OSHA Construction Safety Regulations - Subpart N-O

OSHA Health & Safety Construction-related Regulations 
- Subparts N to O, 550 to 649

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Subpart N - Cranes,
Derricks, Hoists, Elevators,
and Conveyors

1926.550 - Cranes and derricks.

(a) General requirements.

(a)(1) The employer shall comply with the manufacturer's specifications and limitations applicable to the operation of any and all cranes and derricks. Where manufacturer's specifications are not available, the limitations assigned to the equipment shall be based on the determinations of a qualified engineer competent in this field and such determinations will be appropriately documented and recorded. Attachments used with cranes shall not exceed the capacity, rating, or scope recommended by the manufacturer.

(a)(2) Rated load capacities, and recommended operating speeds, special hazard warnings, or instruction, shall be conspicuously posted on all equipment. Instructions or warnings shall be visible to the operator while he is at his control station.

(a)(4) Hand signals to crane and derrick operators shall be those prescribed by the applicable ANSI standard for the type of crane in use. An illustration of the signals shall be posted at the job site.

(a)(5) The employer shall designate a competent person who shall inspect all machinery and equipment prior to each use, and during use, to make sure it is in safe operating condition. Any deficiencies shall be repaired, or defective parts replaced, before continued use.

(a)(6) A thorough, annual inspection of the hoisting machinery shall be made by a competent person, or by a government or private agency recognized by the U.S. Department of Labor. The employer shall maintain a record of the dates and results of inspections for each hoisting machine and piece of equipment.

(a)(7) Wire rope shall be taken out of service when any of the following conditions exist:

(a)(7)(i) In running ropes, six randomly distributed broken wires in one lay or three broken wires in one strand in one lay;

(a)(7)(ii) Wear of one-third the original diameter of outside individual wires. Kinking, crushing, bird caging, or any other damage resulting in distortion of the rope structure;

(a)(7)(iii) Evidence of any heat damage from any cause;

(a)(7)(iv) Reductions from nominal diameter of more than one-sixty-fourth inch for diameters up to and including five-sixteenths inch, one-thirty-second inch for diameters three-eighths inch to and including one-half inch, three-sixty-fourths inch for diameters nine-sixteenths inch to and including three-fourths inch, one-sixteenth inch for diameters seven-eighths inch to 1 1/8 inches inclusive, three-thirty-seconds inch for diameters 1 1/4 to 1 1/2 inches inclusive;

(a)(7)(v) In standing ropes, more than two broken wires in one lay in sections beyond end connections or more than one broken wire at an end connection.

(a)(7)(vi) Wire rope safety factors shall be in accordance with American National Standards Institute B 30.5-1968 or SAE J959-1966.

(a)(8) Belts, gears, shafts, pulleys, sprockets, spindles, drums, fly wheels, chains, or other reciprocating, rotating, or other moving parts or equipment shall be guarded if such parts are exposed to contact by employees, or otherwise create a hazard. Guarding shall meet the requirements of the American National Standards Institute B 15.1-1958 Rev., Safety Code for Mechanical Power Transmission Apparatus.

(a)(9) Accessible areas within the swing radius of the rear of the rotating superstructure of the crane, either permanently or temporarily mounted, shall be barricaded in such a manner as to prevent an employee from being struck or crushed by the crane.

(a)(10) All exhaust pipes shall be guarded or insulated in areas where contact by employees is possible in the performance of normal duties.

(a)(11) Whenever internal combustion engine powered equipment exhausts in enclosed spaces, tests shall be made and recorded to see that employees are not exposed to unsafe concentrations of toxic gases or oxygen deficient atmospheres.

(a)(12) All windows in cabs shall be of safety glass, or equivalent, that introduces no visible distortion that will interfere with the safe operation of the machine.

(a)(13)(i) Where necessary for rigging or service requirements, a ladder, or steps, shall be provided to give access to a cab roof.

(a)(13)(ii) Guardrails, handholds, and steps shall be provided on cranes for easy access to the car and cab, conforming to American National Standards Institute B30.5.

(a)(13)(iii) Platforms and walkways shall have anti-skid surfaces.

(a)(14) Fuel tank filler pipe shall be located in such a position, or protected in such manner, as to not allow spill or overflow to run onto the engine, exhaust, or electrical equipment of any machine being fueled.

(a)(14)(i) An accessible fire extinguisher of 5BC rating, or higher, shall be available at all operator stations or cabs of equipment.

(a)(14)(ii) All fuels shall be transported, stored, and handled to meet the rules of Subpart F of this part. When fuel is transported by vehicles on public highways, Department of Transportation rules contained in 49 CFR Parts 177 and 393 concerning such vehicular transportation are considered applicable.

(a)(15) Except where electrical distribution and transmission lines have been deenergized and visibly grounded at point of work or where insulating barriers, not a part of or an attachment to the equipment or machinery, have been erected to prevent physical contact with the lines, equipment or machines shall be operated proximate to power lines only in accordance with the following:

(a)(15)(i) For lines rated 50 kV. or below, minimum clearance between the lines and any part of the crane or load shall be 10 feet;

(a)(15)(ii) For lines rated over 50 kV., minimum clearance between the lines and any part of the crane or load shall be 10 feet plus 0.4 inch for each 1 kV. over 50 kV., or twice the length of the line insulator, but never less than 10 feet;

(a)(15)(iii) In transit with no load and boom lowered, the equipment clearance shall be a minimum of 4 feet for voltages less than 50 kV., and 10 feet for voltages over 50 kV., up to and including 345 kV., and 16 feet for voltages up to and including 750 kV.

(a)(15)(iv) A person shall be designated to observe clearance of the equipment and give timely warning for all operations where it is difficult for the operator to maintain the desired clearance by visual means;

(a)(15)(v) Cage-type boom guards, insulating links, or proximity warning devices may be used on cranes, but the use of such devices shall not alter the requirements of any other regulation of this part even if such device is required by law or regulation;

(a)(15)(vi) Any overhead wire shall be considered to be an energized line unless and until the person owning such line or the electrical utility authorities indicate that it is not an energized line and it has been visibly grounded;

(a)(16) No modifications or additions which affect the capacity or safe operation of the equipment shall be made by the employer without the manufacturer's written approval. If such modifications or changes are made, the capacity, operation, and maintenance instruction plates, tags, or decals, shall be changed accordingly. In no case shall the original safety factor of the equipment be reduced.

(a)(17) The employer shall comply with Power Crane and Shovel Association Mobile Hydraulic Crane Standard No. 2.

(a)(18) Sideboom cranes mounted on wheel or crawler tractors shall meet the requirements of SAE J743a-1964.

(a)(19) All employees shall be kept clear of loads about to be lifted and of suspended loads.

(b) Crawler, locomotive, and truck cranes.

(b)(1) All jibs shall have positive stops to prevent their movement of more than 5 deg above the straight line of the jib and boom on conventional type crane booms. The use of cable type belly slings does not constitute compliance with this rule.

(b)(2) All crawler, truck, or locomotive cranes in use shall meet the applicable requirements for design, inspection, construction, testing, maintenance and operation as prescribed in the ANSI B30.5-1968, Safety Code for Crawler, Locomotive and Truck Cranes. However, the written, dated, and signed inspection reports and records of the monthly inspection of critical items prescribed in section 5-2.1.5 of the ANSI B30.5-1968 standard are not required. Instead, the employer shall prepare a certification record which includes the date the crane items were inspected; the signature of the person who inspected the crane items; and a serial number, or other identifier, for the crane inspected. The most recent certification record shall be maintained on file until a new one is prepared.

Subpart O - Motor Vehicles,
Mechanized Equipment,
and Marine Operations

1926.601 - Motor vehicles.

(a) Coverage. Motor vehicles as covered by this part are those vehicles that operate within an off-highway jobsite, not open to public traffic. The requirements of this

section do not apply to equipment for which rules are prescribed in 1926.602.

(b) General requirements.

(b)(1) All vehicles shall have a service brake system, an emergency brake system, and a parking brake system. These systems may use common components, and shall be maintained in operable condition.

(b)(2)(i) Whenever visibility conditions warrant additional light, all vehicles, or combinations of vehicles, in use shall be equipped with at least two headlights and two taillights in operable condition.

(b)(2)(ii) All vehicles, or combination of vehicles, shall have brake lights in operable condition regardless of light conditions.

(b)(3) All vehicles shall be equipped with an adequate audible warning device at the operator's station and in an operable condition.

(b)(4) No employer shall use any motor vehicle equipment having an obstructed view to the rear unless:

(b)(4)(i) The vehicle has a reverse signal alarm audible above the surrounding noise level or:

(b)(4)(ii) The vehicle is backed up only when an observer signals that it is safe to do so.

(b)(5) All vehicles with cabs shall be equipped with windshields and powered wipers. Cracked and broken glass shall be replaced. Vehicles operating in areas or under conditions that cause fogging or frosting of the windshields shall be equipped with operable defogging or defrosting devices.

(b)(6) All haulage vehicles, whose pay load is loaded by means of cranes, power shovels, loaders, or similar equipment, shall have a cab shield and/or canopy adequate to protect the operator from shifting or falling materials.

(b)(7) Tools and material shall be secured to prevent movement when transported in the same compartment with employees.

(b)(8) Vehicles used to transport employees shall have seats firmly secured and adequate for the number of employees to be carried.

(b)(9) Seat belts and anchorages meeting the requirements of 49 CFR Part 571 (Department of Transportation, Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards) shall be installed in all motor vehicles.

(b)(10) Trucks with dump bodies shall be equipped with positive means of support, permanently attached, and capable of being locked in position to prevent accidental lowering of the body while maintenance or inspection work is being done.

(b)(11) Operating levers controlling hoisting or dumping devices on haulage bodies shall be equipped with a latch or other device which will prevent accidental starting or tripping of the mechanism.

(b)(12) Trip handles for tailgates of dump trucks shall be so arranged that, in dumping, the operator will be in the clear.

(b)(13)(i) All rubber-tired motor vehicle equipment manufactured on or after May 1, 1972, shall be equipped with fenders. All rubber-tired motor vehicle equipment manufactured before May 1, 1972, shall be equipped with fenders not later than May 1, 1973.

(b)(13)(ii) Mud flaps may be used in lieu of fenders whenever motor vehicle equipment is not designed for fenders.

(b)(14) All vehicles in use shall be checked at the beginning of each shift to assure that the following parts, equipment, and accessories are in safe operating condition and free of apparent damage that could cause failure while in use: service brakes, including trailer brake connections; parking system (hand brake); emergency stopping system (brakes); tires; horn; steering mechanism; coupling devices; seat belts; operating controls; and safety devices. All defects shall be corrected before the vehicle is placed in service. These requirements also apply to equipment such as lights, reflectors, windshield wipers, defrosters, fire extinguishers, etc., where such equipment is necessary.

1926.602 - Material handling equipment.

(a) Earthmoving equipment; General.

(a)(1) These rules apply to the following types of earthmoving equipment: scrapers, loaders, crawler or wheel tractors, bulldozers, off-highway trucks, graders, agricultural and industrial tractors, and similar equipment. The promulgation of specific rules for compactors and rubber-tired "skid-steer" equipment is reserved pending consideration of standards currently being developed.

(a)(2) Seat belts.

(a)(2)(i) Seat belts shall be provided on all equipment covered by this section and shall meet the requirements of the Society of Automotive Engineers, J386-1969, Seat Belts for Construction Equipment. Seat belts for agricultural and light industrial tractors shall meet the seat belt requirements of Society of Automotive Engineers J333a-1970, Operator Protection for Agricultural and Light Industrial Tractors.

(a)(2)(ii) Seat belts need not be provided for equipment which is designed only for standup operation.

(a)(2)(iii) Seat belts need not be provided for equipment which does not have roll-over protective structure (ROPS) or adequate canopy protection.

(a)(3) Access roadways and grades.

(a)(3)(i) No employer shall move or cause to be moved construction equipment or vehicles upon any access roadway or grade unless the access roadway or grade is constructed and maintained to accommodate safely the movement of the equipment and vehicles involved.

(a)(3)(ii) Every emergency access ramp and berm used by an employer shall be constructed to restrain and control runaway vehicles.

(a)(4) Brakes. All earthmoving equipment mentioned in this 1926.602(a) shall have a service braking system capable of stopping and holding the equipment fully loaded, as specified in Society of Automotive Engineers SAE-J237, Loader Dozer-1971, J236, Graders-1971, and J319b, Scrapers-1971. Brake systems for self-propelled rubber-tired off-highway equipment manufactured after January 1, 1972 shall meet the applicable minimum performance criteria set forth in the following Society of Automotive Engineers Recommended Practices:

Self-Propelled Scrapers..............SAE J319b-1971.
Self-Propelled Graders...............SAE J236-1971.
Trucks and Wagons....................SAE J166-1971.
Front End Loaders and Dozers...SAE J237-1971.

(a)(5) Fenders. Pneumatic-tired earth-moving haulage equipment (trucks, scrapers, tractors, and trailing units) whose maximum speed exceeds 15 miles per hour, shall be equipped with fenders on all wheels to meet the requirements of Society of Automotive Engineers SAE J321a-1970, Fenders for Pneumatic-Tired Earthmoving Haulage Equipment. An employer may, of course, at any time seek to show under 1926.2, that the uncovered wheels present no hazard to personnel from flying materials.

(a)(6) Rollover protective structures (ROPS). See Subpart W of this part for requirements for rollover protective structures and overhead protection.

(a)(7) Rollover protective structures for off-highway trucks. The promulgation of standards for rollover protective structures for off-highway trucks is reserved pending further study and development.

(a)(8) Specific effective dates-brakes and fenders.

(a)(8)(i) Equipment mentioned in paragraph (a)(4) and (5) of this section, and manufactured after January 1, 1972, which is used by any employer after that date, shall comply with the applicable rules prescribed therein concerning brakes and fenders. Equipment mentioned in paragraphs (a) (4) and (5) of this section, and manufactured before January 1, 1972, which is used by any employer after that date, shall meet the applicable rules prescribed herein not later than June 30, 1973. It should be noted that, as permitted under 1926.2, employers may request variations from the applicable brakes and fender standards required by this subpart. Employers wishing to seek variations from the applicable brakes and fenders rules may submit any requests for variations after the publication of this document in the Federal Register. Any statements intending to meet the requirements of 1926.2(b)(4), should specify how the variation would protect the safety of the employees by providing for any compensating restrictions on the operation of equipment.

(a)(8)(ii) Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraphs (a)(5) and (a)(8)(i) of this section, the requirement that fenders be installed on pneumatic-tired earthmoving haulage equipment, is suspended pending reconsideration of the requirement.

(a)(9) Audible alarms.

(a)(9)(i) All bidirectional machines, such as rollers, compacters, front-end loaders, bulldozers, and similar equipment, shall be equipped with a horn, distinguishable from the surrounding noise level, which shall be operated as needed when the machine is moving in either direction. The horn shall be maintained in an operative condition.

(a)(9)(ii) No employer shall permit earthmoving or compacting equipment which has an obstructed view to the rear to be used in reverse gear unless the equipment has in operation a reverse signal alarm distinguishable from the surrounding noise level or an employee signals that it is safe to do so.

(a)(10) Scissor points. Scissor points on all front-end loaders, which constitute a hazard to the operator during normal operation, shall be guarded.

1926.604 - Mechanized equipment, and marine operations.

(a) General requirements.

(a)(1) Employees engaged in site clearing shall be protected from hazards of irritant and toxic plants and suitably instructed in the first aid treatment available.

(a)(2) All equipment used in site clearing operations shall be equipped with rollover guards meeting the requirements of this subpart. In addition, rider-operated equipment shall be equipped with an overhead and rear canopy guard meeting the following requirements:

(a)(2)(i) The overhead covering on this canopy structure shall be of not less than 1/8-inch steel plate or 1/4-inch woven wire mesh with openings no greater than 1 inch, or equivalent.

(a)(2)(ii) The opening in the rear of the canopy structure shall be covered with not less than 1/4-inch woven wire mesh with openings no greater than 1 inch.