Many human activities cause water pollution. Sometimes in ways that you would not expect. Federal laws (CZARA - Section 6217 of the Coastal Zone Act Reauthorization Amendments of 1990) require the EPA, in consultation with NOAA and other federal agencies, to publish guidance specifying "management measures" to restore and protect coastal waters from specific categories of nonpoint source pollution. State governments (through their "Coastal Nonpoint Pollution Control Programs" ) must ensure that these measures are followed.
"Management measures" are defined by law to be economically achievable measures that reflect the best available technology for reducing pollutants. States may select from a wide range of practices or combinations of practices that will achieve the level of control specified in the management measure. These fact sheets summarize the management measures applicable to a variety of activities, such as urban areas, agriculture, forestry, marinas and recreational boating, hydromodification, and wetlands/riparian areas.
Section 6217 of the Coastal Zone Act Reauthorization Amendments of 1990 (CZARA) requires coastal states (including Great Lakes states) with approved coastal zone management programs to address nonpoint pollution impacting or threatening coastal waters. States must submit Coastal Nonpoint Pollution Control Programs for approval to both the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). Requirements for state programs are described in a document entitled "Coastal Nonpoint Pollution Control Program: Program Development and Approval Guidance" and are summarized in a separate fact sheet.