engine exhausts, and
reactions to gases in the atmosphere.
||Airborne Release: Release of any pollutant into the air.
||Alachlor: A herbicide, marketed under the trade name Lasso, used
mainly to control weeds in corn and soybean fields.
||Alar: Trade name for daminozide, a pesticide that makes apples
redder, firmer, and less likely to drop off trees before growers are ready
to pick them. It is also used to a lesser extent on peanuts, tart cherries,
concord grapes, and other fruits.
||Aldicarb: An insecticide sold under the trade name Temik. It is
made from ethyl isocyanate.
||Algae: Simple rootless plants that grow in sunlit waters in
proportion to the amount of available nutrients. They can affect water
quality adversely by lowering the dissolved oxygen in the water. They are
food for fish and small aquatic animals.
||Algal Blooms: Sudden spurts of algal growth, which can affect
water quality adversely and indicate potentially hazardous changes in local
||Algicide: Substance or chemical used specifically to kill or
||Aliquot: A measured portion of a sample taken for analysis. One or
more aliquots make up a sample. (See:
||Alkaline: The condition of water or soil which contains a
sufficient amount of alkali substance to raise the pH above 7.0.
||Alkalinity: The capacity of bases to neutralize acids. An example
is lime added to lakes to decrease acidity.
||Allergen: A substance that causes an allergic reaction in
individuals sensitive to it.
||Alluvial: Relating to and/or sand deposited by flowing water.
||Alternate Method: Any method of sampling and analyzing for an air
or water pollutant that is not a reference or equivalent method but that has
been demonstrated in specific cases-to EPA's satisfaction-to produce results
adequate for compliance monitoring.
||Alternative Compliance: A policy that allows facilities to choose
among methods for achieving emission-reduction or risk-reduction instead of
command-and control regulations that specify standards and how to meet them.
Use of a theoretical emissions bubble over a facility to cap the amount of
pollution emitted while allowing the company to choose where and how (within
the facility) it complies.(See:
||Alternative Fuels: Substitutes for traditional liquid, oil-derived
motor vehicle fuels like gasoline and diesel. Includes mixtures of
alcohol-based fuels with gasoline, methanol, ethanol, compressed natural
gas, and others.
||Alternative Remedial Contract Strategy Contractors: Government
contractors who provide project management and technical services to support
remedial response activities at National Priorities List sites.
||Ambient Air: Any unconfined portion of the atmosphere: open air,
||Ambient Air Quality Standards: (See:
Criteria Pollutants and
National Ambient Air Quality Standards.)
||Ambient Measurement: A measurement of the concentration of a
substance or pollutant within the immediate environs of an organism; taken
to relate it to the amount of possible exposure.
||Ambient Medium: Material surrounding or contacting an organism
(e.g. outdoor air, indoor air, water, or soil, through which chemicals or
pollutants can reach the organism. (See:
||Ambient Temperature: Temperature of the surrounding air or other
||Amprometric Titration: A way of measuring concentrations of
certain substances in water using an electric current that flows during a
||Anaerobic: A life or process that occurs in, or is not destroyed
by, the absence of oxygen.
||Anaerobic Decomposition: Reduction of the net energy level and
change in chemical composition of organic matter caused by microorganisms in
an oxygen-free environment.
||Animal Dander: Tiny scales of animal skin, a common indoor air
||Animal Studies: Investigations using animals as surrogates for
humans with the expectation that the results are pertinent to humans.
||Anisotropy: In hydrology, the conditions under which one or more
hydraulic properties of an aquifer vary from a reference point.
||Annular Space, Annulus: The space between two concentric tubes or
casings, or between the casing and the borehole wall.
||Antagonism: Interference or inhibition of the effect of one
chemical by the action of another.
||Antarctic "Ozone Hole": Refers to the seasonal depletion of ozone
in the upper atmosphere above a large area of Antarctica. (See:
||Anti-Degradation Clause: Part of federal air quality and water
quality requirements prohibiting deterioration where pollution levels are
above the legal limit.
||Anti-Microbial: An agent that kills microbes.
||Applicable or Relevant and Appropriate Requirements (ARARs): Any
state or federal statute that pertains to protection of human life and the
environment in addressing specific conditions or use of a particular cleanup
technology at a Superfund site,
||Applied Dose: In exposure assessment, the amount of a substance in
contact with the primary absorption boundaries of an organism (e.g. skin,
lung tissue, gastrointestinal track) and available for absorption.
||Aqueous: Something made up of water.
||Aqueous Solubility: The maximum concentration of a chemical that
will dissolve in pure water at a reference temperature.
||Aquifer: An underground geological formation, or group of
formations, containing water. Are sources of groundwater for wells and
||Aquifer Test: A test to determine hydraulic properties of an
||Aquitard: Geological formation that may contain groundwater but is
not capable of transmitting significant quantities of it under normal
hydraulic gradients. May function as confining bed.
||Architectural Coatings: Coverings such as paint and roof tar that
are used on exteriors of buildings.
||Area of Contamination (AOC) Policy: EPA interprets RCRA to allow
certain discrete areas of generally dispersed contamination to be considered
RCRA units. Therefore consolidation of material within an AOC and treatment of
material, in situ, within an AOC does NOT CREATE A POINT OF HAZARDOUS WASTE
GENERATION FOR PURPOSES OF RCRA.
||Area of Review: In the UIC program, the area surrounding an
injection well that is reviewed during the permitting process to determine
if flow between aquifers will be induced by the injection operation.
||Area Source: Any source of air pollution that is released over a
relatively small area but which cannot be classified as a point source. Such
sources may include vehicles and other small engines, small businesses and
household activities, or biogenic sources such as a forest that releases
||Aromatics: A type of hydrocarbon, such as benzene or toluene, with
a specific type of ring structure. Aromatics are sometimes added to gasoline
in order to increase octane. Some aromatics are toxic.
||Arsenicals: Pesticides containing arsenic.
||Artesian (Aquifer or Well): Water held under pressure in porous
rock or soil confined by impermeable geological formations.
||Asbestos: A mineral fiber that can pollute air or water and cause
cancer or asbestosis when inhaled. EPA has banned or severely restricted its
use in manufacturing and construction.
||Asbestos Abatement: Procedures to control fiber release from
asbestos-containing materials in a building or to remove them entirely,
including removal, encapsulation, repair, enclosure, encasement, and
operations and maintenance programs.
||Asbestos Assessment: In the asbestos-in-schools program, the
evaluation of the physical condition and potential for damage of all friable
asbestos containing materials and thermal insulation systems.
||Asbestos Program Manager: A building owner or designated
representative who supervises all aspects of the facility asbestos
management and control program.
||Asbestos-Containing Waste Materials (ACWM): Mill tailings or any
waste that contains commercial asbestos and is generated by a source covered
by the Clean Air Act Asbestos NESHAPS.
||Asbestosis: A disease associated with inhalation of asbestos
fibers. The disease makes breathing progressively more difficult and can be
||Ash: The mineral content of a product remaining after complete
||Assay: A test for a specific chemical, microbe, or effect.
||Assessment Endpoint: In ecological risk assessment, an explicit
expression of the environmental value to be protected; includes both an
ecological entity and specific attributed thereof. entity (e.g. salmon are a
valued ecological entity; reproduction and population maintenance--the
attribute--form an assessment endpoint.)
||Assimilation: The ability of a body of water to purify itself of
||Assimilative Capacity: The capacity of a natural body of water to
receive wastewaters or toxic materials without deleterious effects and
without damage to aquatic life or humans who consume the water.
||Association of Boards of Certification: An international
organization representing boards which certify the operators of waterworks
and wastewater facilities.
||Attainment Area: An area considered to have air quality as good as
or better than the national ambient air quality standards as defined in the
Clean Air Act. An area may be an attainment area for one pollutant and a
non-attainment area for others.
||Attenuation: The process by which a compound is reduced in
concentration over time, through absorption, adsorption, degradation,
dilution, and/or transformation. an also be the decrease with distance of
sight caused by attenuation of light by particulate pollution.
||Attractant: A chemical or agent that lures insects or other pests
by stimulating their sense of smell.
||Attrition: Wearing or grinding down of a substance by friction.
Dust from such processes contributes to air pollution.
||Availability Session: Informal meeting at a public location where
interested citizens can talk with EPA and state officials on a one-to-one
||Available Chlorine: A measure of the amount of chlorine available
in chlorinated lime, hypochlorite compounds, and other materials used as a
source of chlorine when compared with that of liquid or gaseous chlorines.
||Avoided Cost: The cost a utility would incur to generate the next
increment of electric capacity using its own resources; many landfill gas
projects' buy back rates are based on avoided costs.
||A-Scale Sound Level: A measurement of sound approximating the
sensitivity of the human ear, used to note the intensity or annoyance level
||Back Pressure: A pressure that can cause water to backflow into
the water supply when a user's waste water system is at a higher pressure
than the public system.
||Backflow/Back Siphonage: A reverse flow condition created by a
difference in water pressures that causes water to flow back into the
distribution pipes of a drinking water supply from any source other than the
||Background Level: 1. The concentration of a substance in an
environmental media (air, water, or soil) that occurs naturally or is not
the result of human activities. 2. In exposure assessment the concentration
of a substance in a defined control area, during a fixed period of time
before, during, or after a data-gathering operation..
||Backwashing: Reversing the flow of water back through the filter
media to remove entrapped solids.
||Backyard Composting: Diversion of organic food waste and yard
trimmings from the municipal waste stream by composting hem in one's yard
through controlled decomposition of organic matter by bacteria and fungi
into a humus-like product. It is considered source reduction, not recycling,
because the composted materials never enter the municipal waste stream.
||Barrel Sampler: Open-ended steel tube used to collect soil
||BACT - Best Available Control Technology: An emission limitation
based on the maximum degree of emission reduction (considering energy,
environmental, and economic impacts) achievable through application of
production processes and available methods, systems, and techniques. BACT
does not permit emissions in excess of those allowed under any applicable
Clean Air Act provisions. Use of the BACT concept is allowable on a case by
case basis for major new or modified emissions sources in attainment areas
and applies to each regulated pollutant.
||Bacteria: (Singular: bacterium) Microscopic living organisms that
can aid in pollution control by metabolizing organic matter in sewage, oil
spills or other pollutants. However, bacteria in soil, water or air can also
cause human, animal and plant health problems.
||Bactericide: A pesticide used to control or destroy
bacteria, typically in the home, schools, or hospitals.
||Baffle: A flat board or plate, deflector, guide, or similar device
constructed or placed in flowing water or slurry systems to cause more
uniform flow velocities to absorb energy and to divert, guide, or agitate
||Baffle Chamber: In incinerator design, a chamber designed to
promote the settling of fly ash and coarse particulate matter by changing
the direction and/or reducing the velocity of the gases produced by the
combustion of the refuse or sludge.
||Baghouse Filter: Large fabric bag, usually made of glass fibers,
used to eliminate intermediate and large (greater than 20 PM in diameter)
particles. This device operates like the bag of an electric vacuum cleaner,
passing the air and smaller particles while entrapping the larger ones.
||Bailer: A pipe with a valve at the lower end, used to remove
slurry from the bottom or side of a well as it is being drilled, or to
collect groundwater samples from wells or open boreholes. 2. A tube of
||Baling: Compacting solid waste into blocks to reduce volume and
||Ballistic Separator: A machine that sorts organic from inorganic
matter for composting.
||Band Application: The spreading of chemicals over, or next to,
each row of plants in a field.
||Banking: A system for recording qualified air emission reductions
for later use in bubble, offset, or netting transactions. (See:
||Bar Screen: In wastewater treatment, a device used to remove large
||Barrier Coating(s): A layer of a material that obstructs or
prevents passage of something through a surface that is to be protected;
e.g., grout, caulk, or various sealing compounds; sometimes used with
polyurethane membranes to prevent corrosion or oxidation of metal surfaces,
chemical impacts on various materials, or, for example, to prevent radon
infiltration through walls, cracks, or joints in a house.
||Basal Application: In pesticides, the application of a chemical on
plant stems or tree trunks just above the soil line.
||Basalt: Consistent year-round energy use of a facility; also
refers to the minimum amount of electricity supplied continually to a
||Bean Sheet: Common term for a pesticide data package record.
||Bed Load: Sediment particles resting on or near the channel bottom
that are pushed or rolled along by the flow of water.
||BEN: EPA's computer model for analyzing a violator's economic gain
from not complying with the law.
||Bench-scale Tests: Laboratory testing of potential cleanup
||Benefit-Cost Analysis: An economic method for assessing the
benefits and costs of achieving alternative health-based standards at given
levels of health protection.
Benthic/Benthos: An organism that feeds on the sediment at the bottom of
a water body such as an ocean, lake, or river.
||Bentonite: A colloidal clay, expansible when moist, commonly used
to provide a tight seal around a well casing.
||Beryllium: An metal hazardous to human health when inhaled as an
airborne pollutant. It is discharged by machine shops, ceramic and
propellant plants, and foundries.
||Best Available Control Measures (BACM): A term used to refer to
the most effective measures (according to EPA guidance) for controlling
small or dispersed particulates and other emissions from sources such as
roadway dust, soot and ash from woodstoves and open burning of rush, timber,
grasslands, or trash.
||Best Available Control Technology (BACT): For any specific source,
the currently available technology producing the greatest reduction of air
pollutant emissions,taking into account energy, environmental, economic, and
||Best Available Control Technology (BACT): The most stringent
technology available for controlling emissions; major sources are required
to use BACT, unless it can be demonstrated that it is not feasible for
energy, environmental, or economic reasons.
||Best Demonstrated Available Technology (BDAT): As identified by
EPA, the most effective commercially available means of treating specific
types of hazardous waste. The BDATs may change with advances in treatment
||Best Management Practice (BMP): Methods that have been determined
to be the most effective, practical means of preventing or reducing
pollution from non-point sources.
||Bimetal: Beverage containers with steel bodies and aluminum tops;
handled differently from pure aluminum in recycling.
||Bioaccumulants: Substances that increase in concentration in
living organisms as they take in contaminated air, water, or food because
the substances are very slowly metabolized or excreted. (See:
||Bioassay: A test to determine te relative strength of a substance
by comparing its effect on a test organism with that of a standard
||Bioavailabiliity: Degree of ability to be absorbed and ready to
interact in organism metabolism.
||Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD): A measure of the amount of oxygen
consumed in the biological processes that break down organic matter in
water. The greater the BOD, the greater the degree of pollution.
||Bioconcentration: The accumulation of a chemical in tissues of a
fish or other organism to levels greater than in the surrounding medium.
||Biodegradable: Capable of decomposing under natural conditions.
||Biodiversity: Refers to the variety and variability among living
organisms and the ecological complexes in which they occur. Diversity can be
defined as the number of different items and their relative frequencies. For
biological diversity, these items are organized at many levels, ranging from
complete ecosystems to the biochemical structures that are the molecular
basis of heredity. Thus, the term encompasses different ecosystems, species,
||Biological Contaminants: Living organisms or derivates (e.g.
viruses, bacteria, fungi, and mammal and bird antigens) that can cause
harmful health effects when inhaled, swallowed, or otherwise taken into the
||Biological Control: In pest control, the use of animals and
organisms that eat or otherwise kill or out-compete pests.
||Biological Integrity: The ability to support and maintain
balanced, integrated, functionality in the natural habitat of a given
region. Concept is applied primarily in drinking water management.
||Biological Magnification: Refers to the process whereby certain
substances such as pesticides or heavy metals move up the food chain, work
their way into rivers or lakes, and are eaten by aquatic organisms such as
fish, which in turn are eaten by large birds, animals or humans. The
substances become concentrated in tissues or internal organs as they move up
the chain. (See:
||Biological Measurement: A measurement taken in a biological
medium. For exposure assessment, it is related to the measurement is taken
to related it to the established internal dose of a compound.
||Biological Medium: One of the major component of an organism; e.g.
blood, fatty tissue, lymph nodes or breath, in which chemicals can be stored
or transformed. (See:
||Biological Oxidation: Decomposition of complex organic materials
by microorganisms. Occurs in self-purification of water bodies and in
activated sludge wastewater treatment.
||Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD): An indirect measure of the
concentration of biologically degradable material present in organic wastes.
It usually reflects the amount of oxygen consumed in five days by biological
processes breaking down organic waste.
||Biological pesticides: Certain microorganism, including
bacteria, fungi, viruses, and protozoa that are effective in controlling
pests. These agents usually do not have toxic effects on animals and people
and do not leave toxic or persistent chemical residues in the environment.
||Biological Stressors: Organisms accidentally or intentionally
dropped into habitats in which they do not evolve naturally; e.g. gypsy
moths, Dutch elm disease, certain types of algae, and bacteria.
||Biological Treatment: A treatment technology that uses bacteria to
consume organic waste.
||Biologically Effective Dose: The amount of a deposited or absorbed
compound reaching the cells or target sites where adverse effect occur, or
where the chemical interacts with a membrane.
||Biologicals: Vaccines, cultures and other preparations made from
living organisms and their products, intended for use in diagnosing,
immunizing, or treating humans or animals, or in related research.
||Biomass: All of the living material in a given area; often refers
||Biome: Entire community of living organisms in a single major
ecological area. (See:
||Biomonitoring: 1. The use of living organisms to test the
suitability of effluents for discharge into receiving waters and to test the
quality of such waters downstream from the discharge. 2. Analysis of blood,
urine, tissues, etc. to measure chemical exposure in humans.
||Bioremediation: Use of living organisms to clean up oil spills or
remove other pollutants from soil, water, or wastewater; use of organisms
such as non-harmful insects to remove agricultural pests or counteract
diseases of trees, plants, and garden soil.
||Biosensor: Analytical device comprising a biological recognition
element (e.g. enzyme, receptor, DNA, antibody, or microorganism) in intimate
contact with an electrochemical, optical, thermal, or acoustic signal
transducer that together permit analyses of chemical properties or
quantities. Shows potential development in some areas, including
||Biosphere: The portion of Earth and its atmosphere that can
||Biostabilizer: A machine that converts solid waste into compost by
grinding and aeration.
||Biota: The animal and plant life of a given region.
||Biotechnology: Techniques that use living organisms or parts of
organisms to produce a variety of products (from medicines to industrial
enzymes) to improve plants or animals or to develop microorganisms to remove
toxics from bodies of water, or act as pesticides.
||Biotic Community: A naturally occurring assemblage of plants and
animals that live in the same environment and are mutually sustaining and
||Biotransformation: Conversion of a substance into other compounds
by organisms; includes biodegredation.
||Blackwater: Water that contains animal, human, or food waste.
||Blood Products: Any product derived from human blood, including
but not limited to blood plasma, platelets, red or white corpuscles, and
derived licensed products such as interferon.
||Bloom: A proliferation of algae and/or higher aquatic plants in a
body of water; often related to pollution, especially when pollutants
||BOD5: The amount of dissolved oxygen consumed in five days by
biological processes breaking down organic matter.
||Body Burden: The amount of a chemical stored in the body at a
given time, especially a potential toxin in the body as the result of
||Bog: A type of wetland that accumulates appreciable peat deposits.
Bogs depend primarily on precipitation for their water source, and are
usually acidic and rich in plant residue with a conspicuous mat of living
||Boiler: A vessel designed to transfer heat produced by combustion
or electric resistance to water. Boilers may provide hot water or steam.
||Boom: 1. A floating device used to contain oil on a body of water.
2. A piece of equipment used to apply pesticides from a tractor or truck.
||Borehole: Hole made with drilling equipment.
||Botanical Pesticide: A pesticide whose active ingredient is a
plant-produced chemical such as nicotine or strychnine. Also called a
||Bottle Bill: Proposed or enacted legislation which requires a
returnable deposit on beer or soda containers and provides for retail store
or other redemption. Such legislation is designed to discourage use of
||Bottom Ash: The non-airborne combustion residue from burning
pulverized coal in a boiler; the material which falls to the bottom of the
boiler and is removed mechanically; a concentration of non-combustible
materials, which may include toxics.
||Bottom Land Hardwoods: Forested freshwater wetlands adjacent to
rivers in the southeastern United States, especially valuable for wildlife
breeding, nesting and habitat.
||Bounding Estimate: An estimate of exposure, dose, or risk that is
higher than that incurred by the person in the population with the currently
highest exposure, dose, or risk. Bounding estimates are useful in developing
statements that exposures, doses, or risks are not greater than an estimated
||Brackish: Mixed fresh and salt water.
||Breakpoint Chlorination: Addition of chlorine to water until the
chlorine demand has been satisfied.
||Breakthrough: A crack or break in a filter bed that allows the
passage of floc or particulate matter through a filter; will cause an
increase in filter effluent turbidity.
||Breathing Zone: Area of air in which an organism inhales.
||Brine Mud: Waste material, often associated with well-drilling or
mining, composed of mineral salts or other inorganic compounds.
||British Thermal Unit: Unit of heat energy equal to the amount of
heat required to raise the temperature of one pound of water by one degree
Fahrenheit at sea level.
||Broadcast Application: The spreading of pesticides over an entire
||Brownfields: Abandoned, idled, or under used industrial and
commercial facilities/sites where expansion or redevelopment is complicated
by real or perceived environmental contamination. They can be in urban,
suburban, or rural areas. EPA's Brownfields initiative helps communities
mitigate potential health risks and restore the economic viability of such
areas or properties.
||Bubble: A system under which existing emissions sources can
propose alternate means to comply with a set of emissions limitations; under
the bubble concept, sources can control more than required at one emission
point where control costs are relatively low in return for a comparable
relaxation of controls at a second emission point where costs are higher.
||Bubble Policy: (See:
||Buffer: A solution or liquid whose chemical makeup is such that it
minimizes changes in pH when acids or bases are added to it.
||Buffer Strips: Strips of grass or other erosion-resisting
vegetation between or below cultivated strips or fields.
||Building Cooling Load: The hourly amount of heat that must be
removed from a building to maintain indoor comfort (measured in British
thermal units (Btus).
||Building Envelope: The exterior surface of a building's
construction--the walls, windows, floors, roof, and floor. Also called
||Building Related Illness: Diagnosable illness whose cause and
symptoms can be directly attributed to a specific pollutant source within a
building (e.g. Legionnaire's disease, hypersensitivity, pneumonitis.) (See:
sick building syndrome.)
||Bulk Sample: A small portion (usually thumbnail size) of a suspect
asbestos-containing building material collected by an asbestos inspector for
laboratory analysis to determine asbestos content.
||Bulky Waste: Large items of waste materials, such as appliances,
furniture, large auto parts, trees, stumps.
||Burial Ground (Graveyard): A disposal site for radioactive waste
materials that uses earth or water as a shield.
||Buy-Back Center: Facility where individuals or groups bring
reyclables in return for payment.
||By-product: Material, other than the principal product, generated
as a consequence of an industrial process or as a breakdown product in a
||Cadmium (Cd): A heavy metal that accumulates in the
||Cancellation: Refers to Section 6 (b) of the Federal Insecticide,
Fungicide and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) which authorizes cancellation of a
pesticide registration if unreasonable adverse effects to the environment
and public health develop when a product is used according to widespread and
commonly recognized practice, or if its labeling or other material required
to be submitted does not comply with FIFRA provisions.
||Cap: A layer of clay, or other impermeable material installed over
the top of a closed landfill to prevent entry of rainwater and minimize
||Capacity Assurance Plan: A statewide plan which supports a state's
ability to manage the hazardous waste generated within its boundaries over a
twenty year period.