Department of Defense Dictionary of Military and Associated Terms

Department of Defense Dictionary of Military and Associated Terms

This is a Department of Defense Dictionary of Military and Associated Terms, last updated 2016, which makes it the current copy.

 

  • acceptability - The joint operation plan review criterion for assessing whether the contemplated course of action is proportional, worth the cost, consistent with the law of war; and is militarily and politically supportable. See also adequacy; feasibility. (ref JP 5-0)
  • access - In counterintelligence and intelligence use, a. a way or means of approach to identify a target; or b. exploitable proximity to or ability to approach an individual, facility, or information that enables target to carry out the intended mission. (ref JP 2-01.2)
  • access to classified information - The ability and opportunity to obtain knowledge of classified information by persons with the proper security clearance and a need to know of specified classified information. (ref JP 2-01)
  • accompanying supplies - Unit supplies that deploy with forces. (ref JP 4-01.5)
  • accountability - The obligation imposed by law or lawful order or regulation on an officer or other person for keeping accurate record of property, documents, or funds. (ref JP 1)
  • acoustic intelligence - Intelligence derived from the collection and processing of acoustic phenomena. Also called ACINT. (ref JP 2-0)
  • acquisition and cross-servicing agreement - Agreement, negotiated on a bilateral basis with United States allies or coalition partners, that allow United States forces to exchange most common types of support, including food, fuel, transportation, ammunition, and equipment. Also called ACSA. See also cross-servicing. (ref JP 4-08)
  • actionable intelligence - Intelligence information that is directly useful to customers for immediate exploitation without having to go through the full intelligence production process. (ref JP 2-01.2)
  • action phase - In amphibious operations, the period of time between the arrival of the landing forces of the amphibious force in the operational area and the accomplishment of their mission. See also amphibious force; amphibious operation; landing force; mission. (ref JP 3-02)
  • activation - Order to active duty (other than for training) in the federal service. See also active duty; federal service. (ref JP 4-05)
  • active air defense - Direct defensive action taken to destroy, nullify, or reduce the effectiveness of hostile air and missile threats against friendly forces and assets. See also air defense. (ref JP 3-01)
  • active defense - The employment of limited offensive action and counterattacks to deny a contested area or position to the enemy. See also passive defense. (ref JP 3-60)
  • As Amended Through 15 February 2016 2 JP 1-02 active duty - Full-time duty in the active military service of the United States, including active duty or full-time training duty in the Reserve Component. Also called AD. See also active duty for training; inactive duty training. (ref JP 4-05)
  • active duty for special work - A tour of active duty for reserve personnel authorized from military and reserve personnel appropriations for work on active or reserve component programs. Also called ADSW. (ref JP 1-0)
  • active duty for training - A tour of active duty that is used for training members of the Reserve Component to provide trained units and qualified persons to fill the needs of the Armed Forces in time of war or national emergency and such other times as the national security requires. Also called ADT. (ref JP 4-05)
  • Active Guard and Reserve - National Guard and Reserve members who are on voluntary active duty providing full-time support to National Guard, Reserve, and Active Component organizations for the purpose of organizing, administering, recruiting, instructing, or training the Reserve Components. Also called AGR. (CJCSM 3150.13) activity - 1. A unit, organization, or installation performing a function or mission. 2. A function, mission, action, or collection of actions. Also called ACT. (ref JP 3-0)
  • act of mercy - In personnel recovery, assistance rendered to evaders by an individual or elements of the local population who sympathize or empathize with the evadersí cause or plight. See also evader; evasion; recovery; recovery operations. (ref JP 3-50)
  • acute radiation dose - Total ionizing radiation dose received at one time and over a period so short that biological recovery cannot occur. (ref JP 3-11)
  • acute radiation syndrome - An acute illness caused by irradiation of the body by a high dose of penetrating radiation in a very short period of time. Also called ARS. (ref JP 3-11)
  • Adaptive Planning and Execution system - A Department of Defense system of joint policies, processes, procedures, and reporting structures, supported by communications and information technology, that is used by the joint planning and execution community to monitor, plan, and execute mobilization, deployment, employment, sustainment, redeployment, and demobilization activities associated with joint operations. Also called APEX system. (ref JP 5-0)
  • adequacy - The joint operation plan review criterion for assessing whether the scope and concept of planned operations can accomplish the assigned mission and comply with the planning guidance provided. See also acceptability; feasibility. (ref JP 5-0)
  • administrative chain of command - One of the two branches of the chain of command described in Joint Publication 1, Doctrine for the Armed Forces of the United States, through which command is exercised from the President through the Secretary of Defense to the Secretaries of the Military Departments, and from which forces are As Amended Through 15 February 2016 JP 1-02 3 assigned to combatant commands to compose the operational command structure baseline. (DODI 8260.03) administrative command structure - The organizational hierarchy through which administrative leadership is exercised, as contrasted by the operational command structure through which operational authority is exercised. (DODI 8260.03) administrative contracting officer - Contracting officer whose primary duties involve contract administration. Also called ACO. See also contracting officer; procuring contracting officer. (ref JP 4-10)
  • administrative control - Direction or exercise of authority over subordinate or other organizations in respect to administration and support. Also called ADCON. (ref JP 1)
  • administrative loading - A loading method that gives primary consideration to achieving maximum utilization of troop and cargo space without regard to tactical considerations. Also called commercial loading. (ref JP 3-02.1)
  • advanced force operations - Operations conducted to refine the location of specific, identified targets and further develop the operational environment for near-term missions. Also called AFO. (JP 3-05 advance guard - Detachment sent ahead of the main force to ensure its uninterrupted advance; to protect the main body against surprise; to facilitate the advance by removing obstacles and repairing roads and bridges; and to cover the deployment of the main body if it is committed to action. (ref JP 3-07.2)
  • adversary - A party acknowledged as potentially hostile to a friendly party and against which the use of force may be envisaged. (ref JP 3-0)
  • adversary template - A model based on an adversaryís known or postulated preferred methods of operation illustrating the disposition and activity of adversary forces and assets conducting a particular operation unconstrained by the impact of the operational environment. (ref JP 2-01.3)
  • Aegis - A ship-based combat system that can detect, track, target, and engage air, surface, and subsurface threats, including ballistic missiles on some modified ships. (ref JP 3-01)
  • aerial port - An airfield that has been designated for the sustained air movement of personnel and materiel as well as an authorized port for entrance into or departure from the country where located. Also called APORT. See also port of debarkation; port of embarkation. (ref JP 3-17)
  • aeromedical evacuation - The movement of patients under medical supervision to and between medical treatment facilities by air transportation. Also called AE. (ref JP 4-02)
  • As Amended Through 15 February 2016 4 JP 1-02 aeromedical evacuation control team - A core team assigned to a component-numbered air force air operations center air mobility division that provides operational planning, scheduling, and execution of theater aeromedical evacuation missions and positioning of aeromedical evacuation ground forces. Also called AECT. See also aeromedical evacuation; air mobility division. (ref JP 3-17)
  • aeromedical evacuation unit - An operational medical organization concerned primarily with the management and control of patients being transported via an aeromedical evacuation system or system echelon. (ref JP 4-02)
  • aeronautical chart - A specialized representation of mapped features of the Earth, or some part of it, produced to show selected terrain, cultural and hydrographic features, and supplemental information required for air navigation, pilotage, or for planning air operations. (ref JP 2-03)
  • aerospace defense - 1. All defensive measures designed to destroy or nullify attacking enemy aircraft and missiles and also negate hostile space systems. 2. An inclusive term encompassing air defense, ballistic missile defense, and space defense. See also air defense; space defense. (ref JP 3-27)
  • afloat pre-positioning force - Shipping maintained in full operational status to afloat preposition military equipment and supplies in support of combatant commandersí operation plans, consisting of the three maritime pre-positioning ships squadrons, the Armyís afloat pre-positioning stocks-3 ships, and the Defense Logistics Agency, and the Air Force ships. Also called APF. See also maritime pre-positioning ships. (ref JP 4-01.2)
  • afloat pre-positioning operations - Pre-positioning of ships, preloaded with equipment and supplies that provides for an alternative to land-based programs. Also called APO. See also operation. (ref JP 4-01.6)
  • agency - In intelligence usage, an organization or individual engaged in collecting and/or processing information. Also called collection agency. See also agent; intelligence process; source. (ref JP 2-01)
  • agent - In intelligence usage, one who is authorized or instructed to obtain or to assist in obtaining information for intelligence or counterintelligence purposes. (ref JP 2-01.2)
  • aimpoint - 1. A point associated with a target and assigned for a specific weapon impact. 2. A prominent radar-significant feature used to assist an aircrew in navigating and delivering their weapons. See also desired point of impact. (ref JP 3-60)
  • air and missile defense - Direct [active and passive] defensive actions taken to destroy, nullify, or reduce the effectiveness of hostile air and ballistic missile threats against friendly forces and assets. Also called AMD. (ref JP 3-01)
  • As Amended Through 15 February 2016 JP 1-02 5 air apportionment - The determination and assignment of the total expected effort by percentage and/or by priority that should be devoted to the various air operations for a given period of time. (ref JP 3-0)
  • air assault - The movement of friendly assault forces by rotary-wing aircraft to engage and destroy enemy forces or to seize and hold key terrain. See also assault. (ref JP 3-18)
  • air assault force - A force composed primarily of ground and rotary-wing air units organized, equipped, and trained for air assault operations. (ref JP 3-18)
  • air assault operation - An operation in which assault forces, using the mobility of rotarywing assets and the total integration of available firepower, maneuver under the control of a ground or air maneuver commander to engage enemy forces or to seize and hold key terrain. (ref JP 3-18)
  • airborne - 1. In relation to personnel, troops especially trained to effect, following transport by air, an assault debarkation, either by parachuting or touchdown. 2. In relation to equipment, pieces of equipment that have been especially designed for use by airborne troops during or after an assault debarkation as well as some aeronautical equipment used to accomplish a particular mission. 3. When applied to materiel, items that form an integral part of the aircraft. 4. The state of an aircraft, from the instant it becomes entirely sustained by air until it ceases to be so sustained. Also called ABN. (ref JP 3-17)
  • airborne alert - A state of aircraft readiness wherein combat-equipped aircraft are airborne and ready for immediate action to reduce reaction time and to increase survivability. See also combat air patrol; ground alert. (ref JP 3-01)
  • airborne assault - The use of airborne forces to parachute into an objective area to attack and eliminate armed resistance and secure designated objectives. (ref JP 3-18)
  • airborne early warning - The detection of enemy air or surface units by radar or other equipment carried in an airborne vehicle, and the transmitting of a warning to friendly units. Also called AEW. (ref JP 3-52)
  • airborne mission coordinator - The designated individual that serves as an airborne extension of the component commander or supported commander responsible for the personnel recovery mission. Also called AMC. See also combat search and rescue; personnel recovery coordination cell. (ref JP 3-50)
  • airborne operation - An operation involving the air movement into an objective area of combat forces and their logistic support for execution of a tactical, operational, or strategic mission. See also assault; assault phase. (ref JP 3-18)
  • air-breathing missile - A missile with an engine requiring the intake of air for combustion of its fuel, as in a ramjet or turbojet. (ref JP 3-01)
  • As Amended Through 15 February 2016 6 JP 1-02 air-capable ship - A ship other than an aircraft carrier, nuclear; amphibious assault ship (general purpose); or amphibious assault ship (multipurpose) from which aircraft can take off, be recovered, or routinely receive and transfer logistic support. Also called ACS. (ref JP 3-04)
  • air corridor - A restricted air route of travel specified for use by friendly aircraft and established for the purpose of preventing friendly aircraft from being fired on by friendly forces. (ref JP 3-52)
  • aircraft carrier - A warship designed to support and operate aircraft, engage in attacks on targets afloat or ashore, and engage in sustained operations in support of other forces. Also called CV or CVN. (ref JP 3-32)
  • air defense - Defensive measures designed to destroy attacking enemy aircraft or missiles in the atmosphere, or to nullify or reduce the effectiveness of such attack. Also called AD. See also active air defense; aerospace defense; passive air defense. (ref JP 3-01)
  • air defense area - 1. overseas - A specifically defined airspace for which air defense must be planned and provided. 2. United States - Airspace of defined dimensions designated by the appropriate agency within which the ready control of airborne vehicles is required in the interest of national security during an air defense emergency. (ref JP 3-01)
  • air defense artillery - Weapons and equipment for actively combating air targets from the ground. Also called ADA. (ref JP 3-01)
  • air defense identification zone - Airspace of defined dimensions within which the ready identification, location, and control of airborne vehicles are required. Also called ADIZ. (ref JP 3-52)
  • air defense region - A geographical subdivision of an air defense area. (ref JP 3-01)
  • air defense sector - A geographical subdivision of an air defense region. (ref JP 3-01)
  • air defense warning condition - An air defense warning given in the form of a color code corresponding to the degree of air raid probability with yellow standing for when an attack by hostile aircraft or missiles is probable; red for when an attack by hostile aircraft or missiles is imminent or is in progress; and white for when an attack by hostile aircraft or missiles is improbable. Also called ADWC. (ref JP 3-01)
  • air domain - The atmosphere, beginning at the Earthís surface, extending to the altitude where its effects upon operations become negligible. (ref JP 3-30)
  • airdrop - The unloading of personnel or materiel from aircraft in flight. See also air movement; free drop; free fall; high velocity drop; low velocity drop. (ref JP 3-17)
  • As Amended Through 15 February 2016 JP 1-02 7 air expeditionary task force - A deployed numbered air force or command echelon immediately subordinate to a numbered air force provided as the United States Air Force component command committed to a joint operation. Also called AETF. (ref JP 3-30)
  • airfield - An area prepared for the accommodation (including any buildings, installations, and equipment), landing, and takeoff of aircraft. See also departure airfield; landing area; landing site. (ref JP 3-17)
  • Air Force special operations air component - The Air Force component of a joint special operations force, normally composed of a special operations wing, special operations group, or squadron, and element of an Air Force special tactics personnel. Also called AFSOAC. (ref JP 3-05)
  • Air Force special operations air detachment - A squadron-size headquarters that could be a composite organization composed of different Air Force special operations assets, normally subordinate to an Air Force special operations air component, joint special operations air component, joint special operations task force, or a joint task force. Also called AFSOAD. (ref JP 3-05)
  • Air Force special operations forces - Those Active and Reserve Component Air Force forces designated by the Secretary of Defense that are specifically organized, trained, and equipped to conduct and support special operations. Also called AFSOF. (ref JP 3-05)
  • airhead - 1. A designated area in a hostile or potentially hostile operational area that, when seized and held, ensures the continuous air landing of troops and materiel and provides the maneuver space necessary for projected operations. Also called a lodgment area. (ref JP 3-18)
    2. A designated location in an operational area used as a base for supply and evacuation by air. See also beachhead. (ref JP 3-17)
  • airhead line - A line denoting the limits of the objective area for an airborne assault. See also airhead; assault phase; objective area. (ref JP 3-18)
  • air interdiction - Air operations conducted to divert, disrupt, delay, or destroy the enemyís military surface capabilities before it can be brought to bear effectively against friendly forces, or to otherwise achieve objectives that are conducted at such distances from friendly forces that detailed integration of each air mission with the fire and movement of friendly forces is not required. (ref JP 3-03)
  • airland - Move by air and disembark, or unload, after the aircraft has landed or while an aircraft is hovering. See also air movement. (ref JP 3-17)
  • air land operation - An operation involving movement by air with a designated destination for further ground deployment of units and personnel and/or further ground distribution of supplies. See also airland. (ref JP 3-17)
  • As Amended Through 15 February 2016 8 JP 1-02 air liaison officer - The senior tactical air control party member attached to a ground unit who functions as the primary advisor to the ground commander on air power. Also called ALO. See also liaison. (ref JP 3-09.3)
  • airlift capability - The total capacity expressed in terms of number of passengers and/or weight/cubic displacement of cargo that can be carried at any one time to a given destination by available airlift. See also airlift requirement. (ref JP 3-17)
  • airlift control team - A core team within the joint air operations center with intratheater airlift functional expertise to plan, coordinate, manage, and execute intratheater airlift operations in support of the joint force air component commander. Also called ALCT. See also air operations center; air mobility division; intratheater airlift. (ref JP 3-17)
  • airlift mission commander - A commander designated when airlift aircraft are participating in airlift operations specified in the implementing directive. See also joint force air component commander. (ref JP 3-17)
  • airlift requirement - The total number of passengers and/or weight/cubic displacement of cargo required to be carried by air for a specific task. See also airlift capability. (ref JP 3-17)
  • air mobility - The rapid movement of personnel, materiel and forces to and from or within a theater by air. See also air refueling. (ref JP 3-17)
  • Air Mobility Command - The Air Force component command of the United States Transportation Command. Also called AMC. (ref JP 3-17)
  • air mobility control team - A core team within the joint air operations center that directs or redirects air mobility forces in response to requirements changes, higher priorities, or immediate execution requirements. Also called AMCT. See also air operations center; air mobility; air mobility division. (ref JP 3-17)
  • air mobility division - Located in the joint air operations center to plan, coordinate, task, and execute the air mobility mission consisting of the air mobility control team, airlift control team, air refueling control team, and aeromedical evacuation control team. Also called AMD. See also air mobility; joint air operations center. (ref JP 3-17)
  • air mobility liaison officer - A rated United States Air Force mobility air forces officer selected, trained, and equipped to assess, train, advise, and assist with mobility air forces and ground force integration for air movement and sustainment. Also called AMLO. (ref JP 3-17)
  • air movement - Air transport of units, personnel, supplies, and equipment including airdrops and air landings. See also airdrop; airland. (ref JP 3-17)
  • As Amended Through 15 February 2016 JP 1-02 9 air operations center - The senior agency of the Air Force component commander that provides command and control of Air Force air and space operations and coordinates with other components and Services. Also called AOC. (ref JP 3-30)
  • air refueling - The refueling of an aircraft in flight by another aircraft. Also called AR. (ref JP 3-17)
  • air refueling control team - A core team within the joint air operations center that coordinates aerial refueling to support combat air operations or to support a strategic airbridge. Also called ARCT. See also air operations center; air mobility division; air refueling. (ref JP 3-17)
  • air route - The navigable airspace between two points, identified to the extent necessary for the application of flight rules. (ref JP 3-52)
  • air sovereignty - A nationís inherent right to exercise absolute control and authority over the airspace above its territory. (ref JP 3-27)
  • airspace control - Capabilities and procedures used to increase operational effectiveness by promoting the safe, efficient, and flexible use of airspace. (ref JP 3-52)
  • airspace control area - Airspace that is laterally defined by the boundaries of the operational area, and may be subdivided into airspace control sectors. (ref JP 3-01)
  • airspace control authority - The commander designated to assume overall responsibility for the operation of the airspace control system in the airspace control area. Also called ACA. See also airspace control; airspace control area; airspace control system; control; operation. (ref JP 3-52)
  • airspace control order - An order implementing the airspace control plan that provides the details of the approved requests for airspace coordinating measures. Also called ACO. (ref JP 3-52)
  • airspace control plan - The document approved by the joint force commander that provides specific planning guidance and procedures for the airspace control system for the joint force operational area. Also called ACP. See also airspace control system; joint force commander. (ref JP 3-52)
  • airspace control procedures - Rules, mechanisms, and directions that facilitate the control and use of airspace of specified dimensions. See also airspace control authority; airspace control order; airspace control plan. (ref JP 3-52)
  • airspace control system - An arrangement of those organizations, personnel, policies, procedures, and facilities required to perform airspace control functions. Also called ACS. (ref JP 3-52)
  • As Amended Through 15 February 2016 10 JP 1-02 airspace coordinating measures - Measures employed to facilitate the efficient use of airspace to accomplish missions and simultaneously provide safeguards for friendly forces. Also called ACMs. See also airspace control area; airspace coordination area; high-density airspace control zone; weapons engagement zone. (ref JP 3-52)
  • airspace coordination area - A three-dimensional block of airspace in a target area, established by the appropriate commander, in which friendly aircraft are reasonably safe from friendly surface fires. Also called ACA. (ref JP 3-09.3)
  • airspace management - The coordination, integration, and regulation of the use of airspace of defined dimensions. (ref JP 3-52)
  • air superiority - That degree of dominance in the air battle by one force that permits the conduct of its operations at a given time and place without prohibitive interference from air and missile threats. (ref JP 3-01)
  • air support coordination section - In amphibious operations, the section of the Navy tactical air control center designated to coordinate, control, and integrate all direct support aircraft and assault support operations. Also called ASCS. (ref JP 3-02)
  • air support operations center - The principal air control agency of the theater air control system responsible for the direction and control of air operations directly supporting the ground combat element. Also called ASOC. See also close air support; operation; tactical air control center. (ref JP 3-09.3)
  • air support request - A means to request preplanned and immediate close air support, air interdiction, air reconnaissance, surveillance, escort, helicopter airlift, and other aircraft missions. Also called AIRSUPREQ. (ref JP 3-30)
  • air supremacy - That degree of air superiority wherein the opposing force is incapable of effective interference within the operational area using air and missile threats. (ref JP 3-01)
  • air tasking order - A method used to task and disseminate to components, subordinate units, and command and control agencies projected sorties, capabilities and/or forces to targets and specific missions. Also called ATO. (ref JP 3-30)
  • air terminal - A facility on an airfield that functions as an air transportation hub and accommodates the loading and unloading of airlift aircraft and the intransit processing of traffic. (ref JP 3-17)
  • air traffic control section - In amphibious operations, the section of the Navy tactical air control center designed to provide initial safe passage, radar control, and surveillance for close air support aircraft in the operational area. Also called ATCS. (ref JP 3-02)
  • alert order - 1. A crisis action planning directive from the Secretary of Defense, issued by the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, that provides essential guidance for planning As Amended Through 15 February 2016 JP 1-02 11 and directs the initiation of execution planning for the selected course of action authorized by the Secretary of Defense. 2. A planning directive that provides essential planning guidance, directs the initiation of execution planning after the directing authority approves a military course of action, but does not authorize execution. Also called ALERTORD. See also course of action; execution planning. (ref JP 5-0)
  • alliance - The relationship that results from a formal agreement between two or more nations for broad, long-term objectives that further the common interests of the members. See also coalition; multinational. (ref JP 3-0)
  • allocation - Distribution of limited forces and resources for employment among competing requirements. See also apportionment. (ref JP 5-0)
  • allocation request - A daily message that provides an estimate of the total air effort, to identify any excess and joint force general support aircraft sorties, and to identify unfilled air requirements for preplanned missions. Also called ALLOREQ. (ref JP 3-30)
  • allowable cabin load - The maximum payload that can be carried on an individual sortie. Also called ACL. (ref JP 3-17)
  • all-source intelligence - 1. Intelligence products and/or organizations and activities that incorporate all sources of information in the production of finished intelligence. 2. In intelligence collection, a phrase that indicates that in the satisfaction of intelligence requirements, all collection, processing, exploitation, and reporting systems and resources are identified for possible use and those most capable are tasked. See also intelligence. (ref JP 2-0)
  • ammunition lot - A quantity of homogeneous ammunition, identified by a unique lot number, which is manufactured, assembled, or renovated by one producer under uniform conditions and which is expected to function in a uniform manner. (ref JP 3-04)
  • amphibian - A small craft, propelled by propellers and wheels or by air cushions for the purpose of moving on both land and water. (ref JP 4-01.6)
  • amphibious advance force - A temporary support force assigned to the amphibious force that conducts shaping operations in the amphibious objective area or operational area prior to the arrival of the amphibious force. (ref JP 3-02)
  • amphibious air traffic control center - The centralized air traffic control agency on an amphibious warfare ship responsible for operational control of aircraft departing from and recovering on the ship and tactical control of airborne helicopters in support of amphibious assaults. Also called AATCC. (ref JP 3-02)
  • amphibious assault - A type of amphibious operation that involves establishing a force on a hostile or potentially hostile shore. See also assault; assault phase. (ref JP 3-02)
  • As Amended Through 15 February 2016 12 JP 1-02 amphibious assault vehicle launching area - An area, in the vicinity of and to seaward of the line of departure, to which landing ships proceed and launch amphibious assault vehicles. (ref JP 3-02)
  • amphibious breaching - The conduct of a deliberate breaching operation specifically designed to overcome antilanding defenses in order to conduct an amphibious assault. (ref JP 3-02)
  • amphibious bulk liquid transfer system - Hosereel system providing capability to deliver fuel and/or water from ship to shore. Also called ABLTS. (ref JP 4-01.6)
  • amphibious construction battalion - A permanently commissioned naval unit, subordinate to the commander, naval beach group, designed to provide an administrative unit from which personnel and equipment are formed in tactical elements and made available to appropriate commanders to operate causeways, transfer barges, warping tugs, and assault bulk fuel systems, and to meet salvage requirements of the naval beach party. Also called PHIBCB. (ref JP 3-02)
  • amphibious defense zone - The area encompassing the amphibious objective area and the adjoining airspace required by accompanying naval forces for the purpose of air defense. Also called an ADZ. (ref JP 3-02)
  • amphibious demonstration - A type of amphibious operation conducted for the purpose of deceiving the enemy by a show of force with the expectation of deluding the enemy into following an unfavorable course of action. (ref JP 3-02)
  • amphibious force - An amphibious task force and a landing force together with other forces that are trained, organized, and equipped for amphibious operations. Also called AF. See also amphibious operation; amphibious task force; landing force. (ref JP 3-02)
  • amphibious objective area - A geographical area of sufficient size for conducting necessary sea, air, and land operations, and within which is located the objective(s) to be secured by the amphibious force. Also called AOA. See also amphibious force; mission. (ref JP 3-02)
  • amphibious operation - A military operation launched from the sea by an amphibious force to conduct landing force operations within the littorals. Also called PHIBOP. See also amphibious force; landing force; mission; operation. (ref JP 3-02)
  • amphibious raid - A type of amphibious operation involving swift incursion into or temporary occupation of an objective followed by a planned withdrawal. See also amphibious operation. (ref JP 3-02)
  • amphibious squadron - A tactical and administrative organization composed of amphibious warfare ships used to transport troops and their equipment for an amphibious operation. Also called PHIBRON. (ref JP 3-02)
  • As Amended Through 15 February 2016 JP 1-02 13 amphibious task force - A Navy task organization formed to conduct amphibious operations. Also called ATF. See also amphibious force; amphibious operation; landing force. (ref JP 3-02)
  • amphibious vehicle - A wheeled or tracked vehicle capable of operating on both land and water. See also landing craft. (ref JP 3-02)
  • amphibious vehicle availability table - A tabulation of the type and number of amphibious vehicles available primarily for assault landings and for support of other elements of the operation. (ref JP 3-02)
  • amphibious vehicle employment plan - A plan showing in tabular form the planned employment of amphibious vehicles in landing operations, including their employment after the initial movement to the beach. (ref JP 3-02)
  • amphibious warfare ship - A combatant ship having organic capability to embark, land, and support landing forces in amphibious operations and which has characteristics enabling long duration operations on the high seas. (ref JP 3-02)
  • amphibious withdrawal - A type of amphibious operation involving the extraction of forces by sea in ships or craft from a hostile or potentially hostile shore. See also amphibious operation. (ref JP 3-02)
  • analysis and production - In intelligence usage, the conversion of processed information into intelligence through the integration, evaluation, analysis, and interpretation of all source data and the preparation of intelligence products in support of known or anticipated user requirements. See also intelligence process. (ref JP 2-01)
  • antemortem data - Medical records, samples, and photographs taken prior to death. These include (but are not limited to) fingerprints, dental x-rays, body tissue samples, photographs of tattoos, or other identifying marks. These ďpre-deathĒ records would be compared against records completed after death to help establish a positive identification of human remains. See also mortuary affairs. (ref JP 4-06)
  • Antideficiency Act violations - The incurring of obligations or the making of expenditure (outlays) in violation of appropriation law as to purpose, time, and amounts as specified in the defense appropriation or appropriations of funds. (ref JP 1-06)
  • antiradiation missile - A missile which homes passively on a radiation source. Also called ARM. See also guided missile. (ref JP 3-01)
  • antisubmarine warfare - Operations conducted with the intention of denying the enemy the effective use of submarines. Also called ASW. (ref JP 3-32)
  • As Amended Through 15 February 2016 14 JP 1-02 antiterrorism - Defensive measures used to reduce the vulnerability of individuals and property to terrorist acts, to include rapid containment by local military and civilian forces. Also called AT. See also counterterrorism; terrorism. (ref JP 3-07.2)
  • anti-vehicle land mine - A mine designed to immobilize or destroy a vehicle. Also called AVL. (ref JP 3-15)
  • application - 1. The system or problem to which a computer is applied. 2. In the intelligence context, the direct extraction and tailoring of information from an existing foundation of intelligence and near real time reporting. (ref JP 2-0)
  • apportionment - In the general sense, distribution of forces and capabilities as the starting point for planning, etc. See also allocation. (ref JP 5-0)
  • approach schedule - In amphibious operations, this schedule indicates, for each scheduled wave, the time of departure from the rendezvous area, from the line of departure, and from other control points and the time of arrival at the beach. (ref JP 3-02)
  • apron - A defined area on an airfield intended to accommodate aircraft for purposes of loading or unloading passengers or cargo, refueling, parking, or maintenance. (ref JP 3-34)
  • area air defense commander - The component commander with the preponderance of air defense capability and the required command, control, and communications capabilities who is assigned by the joint force commander to plan and execute integrated air defense operations. Also called AADC. (ref JP 3-01)
  • area command - A command that is composed of elements of one or more of the Services, organized and placed under a single commander and designated to operate in a specific geographical area. See also command. (ref JP 3-10)
  • area damage control - Measures taken before, during, or after hostile action or natural or manmade disasters, to reduce the probability of damage and minimize its effects. Also called ADC. (ref JP 3-10)
  • area of influence - A geographical area wherein a commander is directly capable of influencing operations by maneuver or fire support systems normally under the commanderís command or control. (ref JP 3-0)
  • area of interest - That area of concern to the commander, including the area of influence, areas adjacent thereto, and extending into enemy territory. This area also includes areas occupied by enemy forces who could jeopardize the accomplishment of the mission. Also called AOI. See also area of influence. (ref JP 3-0)
  • area of operations - An operational area defined by the joint force commander for land and maritime forces that should be large enough to accomplish their missions and protect As Amended Through 15 February 2016 JP 1-02 15 their forces. Also called AO. See also area of responsibility; joint operations area; joint special operations area. (ref JP 3-0)
  • area of responsibility - The geographical area associated with a combatant command within which a geographic combatant commander has authority to plan and conduct operations. Also called AOR. See also combatant command. (ref JP 1)
  • area search - Visual reconnaissance of limited or defined areas. (ref JP 3-50)
  • Armed Forces of the United States - A term used to denote collectively all components of the Army, Marine Corps, Navy, Air Force, and Coast Guard (when mobilized under Title 10, United States Code, to augment the Navy). See also United States Armed Forces. (ref JP 1)
  • arming - As applied to explosives, weapons, and ammunition, the changing from a safe condition to a state of readiness for initiation. (ref JP 3-15)
  • arms control agreement - The written or unwritten embodiment of the acceptance of one or more arms control measures by two or more nations. (ref JP 2-01)
  • Army air-ground system - The Army system which provides for interface between Army and tactical air support agencies of other Services in the planning, evaluating, processing, and coordinating of air support requirements and operations. Also called AAGS. (ref JP 3-09.3)
  • Army corps - An intermediate headquarters between divisions and the theater army consisting of two or more divisions together with supporting brigades. (ref JP 3-31)
  • Army Service component command - Command responsible for recommendations to the joint force commander on the allocation and employment of Army forces within a combatant command. Also called ASCC. (ref JP 3-31)
  • Army special operations forces - Those Active and Reserve Component Army forces designated by the Secretary of Defense that are specifically organized, trained, and equipped to conduct and support special operations. Also called ARSOF. (ref JP 3-05)
  • Army support area - The specific support area for a theater Army that is outside of a division or corpsís operational area established primarily for the positioning, employment, and protection of theater support units; and where the majority of the sustaining operations occur. (ref JP 3-31)
  • arrival zone - In counterdrug operations, the area in or adjacent to the United States where smuggling concludes and domestic distribution begins (by air, an airstrip; by sea, an offload point on land, or transfer to small boats). See also transit zone. (ref JP 3-07.4)
  • As Amended Through 15 February 2016 16 JP 1-02 ascent phase - That portion of the flight of a ballistic missile or space vehicle that begins after powered flight and ends just prior to apogee. (ref JP 3-01)
  • assault - 1. In an amphibious operation, the period of time between the arrival of the major assault forces of the amphibious task force in the objective area and the accomplishment of the amphibious task force mission. (ref JP 3-02)
    2. To make a short, violent, but wellordered attack against a local objective, such as a gun emplacement, a fort, or a machine gun nest. (ref JP 3-18)
    3. A phase of an airborne operation beginning with delivery by air of the assault echelon of the force into the objective area and extending through attack of assault objectives and consolidation of the initial airhead. See also assault phase. (ref JP 3-18)
  • assault breaching - A part of amphibious breaching in support of an amphibious assault involving a fire support mission using precision guided munitions to neutralize mines and obstacles in the surf zone and on the beach. (ref JP 3-02)
  • assault craft unit - A permanently commissioned naval organization, subordinate to the commander, naval beach group, that contains landing craft and crews necessary to provide lighterage required in an amphibious operation. Also called ACU. (ref JP 3-02)
  • assault echelon - In amphibious operations, the element of a force comprised of tailored units and aircraft assigned to conduct the initial assault on the operational area. Also called AE. See also amphibious operation. (ref JP 3-02)
  • assault follow-on echelon - In amphibious operations, that echelon of the assault troops, vehicles, aircraft, equipment, and supplies that, though not needed to initiate the assault, is required to support and sustain the assault. Also called AFOE. (ref JP 3-02)
  • assault phase - In an airborne operation, a phase beginning with delivery by air of the assault echelon of the force into the objective area and extending through attack of assault objectives and consolidation of the initial airhead. See also assault. (ref JP 3-18)
  • assault schedule - In amphibious operations, this schedule provides the formation, composition, and timing of waves landing over the beach. (ref JP 3-02)
  • assessment - 1. A continuous process that measures the overall effectiveness of employing joint force capabilities during military operations. 2. Determination of the progress toward accomplishing a task, creating a condition, or achieving an objective. 3. Analysis of the security, effectiveness, and potential of an existing or planned intelligence activity. 4. Judgment of the motives, qualifications, and characteristics of present or prospective employees or ďagents.Ē (ref JP 3-0)
  • assessment agent - The organization responsible for conducting an assessment of an approved joint publication. Also called AA. (CJCSM 5120.01) As Amended Through 15 February 2016 JP 1-02 17 asset validation - In intelligence use, the process used to determine the asset authenticity, reliability, utility, suitability, and degree of control the case officer or others have. (ref JP 2-01.2)
  • asset visibility - Provides users with information on the location, movement, status, and identity of units, personnel, equipment, and supplies, which facilitates the capability to act upon that information to improve overall performance of the Department of Defenseís logistics practices. Also called AV. (ref JP 3-35)
  • assign - 1. To place units or personnel in an organization where such placement is relatively permanent, and/or where such organization controls and administers the units or personnel for the primary function, or greater portion of the functions, of the unit or personnel. 2. To detail individuals to specific duties or functions where such duties or functions are primary and/or relatively permanent. See also attach. (ref JP 3-0)
  • assumption - A supposition on the current situation or a presupposition on the future course of events, either or both assumed to be true in the absence of positive proof, necessary to enable the commander in the process of planning to complete an estimate of the situation and make a decision on the course of action. (ref JP 5-0)
  • asymmetric - In military operations the application of dissimilar strategies, tactics, capabilities, and methods to circumvent or negate an opponentís strengths while exploiting his weaknesses. (ref JP 3-15.1)
  • atmospheric environment - The envelope of air surrounding the Earth, including its interfaces and interactions with the Earthís solid or liquid surface. (ref JP 3-59)
  • attach - 1. The placement of units or personnel in an organization where such placement is relatively temporary. 2. The detailing of individuals to specific functions where such functions are secondary or relatively temporary. See also assign. (ref JP 3-0)
  • attack assessment - An evaluation of information to determine the potential or actual nature and objectives of an attack for the purpose of providing information for timely decisions. See also damage estimation. (ref JP 3-14)
  • attack group - A subordinate task organization of the Navy forces of an amphibious task force composed of amphibious warfare ships and supporting naval units designated to transport, protect, land, and initially support a landing group. (ref JP 3-02)
  • attack heading - 1. The interceptor heading during the attack phase that will achieve the desired track-crossing angle. 2. The assigned magnetic compass heading to be flown by aircraft during the delivery phase of an air strike. (ref JP 3-09.3)
  • attack position - The last position occupied by the assault echelon before crossing the line of departure. (ref JP 3-09.3)
  • As Amended Through 15 February 2016 18 JP 1-02 attack the network operations - Lethal and nonlethal actions and operations against networks conducted continuously and simultaneously at multiple levels (tactical, operational, and strategic) that capitalize on or create key vulnerabilities and disrupt activities to eliminate the enemyís ability to function in order to enable success of the operation or campaign. Also called AtN operations. (ref JP 3-15.1)
  • audience - In public affairs, a broadly-defined group that contains stakeholders and/or publics relevant to military operations. (ref JP 3-61)
  • augmentation forces - Forces to be transferred from a supporting combatant commander to the combatant command (command authority) or operational control of a supported combatant commander during the execution of an operation order approved by the President and Secretary of Defense. (ref JP 5-0)
  • authentication - 1. A security measure designed to protect a communications system against acceptance of a fraudulent transmission or simulation by establishing the validity of a transmission, message, or originator. 2. A means of identifying individuals and verifying their eligibility to receive specific categories of information. 3. Evidence by proper signature or seal that a document is genuine and official. 4. In personnel recovery missions, the process whereby the identity of an isolated person is confirmed. See also evader; evasion; recovery operations; security. (ref JP 3-50)
  • authorization data - Department of Defense military and civilian manpower and equipment resources authorized by law. (DODI 8260.03) authorization inventory - The set of manpower and equipment authorizations associated with one or more organization. (DODI 8260.03) authorized departure - A procedure, short of ordered departure, by which mission employees or dependents or both, are permitted to leave post in advance of normal rotation when the national interests or imminent threat to life require it. (ref JP 3-68)
  • Automated Repatriation Reporting System - A Defense Manpower Data Center system used to track the status of noncombatant evacuees after they have arrived in an initial safe haven in the United States. (ref JP 3-68)
  • automatic identification technology - A suite of technologies enabling the automatic capture of data, thereby enhancing the ability to identify, track, document, and control assets (e.g., materiel), deploying and redeploying forces, equipment, personnel, and sustainment cargo. Also called AIT. (ref JP 4-09)
  • autonomous operation - In air defense, the mode of operation assumed by a unit after it has lost all communications with higher echelons forcing the unit commander to assume full responsibility for control of weapons and engagement of hostile targets. (ref JP 3-01)
  • As Amended Through 15 February 2016 JP 1-02 19 available-to-load date - A date specified for each unit in a time-phased force and deployment data indicating when that unit will be ready to load at the point of embarkation. Also called ALD. (ref JP 5-0)
  • avenue of approach - An air or ground route of an attacking force of a given size leading to its objective or to key terrain in its path. Also called AA. (ref JP 2-01.3)
  • aviation medicine - The special field of medicine which is related to the biological and psychological problems of flight. (ref JP 4-02)
  • axis of advance - A line of advance assigned for purposes of control; often a road or a group of roads, or a designated series of locations, extending in the direction of the enemy. (ref JP 3-03)
  • As Amended Through 15 February 2016 20 JP 1-02 Intentionally Blank As Amended Through 15 February 2016 B JP 1-02 21 backfill - Reserve Component units and individuals recalled to replace deploying active units and/or individuals in the continental United States and outside the continental United States. See also Reserve Component. (ref JP 4-05)
  • bale cubic capacity - The space available for cargo measured in cubic feet to the inside of the cargo battens, on the frames, and to the underside of the beams. (ref JP 4-01.2)
  • ballistic missile - Any missile which does not rely upon aerodynamic surfaces to produce lift and consequently follows a ballistic trajectory when thrust is terminated. See also guided missile. (ref JP 3-01)
  • barrier - A coordinated series of natural or man-made obstacles designed or employed to channel, direct, restrict, delay, or stop the movement of an opposing force and to impose additional losses in personnel, time, and equipment on the opposing force. (ref JP 3-15)
  • barrier combat air patrol - One or more divisions or elements of fighter aircraft employed between a force and an objective area as a barrier across the probable direction of enemy attack. See also combat air patrol. (ref JP 3-01)
  • barrier, obstacle, and mine warfare plan - A comprehensive, coordinated plan that includes responsibilities; general location of unspecified and specific barriers, obstacles, and minefields; special instructions; limitations; coordination; and completion times; and may designate locations of obstacle zones or belts. (ref JP 3-15)
  • base - 1. A locality from which operations are projected or supported. 2. An area or locality containing installations which provide logistic or other support. 3. Home airfield or home carrier. See also facility. (ref JP 4-0)
  • base boundary - A line that delineates the surface area of a base for the purpose of facilitating coordination and deconfliction of operations between adjacent units, formations, or areas. (ref JP 3-10)
  • base cluster - In base defense operations, a collection of bases, geographically grouped for mutual protection and ease of command and control. (ref JP 3-10)
  • base cluster commander - In base defense operations, a senior base commander designated by the joint force commander responsible for coordinating the defense of bases within the base cluster and for integrating defense plans of bases into a base cluster defense plan. (ref JP 3-10)
  • base cluster operations center - A command and control facility that serves as the base cluster commanderís focal point for defense and security of the base cluster. Also called BCOC. (ref JP 3-10)
  • As Amended Through 15 February 2016 22 JP 1-02 base defense - The local military measures, both normal and emergency, required to nullify or reduce the effectiveness of enemy attacks on, or sabotage of, a base, to ensure that the maximum capacity of its facilities is available to United States forces. (ref JP 3-10)
  • base defense operations center - A command and control facility established by the base commander to serve as the focal point for base security and defense. Also called BDOC. (ref JP 3-10)
  • base defense zone - An air defense zone established around an air base and limited to the engagement envelope of short-range air defense weapons systems defending that base. Also called BDZ. (ref JP 3-52)
  • base development - The acquisition, development, expansion, improvement, construction and/or replacement of the facilities and resources of a location to support forces. (ref JP 3- 34)
  • baseline costs - The continuing annual costs of military operations funded by the operations and maintenance and military personnel appropriations. (ref JP 1-06)
  • base operating support - Directly assisting, maintaining, supplying, and distributing support of forces at the operating location. Also called BOS. (ref JP 4-0)
  • base operating support-integrator - The designated Service component or joint task force commander assigned to synchronize all sustainment functions for a contingency base. Also called BOS-I. (ref JP 4-0)
  • base plan - A type of operation plan that describes the concept of operations, major forces, sustainment concept, and anticipated timelines for completing the mission without annexes or time-phased force and deployment data. Also called BPLAN. (ref JP 5-0)
  • base support installation - A Department of Defense Service or agency installation within the United States and its territories tasked to serve as a base for military forces engaged in either homeland defense or defense support of civil authorities. Also called BSI. (ref JP 3-28)
  • basic encyclopedia - A compilation of identified installations and physical areas of potential significance as objectives for attack. Also called BE. (ref JP 2-01)
  • basic load - The quantity of supplies required to be on hand within, and which can be moved by, a unit or formation, expressed according to the wartime organization of the unit or formation and maintained at the prescribed levels. (ref JP 4-09)
  • battalion landing team - In an amphibious operation, an infantry battalion normally reinforced by necessary combat and service elements; the basic unit for planning an assault landing. Also called BLT. (ref JP 3-02)
  • As Amended Through 15 February 2016 JP 1-02 23 battle damage assessment - The estimate of damage composed of physical and functional damage assessment, as well as target system assessment, resulting from the application of lethal or nonlethal military force. Also called BDA. See also combat assessment. (ref JP 3-0)
  • battle damage repair - Essential repair, which may be improvised, carried out rapidly in a battle environment in order to return damaged or disabled equipment to temporary service. Also called BDR. (ref JP 4-09)
  • battlefield coordination detachment - An Army liaison located in the air operations center that provides selected operational functions between the Army forces and the air component commander. Also called BCD. See also air operations center; liaison. (ref JP 3-03)
  • battle injury - Damage or harm sustained by personnel during or as a result of battle conditions. Also called BI. (ref JP 4-02)
  • battle management - The management of activities within the operational environment based on the commands, direction, and guidance given by appropriate authority. Also called BM. (ref JP 3-01)
  • beach - 1. The area extending from the shoreline inland to a marked change in physiographic form or material, or to the line of permanent vegetation (coastline). 2. In amphibious operations, that portion of the shoreline designated for landing of a tactical organization. (ref JP 3-02)
  • beachhead - A designated area on a hostile or potentially hostile shore that, when seized and held, ensures the continuous landing of troops and materiel, and provides maneuver space requisite for subsequent projected operations ashore. (ref JP 3-02)
  • beachmaster unit - A commissioned naval unit of the naval beach group designed to provide to the shore party a Navy component known as a beach party, which is capable of supporting the amphibious landing of one division (reinforced). Also called BMU. See also beach party; naval beach group; shore party. (ref JP 4-01.6)
  • beach party - The Navy component of the landing force support party under the tactical control of the landing force support party commander. See also beachmaster unit; shore party. (ref JP 3-02)
  • beach support area - In amphibious operations, the area to the rear of a landing force or elements thereof, that contains the facilities for the unloading of troops and materiel and the support of the forces ashore. Also called BSA. (ref JP 3-02)
  • begin morning civil twilight - The period of time at which the sun is halfway between beginning morning and nautical twilight and sunrise, when there is enough light to see objects clearly with the unaided eye. Also called BMCT. (ref JP 2-01.3)
  • As Amended Through 15 February 2016 24 JP 1-02 begin morning nautical twilight - The start of that period where, in good conditions and in the absence of other illumination, the sun is 12 degrees below the eastern horizon and enough light is available to identify the general outlines of ground objects and conduct limited military operations. Also called BMNT. (ref JP 3-09.3)
  • believed-to-be - In mortuary affairs, the status of any human remains until a positive identification has been determined. Used interchangeably with tentative identification. Also called BTB. (ref JP 4-06)
  • berm - The nearly horizontal portion of a beach or backshore having an abrupt fall and either formed by deposition of material by wave action at the limit of ordinary high tide or constructed to protect materials handling equipment during air cushion vehicle operations. (ref JP 4-01.6)
  • bill - A shipís publication listing operational or administrative procedures. (ref JP 3-04)
  • biological agent - A microorganism (or a toxin derived from it) that causes disease in personnel, plants, or animals or causes the deterioration of materiel. See also chemical agent. (ref JP 3-11)
  • biological hazard - An organism, or substance derived from an organism, that poses a threat to human or animal health. (ref JP 3-11)
  • biometrics - The process of recognizing an individual based on measurable anatomical, physiological, and behavioral characteristics. (ref JP 2-0)
  • biometrics-enabled intelligence - The intelligence derived from the processing of biologic identity data and other all-source for information concerning persons of interest. Also called BEI. (ref JP 2-0)
  • blister agent - A chemical agent that injures the eyes and lungs, and burns or blisters the skin. Also called vesicant agent. (ref JP 3-11)
  • blood agent - A chemical compound, including the cyanide group, that affects bodily functions by preventing the normal utilization of oxygen by body tissues. (ref JP 3-11)
  • blood chit - A small sheet of material depicting an American flag and a statement in several languages to the effect that anyone assisting the bearer to safety will be rewarded. See also evasion aid. (ref JP 3-50)
  • Blue Bark - US military personnel, US citizen civilian employees of the Department of Defense, and the dependents of both categories who travel in connection with the death of an immediate family member. It also applies to designated escorts for dependents of deceased military members. Furthermore, the term is used to designate the personal property shipment of a deceased member. (ref JP 4-06)
  • As Amended Through 15 February 2016 JP 1-02 25 boat group - The basic organization of landing craft. (ref JP 3-02)
  • boat lane - A lane for amphibious assault landing craft, which extends from the line of departure to the beach. (ref JP 3-02)
  • boat space - The space and weight factor used in planning for one person with individual equipment to determine overall ship-to-shore movement requirements for boats, landing craft, and amphibious vehicles. (ref JP 3-02.1)
  • bona fides - 1. In personnel recovery, the use of verbal or visual communication by individuals who are unknown to one another, to establish their authenticity, sincerity, honesty, and truthfulness. See also evasion; recovery; recovery operations. (ref JP 3-50)
    2. The lack of fraud or deceit: a determination that a person is who he/she says he/she is. (ref JP 2-01.2)
  • boost phase - That portion of the flight of a ballistic missile or space vehicle during which the booster and sustainer engines operate. See also midcourse phase; terminal phase. (ref JP 3-01)
  • bottom mine - A mine with negative buoyancy which remains on the seabed. See also mine. (ref JP 3-15)
  • boundary - A line that delineates surface areas for the purpose of facilitating coordination and deconfliction of operations between adjacent units, formations, or areas. (ref JP 3-0)
  • branch - 1. A subdivision of any organization. 2. A geographically separate unit of an activity, which performs all or part of the primary functions of the parent activity on a smaller scale. 3. An arm or service of the Army. 4. The contingency options built into the base plan used for changing the mission, orientation, or direction of movement of a force to aid success of the operation based on anticipated events, opportunities, or disruptions caused by enemy actions and reactions. See also sequel. (ref JP 5-0)
  • breakbulk ship - A ship with conventional holds for stowage of breakbulk cargo and a limited number of containers, below or above deck, and equipped with cargo-handling gear. (ref JP 4-09)
  • brevity code - A code word, which provides no security, that serves the sole purpose of shortening of messages rather than the concealment of their content. (ref JP 3-09.3)
  • brigade combat team - A combined arms team that forms the basic building block of the Armyís tactical formations. Also called BCT. (ref JP 3-31)
  • broken stowage - The space lost in the holds of a vessel because of the contour of the ship, dunnage, ladders, stanchions, and the shape of the cargo. (ref JP 3-02.1)
  • As Amended Through 15 February 2016 26 JP 1-02 broken stowage factor - A factor applied to the available space for embarkation due to the loss between boxes, between vehicles, around stanchions, and over cargo, that will vary, depending on the type and size of vehicles, type and size of general cargo, training and experience of loading personnel, type of loading, method of stowage, and configuration of compartments. (ref JP 3-02.1)
  • buddy-aid - Acute medical care (first aid) provided by a non-medical Service member to another person. (ref JP 4-02)
  • buffer zone - 1. A defined area controlled by a peace operations force from which disputing or belligerent forces have been excluded. Also called area of separation in some United Nations operations. Also called BZ. See also line of demarcation; peace operations. (ref JP 3-07.3)
    2. A designated area used for safety in military operations. (ref JP 3-01)
  • building system - A structure assembled from manufactured components designed to provide a specific building configuration. (ref JP 3-34)
  • bulk cargo - That which is generally shipped in volume where the transportation conveyance is the only external container; such as liquids, ore, or grain. (ref JP 4-01.5)
  • bulk petroleum product - A liquid petroleum product transported by various means and stored in tanks or containers having an individual fill capacity greater than 208 liters. (ref JP 4-03)
  • bulk storage - 1. Storage in a warehouse of supplies and equipment in large quantities, usually in original containers, as distinguished from bin storage. 2. Storage of liquids, such as petroleum products in tanks, as distinguished from drum or packaged storage. (ref JP 4-03)
  • As Amended Through 15 February 2016 C JP 1-02 27 cache - A source of subsistence and supplies, typically containing items such as food, water, medical items, and/or communications equipment, packaged to prevent damage from exposure and hidden in isolated locations by such methods as burial, concealment, and/or submersion, to support isolated personnel. See also evader; evasion; recovery; recovery operations. (ref JP 3-50)
  • call sign - Any combination of characters or pronounceable words, which identifies a communication facility, a command, an authority, an activity, or a unit; used primarily for establishing and maintaining communications. Also called CS. (ref JP 3-50)
  • campaign - A series of related major operations aimed at achieving strategic and operational objectives within a given time and space. See also campaign plan. (ref JP 5-0)
  • campaign plan - A joint operation plan for a series of related major operations aimed at achieving strategic or operational objectives within a given time and space. See also campaign; campaign planning. (ref JP 5-0)
  • campaign planning - The process whereby combatant commanders and subordinate joint force commanders translate national or theater strategy into operational concepts through the development of an operation plan for a campaign. See also campaign; campaign plan. (ref JP 5-0)
  • canalize - To restrict operations to a narrow zone by use of existing or reinforcing obstacles or by fire or bombing. (ref JP 3-15)
  • candidate target list - A list of objects or entities submitted by component commanders, appropriate agencies, or the joint force commanderís staff for further development and inclusion on the joint target list and/or restricted target list, or moved to the no-strike list. Also called CTL. See also joint integrated prioritized target list; target, target nomination list. (ref JP 3-60)
  • capstone publication - The top joint doctrine publication in the hierarchy of joint publications that links joint doctrine to national strategy and the contributions of other government departments and agencies, multinational partners, and reinforces policy for command and control. See also joint publication; keystone publications. (CJCSM 5120.01) cargo increment number - A seven-character alphanumeric field that uniquely describes a non-unit-cargo entry (line) in the Joint Operation Planning and Execution System timephased force and deployment data. (ref JP 3-35)
  • carrier air wing - Two or more aircraft squadrons formed under one commander for administrative and tactical control of operations from a carrier. Also called CVW. (ref JP 3-32)
  • As Amended Through 15 February 2016 28 JP 1-02 carrier control zone - The airspace within a circular limit defined by 5 miles horizontal radius from the carrier, extending upward from the surface to and including 2,500 feet unless otherwise designated for special operations, and is under the cognizance of the air officer during visual meteorological conditions. (ref JP 3-52)
  • carrier strike group - A standing naval task group consisting of a carrier, embarked air wing, surface combatants, and submarines as assigned in direct support, operating in mutual support with the task of destroying hostile submarine, surface, and air forces within the groupís assigned operational area and striking at targets along hostile shore lines or projecting power inland. Also called CSG. (ref JP 3-32)
  • cartridge-actuated device - Small explosive devices used to eject stores from launched devices, actuate other explosive systems, or provide initiation for aircrew escape devices. Also called CAD. (ref JP 3-04)
  • case officer - A professional employee of an intelligence or counterintelligence organization, who is responsible for providing directions for an agent operation and/or handling intelligence assets. (ref JP 2-01.2)
  • casualty - Any person who is lost to the organization by having been declared dead, duty status -
    whereabouts unknown, missing, ill, or injured. See also hostile casualty. (ref JP 4-02)
  • casualty evacuation - The unregulated movement of casualties that can include movement both to and between medical treatment facilities. Also called CASEVAC. See also casualty; evacuation; medical treatment facility. (ref JP 4-02)
  • casualty rate - The number of casualties per 1,000 population at risk. (DODI 8620.04) casualty receiving and treatment ship - In amphibious operations, a ship designated to receive, provide treatment for, and transfer casualties. Also called CRTS. (ref JP 3-02)
  • catastrophic event - Any natural or man-made incident, including terrorism, which results in extraordinary levels of mass casualties, damage, or disruption severely affecting the population, infrastructure, environment, economy, national morale, and/or government functions. (ref JP 3-28)
  • causeway - A craft similar in design to a barge, but longer and narrower, designed to assist in the discharge and transport of cargo from vessels. (ref JP 4-01.6)
  • causeway launching area - An area located near the line of departure but clear of the approach lanes to an area located in the inner transport area. (ref JP 3-02)
  • C-day - The unnamed day on which a deployment operation commences or is to commence. (ref JP 5-0)
  • As Amended Through 15 February 2016 JP 1-02 29 cell - A subordinate organization formed around a specific process, capability, or activity within a designated larger organization of a joint force commanderís headquarters. (ref JP 3-33)
  • center - An enduring functional organization, with a supporting staff, designed to perform a joint function within a joint force commanderís headquarters. (ref JP 3-33)
  • center of gravity - The source of power that provides moral or physical strength, freedom of action, or will to act. Also called COG. See also decisive point. (ref JP 5-0)
  • centigray - A unit of absorbed dose of radiation (one centigray equals one rad). (ref JP 3-11)
  • central control officer - The officer, embarked in the central control ship, designated by the amphibious task force commander for the overall coordination of the waterborne ship-to-shore movement. Also called CCO. (ref JP 3-02)
  • centralized control - 1. In air defense, the control mode whereby a higher echelon makes direct target assignments to fire units. (ref JP 3-01)
    2. In joint air operations, placing within one commander the responsibility and authority for planning, directing, and coordinating a military operation or group/category of operations. See also decentralized control. (ref JP 3-30)
  • chaff - Radar confusion reflectors, consisting of thin, narrow metallic strips of various lengths and frequency responses, which are used to reflect echoes for confusion purposes. (ref JP 3-13.1)
  • chain of command - The succession of commanding officers from a superior to a subordinate through which command is exercised. Also called command channel. (ref JP 1)
  • Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff instruction - A document for all types of correspondence containing Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff policy and guidance that does not involve the employment of forces, which is of indefinite duration and is applicable to external agencies, or both the Joint Staff and external agencies. Also called CJCSI. See also Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff manual. (CJCSM 5120.01) Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff manual - A document containing detailed procedures for performing specific tasks that do not involve the employment of forces, which is of indefinite duration and is applicable to external agencies or both the Joint Staff and external agencies. Also called CJCSM. See also Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff instruction. (CJCSM 5120.01) chalk number - The number given to a complete load and to the transporting carrier. (ref JP 3-17)
  • As Amended Through 15 February 2016 30 JP 1-02 change detection - An image enhancement technique that compares two images of the same area from different time periods and eliminates identical picture elements in order to leave the signatures that have undergone change. (ref JP 2-03)
  • channel airlift - Airlift provided for movement of sustainment cargo, scheduled either regularly or depending upon volume of workload, between designated ports of embarkation and ports of debarkation over validated contingency or distribution routes. (ref JP 3-17)
  • chemical agent - A chemical substance that is intended for use in military operations to kill, seriously injure, or incapacitate mainly through its physiological effects. See also chemical warfare; riot control agent. (ref JP 3-11)
  • chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear consequence management - Actions taken to plan, prepare, respond to, and recover from chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear incidents. Also called CBRN CM. (ref JP 3-41)
  • chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear defense - Measures taken to minimize or negate the vulnerabilities to, and/or effects of, a chemical, biological, radiological, or nuclear hazard or incident. Also called CBRN defense. (ref JP 3-11)
  • chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear environment - An operational environment that includes chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear threats and hazards and their potential resulting effects. Also called CBRN environment. (ref JP 3-11)
  • chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear hazard - Chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear elements that could create adverse effects due to an accidental or deliberate release and dissemination. Also called CBRN hazard. (ref JP 3-11)
  • chemical, biological, radiological, or nuclear incident - Any occurrence, resulting from the use of chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear weapons and devices; the emergence of secondary hazards arising from counterforce targeting; or the release of toxic industrial materials into the environment, involving the emergence of chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear hazards. (ref JP 3-11)
  • chemical, biological, radiological, or nuclear weapon - A fully engineered assembly designed for employment to cause the release of a chemical or biological agent or radiological material onto a chosen target or to generate a nuclear detonation. Also called CBRN weapon. (ref JP 3-11)
  • chemical hazard - Any chemical manufactured, used, transported, or stored that can cause death or other harm through toxic properties of those materials, including chemical agents and chemical weapons prohibited under the Chemical Weapons Convention as well as toxic industrial chemicals. (ref JP 3-11)
  • As Amended Through 15 February 2016 JP 1-02 31 chemical warfare - All aspects of military operations involving the employment of lethal and incapacitating munitions/agents and the warning and protective measures associated with such offensive operations. Also called CW. See also chemical agent; chemical weapon; riot control agent. (ref JP 3-11)
  • chemical weapon - Together or separately, (a) a toxic chemical and its precursors, except when intended for a purpose not prohibited under the Chemical Weapons Convention; (b) a munition or device, specifically designed to cause death or other harm through toxic properties of those chemicals specified in (a), above, which would be released as a result of the employment of such munition or device; (c) any equipment specifically designed for use directly in connection with the employment of munitions or devices specified in (b), above. See also chemical agent; chemical warfare; riot control agent. (ref JP 3-11)
  • chief of fires - The senior organic fires Army staff officer at division and higher headquarters level who advises the commander on the best use of available fire support resources, provides input to necessary orders, and develops and implements the fire support plan. Also called COF. (ref JP 3-09)
  • chief of mission - The principal officer (the ambassador) in charge of a diplomatic facility of the United States, including any individual assigned to be temporarily in charge of such a facility. The chief of mission is the personal representative of the President to the country of accreditation. The chief of mission is responsible for the direction, coordination, and supervision of all US Government executive branch employees in that country (except those under the command of a US area military commander). The security of the diplomatic post is the chief of missionís direct responsibility. Also called COM. (ref JP 3-08)
  • chief of staff - The senior or principal member or head of a staff who acts as the controlling member of a staff for purposes of the coordination of its work or to exercise command in anotherís name. Also called COS. (ref JP 3-33)
  • chief of station - The senior United States intelligence officer in a foreign country and the direct representative of the Director National Intelligence, to whom the officer reports through the Director Central Intelligence Agency. Usually the senior representative of the Central Intelligence Agency assigned to a US mission. Also called COS. (ref JP 2-01.2)
  • civil administration - An administration established by a foreign government in (1) friendly territory, under an agreement with the government of the area concerned, to exercise certain authority normally the function of the local government; or (2) hostile territory, occupied by United States forces, where a foreign government exercises executive, legislative, and judicial authority until an indigenous civil government can be established. Also called CA. (ref JP 3-05)
  • civil affairs - Designated Active and Reserve Component forces and units organized, trained, and equipped specifically to conduct civil affairs operations and to support civil-military operations. Also called CA. See also civil-military operations. (ref JP 3-57)
  • As Amended Through 15 February 2016 32 JP 1-02 civil affairs operations - Actions planned, executed, and assessed by civil affairs forces that enhance awareness of and manage the interaction with the civil component of the operational environment; identify and mitigate underlying causes of instability within civil society; or involve the application of functional specialty skills normally the responsibility of civil government. Also called CAO. (ref JP 3-57)
  • civil augmentation program - Standing, long-term external support contacts designed to augment Service logistic capabilities with contracted support in both preplanned and short notice contingencies. Also called CAP. See also contingency; contingency contract; external support contract. (ref JP 4-10)
  • civil authorities - Those elected and appointed officers and employees who constitute the government of the United States, the governments of the 50 states, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, United States territories, and political subdivisions thereof. (ref JP 3-28)
  • civil authority information support - The use of military information support operations capabilities to conduct public information dissemination activities to support national security or disaster relief operations within the United States and its territories in support of a lead federal agency. Also called CAIS. (ref JP 3-13.2)
  • civil emergency - Any occasion or instance for which, in the determination of the President, federal assistance is needed to supplement state and local efforts and capabilities to save lives and to protect property and public health and safety, or to lessen or avert the threat of a catastrophe in any part of the United States. (ref JP 3-28)
  • civilian internee - A civilian who is interned during armed conflict, occupation, or other military operation for security reasons, for protection, or because he or she committed an offense against the detaining power. Also called CI. (DODD 2310.01E) civil information - Relevant data relating to the civil areas, structures, capabilities, organizations, people, and events of the civil component of the operational environment used to support the situational awareness of the supported commander. (ref JP 3-57)
  • civil information management - Process whereby data relating to the civil component of the operational environment is gathered, collated, processed, analyzed, produced into information products, and disseminated. Also called CIM. (ref JP 3-57)
  • civil-military medicine - A discipline within operational medicine comprising public health and medical issues that involve a civil-military interface (foreign or domestic), including military medical support to civil authorities (domestic), medical elements of cooperation activities, and medical civil-military operations. (ref JP 4-02)
  • civil-military operations - Activities of a commander performed by designated civil affairs or other military forces that establish, maintain, influence, or exploit relations between As Amended Through 15 February 2016 JP 1-02 33 military forces, indigenous populations, and institutions, by directly supporting the attainment of objectives relating to the reestablishment or maintenance of stability within a region or host nation. Also called CMO. See also civil affairs; operation. (ref JP 3-57)
  • civil-military operations center - An organization, normally comprised of civil affairs, established to plan and facilitate coordination of activities of the Armed Forces of the United States within indigenous populations and institutions, the private sector, intergovernmental organizations, nongovernmental organizations, multinational forces, and other governmental agencies in support of the joint force commander. Also called CMOC. See also civil-military operations; operation. (ref JP 3-57)
  • civil-military team - A temporary organization of civilian and military personnel taskorganized to provide an optimal mix of capabilities and expertise to accomplish specific operational and planning tasks. (ref JP 3-57)
  • civil reconnaissance - A targeted, planned, and coordinated observation and evaluation of specific civil aspects of the environment such as areas, structures, capabilities, organizations, people, or events. Also called CR. (ref JP 3-57)
  • Civil Reserve Air Fleet - A program in which the Department of Defense contracts for the services of specific aircraft, owned by a United States entity or citizen, during national emergencies and defense-oriented situations when expanded civil augmentation of military airlift activity is required. Also called CRAF. See also reserve. (ref JP 3-17)
  • civil search and rescue - Search and/or rescue operations and associated civilian services provided to assist persons in potential or actual distress and protect property in a nonhostile environment. Also called civil SAR. (ref JP 3-50)
  • clandestine - Any activity or operation sponsored or conducted by governmental departments or agencies with the intent to assure secrecy and concealment. (ref JP 2-01.2)
  • clandestine intelligence collection - The acquisition of protected intelligence information in a way designed to conceal the nature of the operation and protect the source. (ref JP 2-01.2)
  • clandestine operation - An operation sponsored or conducted by governmental departments or agencies in such a way as to assure secrecy or concealment. See also covert operation; overt operation. (ref JP 3-05)
  • classes of supply - The ten categories into which supplies are grouped in order to facilitate supply management and planning. I. Rations and gratuitous issue of health, morale, and welfare items. II. Clothing, individual equipment, tentage, tool sets, and administrative and housekeeping supplies and equipment. III. Petroleum, oils, and lubricants. IV. Construction materials. V. Ammunition. VI. Personal demand items. VII. Major end items, including tanks, helicopters, and radios. VIII. Medical. IX. Repair parts and components for equipment maintenance. X. Nonstandard items to support nonmilitary As Amended Through 15 February 2016 34 JP 1-02 programs such as agriculture and economic development. See also petroleum, oils, and lubricants. (ref JP 4-09)
  • classification - The determination that official information requires, in the interests of national security, a specific degree of protection against unauthorized disclosure, coupled with a designation signifying that such a determination has been made. See also security classification. (ref JP 2-01.2)
  • classified information - Official information that has been determined to require, in the interests of national security, protection against unauthorized disclosure and which has been so designated. (ref JP 2-01.2)
  • clearance capacity - An estimate expressed in agreed upon units of cargo measurement per day of the cargo or people that may be transported inland from a beach or port over the available means of inland communication, including roads, railroads, airlift, and inland waterways. See also throughput capacity. (ref JP 4-01.5)
  • clearance decontamination - The final level of decontamination that provides the decontamination of equipment and personnel to a level that allows unrestricted transportation, maintenance, employment, and disposal. (ref JP 3-11)
  • clearing operation - An operation designed to clear or neutralize all mines and obstacles from a route or area. (ref JP 3-15)
  • climate change - Variations in average weather conditions that persist over multiple decades or longer that encompass increases and decreases in temperature, shifts in precipitation, and changing risk of certain types of severe weather events. (DODD 4715.21) close air support - Air action by fixed- and rotary-wing aircraft against hostile targets that are in close proximity to friendly forces and that require detailed integration of each air mission with the fire and movement of those forces. Also called CAS. See also air interdiction. (ref JP 3-0)
  • close support - The action of the supporting force against targets or objectives that are sufficiently near the supported force as to require detailed integration or coordination of the supporting action. See also direct support; general support; mutual support; support. (ref JP 3-31)
  • close support area - Those parts of the ocean operating areas nearest to, but not necessarily in, the objective area. (ref JP 3-02)
  • closure - In transportation, the process of a unitís arriving at a specified location. (ref JP 4-01.5)
  • As Amended Through 15 February 2016 JP 1-02 35 coalition - An arrangement between two or more nations for common action. See also alliance; multinational. (ref JP 5-0)
  • coastal sea control - The employment of forces to ensure the unimpeded use of an offshore coastal area by friendly forces and, as appropriate, to deny the use of the area to enemy forces. (ref JP 3-10)
  • code word - 1. A word that has been assigned a classification and a classified meaning to safeguard intentions and information regarding a classified plan or operation. 2. A cryptonym used to identify sensitive intelligence data. (ref JP 3-50)
  • collateral damage - Unintentional or incidental injury or damage to persons or objects that would not be lawful military targets in the circumstances ruling at the time. (ref JP 3-60)
  • collection - In intelligence usage, the acquisition of information and the provision of this information to processing elements. See also intelligence process. (ref JP 2-01)
  • collection agency - Any individual, organization, or unit that has access to sources of information and the capability of collecting information from them. See also agency. (ref JP 2-01)
  • collection asset - A collection system, platform, or capability that is supporting, assigned, or attached to a particular commander. See also collection. (ref JP 2-01)
  • collection management - In intelligence usage, the process of converting intelligence requirements into collection requirements, establishing priorities, tasking or coordinating with appropriate collection sources or agencies, monitoring results, and retasking, as required. See also collection; collection requirement; collection requirements management; intelligence; intelligence process. (ref JP 2-0)
  • collection management authority - Within the Department of Defense, collection management authority constitutes the authority to establish, prioritize, and validate theater collection requirements, establish sensor tasking guidance, and develop theaterwide collection policies. Also called CMA. See also collection manager; collection plan; collection requirement. (ref JP 2-01.2)
  • collection manager - An individual with responsibility for the timely and efficient tasking of organic collection resources and the development of requirements for theater and national assets that could satisfy specific information needs in support of the mission. Also called CM. See also collection; collection management authority. (ref JP 2-01)
  • collection operations management - The authoritative direction, scheduling, and control of specific collection operations and associated processing, exploitation, and reporting resources. Also called COM. See also collection management; collection requirements management. (ref JP 2-0)
  • As Amended Through 15 February 2016 36 JP 1-02 collection plan - A systematic scheme to optimize the employment of all available collection capabilities and associated processing, exploitation, and dissemination resources to satisfy specific information requirements. See also information requirements; intelligence process. (ref JP 2-0)
  • collection planning - A continuous process that coordinates and integrates the efforts of all collection units and agencies. See also collection. (ref JP 2-0)
  • collection point - A point designated for the assembly of personnel casualties, stragglers, disabled materiel, salvage, etc., for further movement to collecting stations or rear installations. Also called CP. (ref JP 4-06)
  • collection posture - The current status of collection assets and resources to satisfy identified information requirements. (ref JP 2-0)
  • collection requirement - A valid need to close a specific gap in intelligence holdings in direct response to a request for information. (ref JP 2-0)
  • collection requirements management - The authoritative development and control of collection, processing, exploitation, and/or reporting requirements that normally result in either the direct tasking of requirements to units over which the commander has authority, or the generation of tasking requests to collection management authorities at a higher, lower, or lateral echelon to accomplish the collection mission. Also called CRM. See also collection; collection management; collection operations management. (ref JP 2-0)
  • collection resource - A collection system, platform, or capability that is not assigned or attached to a specific unit or echelon which must be requested and coordinated through the chain of command. See also collection management. (ref JP 2-01)
  • collection strategy - An analytical approach used by collection managers to determine which intelligence disciplines can be applied to satisfy information requirements. (ref JP 2-0)
  • collective protection - The protection provided to a group of individuals that permits relaxation of individual chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear protection. Also called COLPRO. (ref JP 3-11)
  • colored beach - That portion of usable coastline sufficient for the assault landing of a regimental landing team or similar sized unit. See also numbered beach. (ref JP 3-02)
  • combat air patrol - An aircraft patrol provided over an objective area, the force protected, the critical area of a combat zone, or in an air defense area, for the purpose of intercepting and destroying hostile aircraft before they reach their targets. Also called CAP. See also airborne alert; barrier combat air patrol; rescue combat air patrol. (ref JP 3-01)
  • As Amended Through 15 February 2016 JP 1-02 37 combat and operational stress - The expected and predictable emotional, intellectual, physical, and/or behavioral reactions of an individual who has been exposed to stressful events in war or stability operations. (ref JP 4-02)
  • combat and operational stress control - Programs developed and actions taken by military leadership to prevent, identify, and manage adverse combat and operational stress reactions in units; optimize mission performance; conserve fighting strength; prevent or minimize adverse effects of combat and operational stress on membersí physical, psychological, intellectual and social health; and to return the unit or Service member to duty expeditiously. (ref JP 4-02)
  • combatant command - A unified or specified command with a broad continuing mission under a single commander established and so designated by the President, through the Secretary of Defense and with the advice and assistance of the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. Also called CCMD. See also specified combatant command; unified command. (ref JP 1)
  • combatant command chaplain - The senior chaplain assigned to the staff of, or designated by, the combatant commander to provide advice on religion, ethical, and moral issues, and morale of assigned personnel and to coordinate religious ministries within the combatant commanderís area of responsibility. See also command chaplain; religious support; religious support team. (ref JP 1-05)
  • combatant command (command authority) - Nontransferable command authority, which cannot be delegated, of a combatant commander to perform those functions of command over assigned forces involving organizing and employing commands and forces; assigning tasks; designating objectives; and giving authoritative direction over all aspects of military operations, joint training, and logistics necessary to accomplish the missions assigned to the command. Also called COCOM. See also combatant command; combatant commander; operational control; tactical control. (ref JP 1)
  • combatant commander - A commander of one of the unified or specified combatant commands established by the President. Also called CCDR. See also combatant command; specified combatant command; unified combatant command. (ref JP 3-0)
  • combatant commander logistic procurement support board - A combatant commanderlevel joint board established to ensure that contracting support and other sources of support are properly synchronized across the entire area of responsibility. Also called CLPSB. See also joint requirements review board; joint contracting support board. (ref JP 4-10)
  • combatant command support agent - The Secretary of a Military Department to whom the Secretary of Defense or the Deputy Secretary of Defense has assigned administrative and logistical support of the headquarters of a combatant command, United States Element, North American Aerospace Defense Command, or subordinate unified command. The nature and scope of the combatant command support agent As Amended Through 15 February 2016 38 JP 1-02 responsibilities, functions, and authorities shall be prescribed at the time of assignment or in keeping with existing agreements and practices, and they shall remain in effect until the Secretary of Defense or the Deputy Secretary of Defense revokes, supersedes, or modifies them. Also called CCSA. (DODD 5100.03) combat assessment - The determination of the overall effectiveness of force employment during military operations. Combat assessment is composed of three major components: (a) battle damage assessment; (b) munitions effectiveness assessment; and (c) reattack recommendation. Also called CA. See also battle damage assessment; munitions effectiveness assessment; reattack recommendation. (ref JP 3-60)
  • combat camera - Specially-trained expeditionary forces from Service-designated units capable of providing high-quality directed visual information during military operations. Also called COMCAM. See also visual information. (ref JP 3-61)
  • combat cargo officer - A Marine Corps embarkation/mobility officer permanently assigned to amphibious warfare ships or naval staffs, as an adviser to and representative of the naval commander in matters pertaining to embarkation and debarkation of troops, their supplies, and equipment. Also called CCO. See also embarkation officer. (ref JP 3-02.1)
  • combat chart - A special naval chart, at a scale of 1:50,000, designed for naval surface fire support and close air support during coastal or amphibious operations and showing detailed hydrography and topography in the coastal belt. (ref JP 2-03)
  • combat control team - A task-organized team of special operations forces who are certified air traffic controllers that are trained and equipped to deploy into hostile environments to establish and control assault zones and airfields. Also called CCT. (ref JP 3-17)
  • combat engineering - Engineering capabilities and activities that directly support the maneuver of land combat forces that require close and integrated support. (ref JP 3-34)
  • combat identification - The process of attaining an accurate characterization of detected objects in the operational environment sufficient to support an engagement decision. Also called CID. (ref JP 3-09)
  • combat information - Unevaluated data, gathered by or provided directly to the tactical commander which, due to its highly perishable nature or the criticality of the situation, cannot be processed into tactical intelligence in time to satisfy the userís tactical intelligence requirements. (ref JP 2-01)
  • combat information center - The agency in a ship or aircraft manned and equipped to collect, display, evaluate, and disseminate tactical information for the use of the embarked flag officer, commanding officer, and certain control agencies. Also called CIC. (ref JP 3-04)
  • As Amended Through 15 February 2016 JP 1-02 39 combating terrorism - Actions, including antiterrorism and counterterrorism, taken to oppose terrorism throughout the entire threat spectrum. Also called CbT. See also antiterrorism; counterterrorism. (ref JP 3-26)
  • combat loading - The arrangement of personnel and the stowage of equipment and supplies in a manner designed to conform to the anticipated tactical operation of the organization embarked. (ref JP 3-02)
  • combat organizational loading - A method of loading by which a unit with its equipment and initial supplies is loaded into a single ship, together with other units, in such a manner as to be available for unloading in a predetermined order. (ref JP 3-02.1)
  • combat power - The total means of destructive and/or disruptive force which a military unit/formation can apply against the opponent at a given time. (ref JP 3-0)
  • combat readiness - Synonymous with operational readiness, with respect to missions or functions performed in combat. (ref JP 1-0)
  • combat search and rescue - The tactics, techniques, and procedures performed by forces to effect the recovery of isolated personnel during combat. Also called CSAR. See also search and rescue. (ref JP 3-50)
  • combat service support - The essential capabilities, functions, activities, and tasks necessary to sustain all elements of all operating forces in theater at all levels of war. Also called CSS. See also combat support. (ref JP 4-0)
  • combat service support area - An area ashore that is organized to contain the necessary supplies, equipment, installations, and elements to provide the landing force with combat service support throughout the operation. Also called CSSA. (ref JP 3-02)
  • combat spread loading - A method of combat loading by which some of the troops, equipment, and initial supplies of a unit are loaded in one ship and the remainder are loaded in one or more others. (ref JP 3-02.1)
  • combat support - Fire support and operational assistance provided to combat elements. Also called CS. See also combat service support. (ref JP 4-0)
  • combat support agency - A Department of Defense agency so designated by Congress or the Secretary of Defense that supports military combat operations. Also called CSA. (ref JP 5-0)
  • combat surveillance - A continuous, all-weather, day-and-night, systematic watch over the battle area in order to provide timely information for tactical combat operations. (ref JP 3-01)
  • As Amended Through 15 February 2016 40 JP 1-02 combat unit loading - A method of loading by which all or a part of a combat unit, such as an assault battalion landing team, is completely loaded in a single ship, with essential combat equipment and supplies, in such a manner as to be immediately available to support the tactical plan upon debarkation, and to provide a maximum of flexibility to meet possible changes in the tactical plan. (ref JP 3-02.1)
  • combined - A term identifying two or more forces or agencies of two or more allies operating together. See also joint. (ref JP 3-16)
  • combined arms team - The full integration and application of two or more arms or elements of one Service into an operation. (ref JP 3-18)
  • command - 1. The authority that a commander in the armed forces lawfully exercises over subordinates by virtue of rank or assignment. 2. An order given by a commander; that is, the will of the commander expressed for the purpose of bringing about a particular action. 3. A unit or units, an organization, or an area under the command of one individual. Also called CMD. See also area command; combatant command; combatant command (command authority). (ref JP 1)
  • command and control - The exercise of authority and direction by a properly designated commander over assigned and attached forces in the accomplishment of the mission. Also called C2. (ref JP 1)
  • command and control system - The facilities, equipment, communications, procedures, and personnel essential for a commander to plan, direct, and control operations of assigned and attached forces pursuant to the missions assigned. (ref JP 6-0)
  • command chaplain - The senior chaplain assigned to or designated by a commander of a staff, command, or unit. See also combatant command chaplain; religious support. (ref JP 1-05)
  • commander, amphibious task force - The Navy officer designated in the initiating directive as the commander of the amphibious task force. Also called CATF. See also amphibious operation; amphibious task force; commander, landing force. (ref JP 3-02)
  • commander, landing force - The officer designated in the initiating directive as the commander of the landing force for an amphibious operation. Also called CLF. See also amphibious operation; commander, amphibious task force; landing force. (ref JP 3-02)
  • commanderís communication synchronization - A process to coordinate and synchronize narratives, themes, messages, images, operations, and actions to ensure their integrity and consistency to the lowest tactical level across all relevant communication activities. Also called CCS. (ref JP 3-61)
  • As Amended Through 15 February 2016 JP 1-02 41 commanderís critical information requirement - An information requirement identified by the commander as being critical to facilitating timely decision making. Also called CCIR. See also information requirements; intelligence; priority intelligence requirement. (ref JP 3-0)
  • commanderís estimate - A developed course of action designed to provide the Secretary of Defense with military options to meet a potential contingency. (ref JP 5-0)
  • commanderís intent - A clear and concise expression of the purpose of the operation and the desired military end state that supports mission command, provides focus to the staff, and helps subordinate and supporting commanders act to achieve the commanderís desired results without further orders, even when the operation does not unfold as planned. See also assessment; end state. (ref JP 3-0)
  • commanderís required delivery date - The original date relative to C-day, specified by the combatant commander for arrival of forces or cargo at the destination; shown in the time-phased force and deployment data to assess the impact of later arrival. (ref JP 5-0)
  • command information - Communication by a military organization directed to the internal audience that creates an awareness of the organizationís goals, informs them of significant developments affecting them and the organization, increases their effectiveness as ambassadors of the organization, and keeps them informed about what is going on in the organization. Also called internal information. See also command; public affairs. (ref JP 3-61)
  • commanding officer of troops - On a ship that has embarked units, a designated officer (usually the senior embarking unit commander) who is responsible for the administration, discipline, and training of all embarked units. Also called COT. (ref JP 3-02)
  • command net - A communications network that connects an echelon of command with some or all of its subordinate echelons for the purpose of command and control. (ref JP 3-09.3)
  • command post exercise - An exercise in which the forces are simulated, involving the commander, the staff, and communications within and between headquarters. Also called CPX. See also exercise; maneuver. (ref JP 3-0)
  • command relationships - The interrelated responsibilities between commanders, as well as the operational authority exercised by commanders in the chain of command; defined further as combatant command (command authority), operational control, tactical control, or support. See also chain of command; combatant command (command authority); command; operational control; support; tactical control. (ref JP 1)
  • As Amended Through 15 February 2016 42 JP 1-02 command-sponsored dependent - A dependent entitled to travel to overseas commands at government expense and endorsed by the appropriate military commander to be present in a dependentís status. (ref JP 3-68)
  • command structure - The organizational hierarchy through which administrative leadership or operational authority is exercised. (DODI 8260.03) commercial items - Articles of supply readily available from established commercial distribution sources which the Department of Defense or inventory managers in the Military Services have designated to be obtained directly or indirectly from such sources. (ref JP 4-06)
  • commercial vehicle - A vehicle that has evolved in the commercial market to meet civilian requirements and which is selected from existing production lines for military use. (ref JP 4-06)
  • commit - The process of assigning one or more aircraft or surface-to-air missile units to prepare to engage an entity, prior to authorizing such engagement. (ref JP 3-01)
  • commodity loading - A method of loading in which various types of cargoes are loaded together, such as ammunition, rations, or boxed vehicles, in order that each commodity can be discharged without disturbing the others. See also combat loading. (ref JP 3-02.1)
  • commonality - A quality that applies to materiel or systems: a. possessing like and interchangeable characteristics enabling each to be utilized, or operated and maintained, by personnel trained on the others without additional specialized training; b. having interchangeable repair parts and/or components; and c. applying to consumable items interchangeably equivalent without adjustment. (ref JP 6-0)
  • common item - 1. Any item of materiel that is required for use by more than one activity. 2. A term loosely used to denote any consumable item except repair parts or other technical items. 3. Any item of materiel that is procured for, owned by (Service stock), or used by any Military Department of the Department of Defense and is also required to be furnished to a recipient country under the grant-aid Military Assistance Program. 4. Readily available commercial items. 5. Items used by two or more Military Services of similar manufacture or fabrication that may vary between the Services as to color or shape (as vehicles or clothing). 6. Any part or component that is required in the assembly of two or more complete end-items. (ref JP 4-01.5)
  • common operating environment - Automation services that support the development of the common reusable software modules that enable interoperability across multiple combat support applications. Also called COE. (ref JP 4-01.2)
  • common operational picture - A single identical display of relevant information shared by more than one command that facilitates collaborative planning and assists all echelons to achieve situational awareness. Also called COP. (ref JP 3-0)
  • As Amended Through 15 February 2016 JP 1-02 43 common servicing - Functions performed by one Service in support of another for which reimbursement is not required. (ref JP 3-34)
  • common tactical picture - An accurate and complete display of relevant tactical data that integrates tactical information from the multi-tactical data link network, ground network, intelligence network, and sensor networks. Also called CTP. (ref JP 3-01)
  • common use - Services, materiel, or facilities provided by a Department of Defense agency or a Military Department on a common basis for two or more Department of Defense agencies, elements, or other organizations as directed. (ref JP 4-01.5)
  • common-use container - Any Department of Defense-owned, -leased, or -controlled 20- or 40-foot International Organization for Standardization container managed by United States Transportation Command as an element of the Department of Defense commonuse container system. See also component-owned container; Service-unique container. (ref JP 4-09)
  • common-user airlift service - The airlift service provided on a common basis for all Department of Defense agencies and, as authorized, for other agencies of the United States Government. (ref JP 3-17)
  • common-user item - An item of an interchangeable nature that is in common use by two or more nations or Services of a nation. (ref JP 4-0)
  • common-user land transportation - Point-to-point land transportation service operated by a single Service for common use by two or more Services. Also called CULT. (ref JP 4-01.5)
  • common-user logistics - Materiel or service support shared with or provided by two or more Services, Department of Defense agencies, or multinational partners to another Service, Department of Defense agency, non-Department of Defense agency, and/or multinational partner in an operation. Also called CUL. See also common use. (ref JP 4-09)
  • common-user network - A system of circuits or channels allocated to furnish communication paths between switching centers to provide communication service on a common basis to all connected stations or subscribers. (ref JP 3-33)
  • common-user ocean terminal - A military installation, part of a military installation, or a commercial facility operated under contract or arrangement by the Military Surface Deployment and Distribution Command that regularly provides for two or more Services terminal functions of receipt, transit storage or staging, processing, and loading and unloading of passengers or cargo aboard ships. (ref JP 4-01.2)
  • As Amended Through 15 February 2016 44 JP 1-02 common-user sealift - The sealift services provided by the Military Sealift Command on a common basis for all Department of Defense agencies and, as authorized, for other departments and agencies of the United States Government. See also Military Sealift Command; transportation component command. (ref JP 4-01.2)
  • common-user transportation - Transportation and transportation services provided on a common basis for two or more Department of Defense agencies and, as authorized, nonDepartment of Defense agencies. See also common use. (ref JP 4-01.2)
  • communications intelligence - Technical information and intelligence derived from foreign communications by other than the intended recipients. Also called COMINT. (ref JP 2-0)
  • communications network - An organization of stations capable of intercommunications, but not necessarily on the same channel. Also called COMNET. (ref JP 6-0)
  • communications security - The protection resulting from all measures designed to deny unauthorized persons information of value that might be derived from the possession and study of telecommunications, or to mislead unauthorized persons in their interpretation of the results of such possession and study. Also called COMSEC. (ref JP 6-0)
  • communications security material - All documents, devices, equipment, apparatus, and cryptomaterial used in establishing or maintaining secure communications. (ref JP 4-01.6)
  • community engagement - Public affairs activities that support the relationship between military and civilian communities. (ref JP 3-61)
  • completeness - The joint operation plan review criterion for assessing whether operation plans incorporate major operations and tasks to be accomplished and to what degree they include forces required, deployment concept, employment concept, sustainment concept, time estimates for achieving objectives, description of the end state, mission success criteria, and mission termination criteria. (ref JP 5-0)
  • complex catastrophe - Any natural or man-made incident, including cyberspace attack, power grid failure, and terrorism, which results in cascading failures of multiple, interdependent, critical, life-sustaining infrastructure sectors and caused extraordinary levels of mass casualties, damage, or disruption severely affecting the population, environment, economy, public health, national morale, response efforts, and/or government functions. (DepSecDef Memo OSD001185-13) component - 1. One of the subordinate organizations that constitute a joint force. (ref JP 1)
    2. In logistics, a part or combination of parts having a specific function, which can be installed or replaced only as an entity. Also called COMP. See also functional component command; Service component command. (ref JP 4-0)
  • As Amended Through 15 February 2016 JP 1-02 45 component-owned container - A 20- or 40-foot International Organization for Standardization container procured and owned by a single Department of Defense component. Also called Service-unique container. See also common-use container. (ref JP 4-09)
  • composite warfare commander - An officer to whom the officer in tactical command of a naval task organization may delegate authority to conduct some or all of the offensive and defensive functions of the force. Also called CWC. (ref JP 3-32)
  • compromise - The known or suspected exposure of clandestine personnel, installations, or other assets or of classified information or material, to an unauthorized person. (ref JP 2-01.2)
  • compromised - A term applied to classified matter, knowledge of which has, in whole or in part, passed to an unauthorized person or persons, or which has been subject to risk of such passing. (ref JP 2-01.2)
  • concept of intelligence operations - Within the Department of Defense, a verbal or graphic statement, in broad outline, of an intelligence directorateís assumptions or intent in regard to intelligence support of an operation or series of operations. See also concept of operations. (ref JP 2-0)
  • concept of logistic support - A verbal or graphic statement, in a broad outline, of how a commander intends to support and integrate with a concept of operations in an operation or campaign. Also called COLS. (ref JP 4-0)
  • concept of operations - A verbal or graphic statement that clearly and concisely expresses what the joint force commander intends to accomplish and how it will be done using available resources. Also called CONOPS. (ref JP 5-0)
  • concept plan - In the context of joint operation planning level 3 planning detail, an operation plan in an abbreviated format that may require considerable expansion or alteration to convert it into a complete operation plan or operation order. Also called CONPLAN. See also operation plan. (ref JP 5-0)
  • condition - 1. Those variables of an operational environment or situation in which a unit, system, or individual is expected to operate and may affect performance. 2. A physical or behavioral state of a system that is required for the achievement of an objective. See also joint mission-essential tasks. (ref JP 3-0)
  • conduits - Within military deception, conduits are information or intelligence gateways to the deception target. Examples of conduits include: foreign intelligence and security services, intelligence collection platforms, open-source intelligence, news media - foreign and domestic. (ref JP 3-13.4)
  • As Amended Through 15 February 2016 46 JP 1-02 confidential - Security classification that shall be applied to information, the unauthorized disclosure of which reasonably could be expected to cause damage to the national security that the original classification authority is able to identify or describe. (EO 13526) configuration management - A discipline applying technical and administrative direction and surveillance to: (1) identify and document the functional and physical characteristics of a configuration item; (2) control changes to those characteristics; and (3) record and report changes to processing and implementation status. Also called CM. (ref JP 6-0)
  • conflict prevention - A peace operation employing complementary diplomatic, civil, and, when necessary, military means, to monitor and identify the causes of conflict, and take timely action to prevent the occurrence, escalation, or resumption of hostilities. (ref JP 3-07.3)
  • constellation - A system consisting of a number of like satellites acting in concert to perform a specific mission. See also Global Positioning System. (ref JP 3-14)
  • constraint - In the context of joint operation planning, a requirement placed on the command by a higher command that dictates an action, thus restricting freedom of action. See also operational limitation; restraint. (ref JP 5-0)
  • consumer - Person or agency that uses information or intelligence produced by either its own staff or other agencies. (ref JP 2-01)
  • consumption rate - The average quantity of an item consumed or expended during a given time interval, expressed in quantities by the most appropriate unit of measurement per applicable stated basis. (ref JP 4-05)
  • contact mine - A mine detonated by physical contact. See also mine. (ref JP 3-15)
  • contact point - 1. In land warfare, a point on the terrain, easily identifiable, where two or more units are required to make contact. (ref JP 3-50)
    2. In air operations, the position at which a mission leader makes radio contact with an air control agency. (ref JP 3-09.3)
    3. In personnel recovery, a location where isolated personnel can establish contact with recovery forces. Also called CP. See also control point. (ref JP 3-50)
  • contact procedure - Predesignated actions taken by isolated personnel and recovery forces that permit link-up between the two parties in hostile territory. See also evader. (ref JP 3- 50)
  • container - An article of transport equipment that meets American National Standards Institute/International Organization for Standardization standards that is designed to facilitate and optimize the carriage of goods by one or more modes of transportation without intermediate handling of the contents. (ref JP 4-01)
  • As Amended Through 15 February 2016 JP 1-02 47 container control officer - A designated official (E6 or above or civilian equivalent) within a command, installation, or activity who is responsible for control, reporting, use, and maintenance of all Department of Defense-owned and controlled intermodal containers and equipment from time received until dispatched. Also called CCO. (ref JP 4-09)
  • container-handling equipment - Items of materials-handling equipment required to specifically receive, maneuver, and dispatch International Organization for Standardization containers. Also called CHE. (ref JP 4-09)
  • container management - Planning, organizing, directing, and executing functions and responsibilities required to provide effective use of Department of Defense and Military Department owned, leased, or controlled International Organization for Standardization containers. (ref JP 4-09)
  • containership - A ship, usually non-self-sustaining, specially constructed and equipped to carry only containers without associated equipment, in all available cargo spaces, either below or above deck. (ref JP 4-09)
  • contaminated remains - Remains of personnel which have absorbed or upon which have been deposited radioactive material, or biological or chemical agents. See also mortuary affairs. (ref JP 4-06)
  • contamination - 1. The deposit, absorption, or adsorption of radioactive material, or of biological or chemical agents on or by structures, areas, personnel, or objects. Also called fallout radiation. 2. Food and/or water made unfit for consumption by humans or animals because of the presence of environmental chemicals, radioactive elements, bacteria or organisms, the byproduct of the growth of bacteria or organisms, the decomposing material or waste in the food or water. (ref JP 3-11)
  • contamination avoidance - Individual and/or unit measures taken to reduce the effects of chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear hazards. (ref JP 3-11)
  • contamination control - A combination of preparatory and responsive measures designed to limit the vulnerability of forces to chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear, and toxic industrial hazards and to avoid, contain, control exposure to, and, where possible, neutralize them. See also biological agent; chemical agent; contamination. (ref JP 3-11)
  • contamination mitigation - The planning and actions taken to prepare for, respond to, and recover from contamination associated with all chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear threats and hazards in order to continue military operations. (ref JP 3-11)
  • contiguous zone - 1. A maritime zone adjacent to the territorial sea that may not extend beyond 24 nautical miles from the baselines from which the breadth of the territorial sea is measured. 2. The zone of the ocean extending 3-12 nautical miles from the United States coastline. (ref JP 3-32)
  • As Amended Through 15 February 2016 48 JP 1-02 continental United States - United States territory, including the adjacent territorial waters, located within North America between Canada and Mexico. Also called CONUS. (ref JP 1)
  • contingency - A situation requiring military operations in response to natural disasters, terrorists, subversives, or as otherwise directed by appropriate authority to protect US interests. See also contingency contracting. (ref JP 5-0)
  • contingency basing - The life-cycle process of planning, designing, constructing, operating, managing, and transitioning or closing a non-enduring location supporting a combatant commander's requirements. (DODD 3000.10). contingency contract - A legally binding agreement for supplies, services, and construction let by government contracting officers in the operational area as well as other contracts that have a prescribed area of performance within a designated operational area. See also external support contract; systems support contract; theater support contract. (ref JP 4-10)
  • contingency contracting - The process of obtaining goods, services, and construction via contracting means in support of contingency operations. See also contingency; contingency contract. (ref JP 4-10)
  • contingency engineering management organization - An organization formed by the combatant commander, or subordinate commander to augment their staffs with additional Service engineering expertise for planning and construction management. See also combat engineering; contingency; crisis action planning; geospatial engineering. (ref JP 3-34)
  • contingency location - A non-enduring location outside of the United States that supports and sustains operations during named and unnamed contingencies or other operations as directed by appropriate authority and is categorized by mission life-cycle requirements as initial, temporary, or semi-permanent. (DODD 3000.10) contingency operation - A military operation that is either designated by the Secretary of Defense as a contingency operation or becomes a contingency operation as a matter of law (Title 10, United States Code, Section 101[a][13]). See also contingency; operation. (ref JP 1)
  • contingency plan - A plan for major contingencies that can reasonably be anticipated in the principal geographic subareas of the command. (ref JP 5-0)
  • Contingency Planning Guidance - Secretary of Defense written guidance, approved by the President, for the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, which focuses the guidance given in the national security strategy and Defense Planning Guidance, and is the principal source document for the Joint Strategic Capabilities Plan. Also called CPG. (ref JP 1)
  • As Amended Through 15 February 2016 JP 1-02 49 contingency response program - Fast reaction transportation procedures intended to provide for priority use of land transportation assets by Department of Defense when required. Also called CORE. (ref JP 4-01)
  • contingency ZIP Code - A ZIP Code consisting of a five-digit base with a four-digit addon to assist in routing and sorting assigned by Military Postal Service Agency to a contingency post office for the tactical use of the Armed Forces on a temporary basis. (ref JP 1-0)
  • continuity of operations - The degree or state of being continuous in the conduct of functions, tasks, or duties necessary to accomplish a military action or mission in carrying out the national military strategy. Also called COOP. (ref JP 3-0)
  • contract administration - A subset of contracting that includes efforts to ensure that supplies, services, and construction are delivered in accordance with the terms and conditions of the contract. (ref JP 4-10)
  • contracting officer - A Service member or Department of Defense civilian with the legal authority to enter into, administer, modify, and/or terminate contracts. (ref JP 4-10)
  • contracting officer representative - A Service member or Department of Defense civilian or a foreign government civilian or military member appointed in writing and trained by a contracting officer, responsible for monitoring contract performance and performing other duties specified by their appointment letter. Also called COR. (ref JP 4-10)
  • contractor management - The oversight and integration of contractor personnel and associated equipment providing support to the joint force in a designated operational area. (ref JP 4-10)
  • contractors authorized to accompany the force - Contingency contractor employees and all tiers of subcontractor employees who are authorized to accompany the force in applicable contingency operations and have afforded such status through the issuance of a letter of authorization. Also called CAAF. (ref JP 4-10)
  • contract statement of requirement - A document that provides a summary of anticipated contracted supply or service requirements by phase of operation and location. Also called CSOR. (ref JP 4-10)
  • control - 1. Authority that may be less than full command exercised by a commander over part of the activities of subordinate or other organizations. (ref JP 1)
    2. In mapping, charting, and photogrammetry, a collective term for a system of marks or objects on the Earth or on a map or a photograph, whose positions or elevations (or both) have been or will be determined. (ref JP 2-03)
    3. Physical or psychological pressures exerted with the intent to assure that an agent or group will respond as directed. (ref JP 3-0)
    4. An indicator governing the distribution and use of documents, information, or material. Such indicators are the As Amended Through 15 February 2016 50 JP 1-02 subject of intelligence community agreement and are specifically defined in appropriate regulations. See also administrative control; operational control; tactical control. (ref JP 2-01)
  • control area - A controlled airspace extending upwards from a specified limit above the Earth. See also control zone. (ref JP 3-04)
  • control group - Personnel, ships, and craft designated to control the waterborne ship-toshore movement. (ref JP 3-02)
  • controlled information - 1. Information conveyed to an adversary in a deception operation to evoke desired appreciations. 2. Information and indicators deliberately conveyed or denied to foreign targets to evoke invalid official estimates that result in foreign official actions advantageous to US interests and objectives. (ref JP 2-01.2)
  • controlled source - In counterintelligence use, a person employed by or under the control of an intelligence activity and responding to intelligence tasking. (ref JP 2-01.2)
  • controlled substance - A drug or other substance, or immediate precursor included in Schedule I, II, III, IV, or V of the Controlled Substances Act. (ref JP 3-07.4)
  • controlled technical services - The controlled use of technology to enhance counterintelligence and human intelligence activities. Also called CTS. (ref JP 2-01.2)
  • control point - 1. A position along a route of march at which men are stationed to give information and instructions for the regulation of supply or traffic. 2. A position marked by coordinates (latitude, longitude), a buoy, boat, aircraft, electronic device, conspicuous terrain feature, or other identifiable object which is given a name or number and used as an aid to navigation or control of ships, boats, or aircraft. 3. In marking mosaics, a point located by ground survey with which a corresponding point on a photograph is matched as a check. (ref JP 3-09.3)
  • control zone - A controlled airspace extending upwards from the surface of the Earth to a specified upper limit. See also control area. (ref JP 3-52)
  • conventional forces - 1. Those forces capable of conducting operations using nonnuclear weapons. 2. Those forces other than designated special operations forces. Also called CF. (ref JP 3-05)
  • conventional mines - Land mines, other than nuclear or chemical, that are not designed to self-destruct; are designed to be emplaced by hand or mechanical means; and can be buried or surface emplaced. See also mine. (ref JP 3-15)
  • convoy - 1. A number of merchant ships and/or naval auxiliaries usually escorted by warships and/or aircraft - or a single merchant ship or naval auxiliary under surface escort - assembled and organized for the purpose of passage together. 2. A group of As Amended Through 15 February 2016 JP 1-02 51 vehicles organized for the purpose of control and orderly movement with or without escort protection that moves over the same route at the same time and under one commander. (ref JP 3-02.1)
  • convoy escort - 1. A naval ship(s) or aircraft in company with a convoy and responsible for its protection. 2. An escort to protect a convoy of vehicles from being scattered, destroyed, or captured. See also escort. (ref JP 4-01.5)
  • cooperative security location - A facility located outside the United States and US territories with little or no permanent US presence, maintained with periodic Service, contractor, or host-nation support. Cooperative security locations provide contingency access, logistic support, and rotational use by operating forces and are a focal point for security cooperation activities. Also called CSL. See also forward operating site; main operating base. (CJCS CM-0007-05) coordinated fire line - A line beyond which conventional surface-to-surface direct fire and indirect fire support means may fire at any time within the boundaries of the establishing headquarters without additional coordination. Also called CFL. See also fire support. (ref JP 3-09)
  • coordinating agency - An agency that supports the incident management mission by providing the leadership, staff, expertise, and authorities to implement critical and specific aspects of the response. (ref JP 3-28)
  • coordinating altitude - An airspace coordinating measure that uses altitude to separate users and as the transition between different airspace control elements. Also called CA. (ref JP 3-52)
  • coordinating authority - A commander or individual who has the authority to require consultation between the specific functions or activities involving forces of two or more Services, joint force components, or forces of the same Service or agencies, but does not have the authority to compel agreement. (ref JP 1)
  • coordinating review authority - An agency appointed by a Service or combatant command to coordinate with and assist the lead agent, primary review authority, Joint Staff doctrine sponsor, and assessment agent in joint doctrine development and maintenance. Also called CRA. See also joint doctrine; joint publication; lead agent; primary review authority. (CJCSM 5120.01) coordination level - A procedural method to separate fixed- and rotary-wing aircraft by determining an altitude below which fixed-wing aircraft normally will not fly. Also called CL. (ref JP 3-52)
  • cost-type contract - A contract that provides for payment to the contractor of allowable cost, to the extent prescribed in the contract, incurred in performance of the contract. (ref JP 4-10)
  • As Amended Through 15 February 2016 52 JP 1-02 counterair - A mission that integrates offensive and defensive operations to attain and maintain a desired degree of air superiority and protection by neutralizing or destroying enemy aircraft and missiles, both before and after launch. See also air superiority; mission; offensive counterair. (ref JP 3-01)
  • counterdeception - Efforts to negate, neutralize, diminish the effects of, or gain advantage from a foreign deception operation. Counterdeception does not include the intelligence function of identifying foreign deception operations. (ref JP 3-13.4)
  • counterdrug - Those active measures taken to detect, monitor, and counter the production, trafficking, and use of illegal drugs. Also called CD. (ref JP 3-07.4)
  • counterdrug activities - Those measures taken to detect, interdict, disrupt, or curtail any activity that is reasonably related to illicit drug trafficking. (ref JP 3-07.4)
  • counterdrug operational support - Support to host nations and drug law enforcement agencies involving military personnel and their associated equipment, provided by the geographic combatant commanders from forces assigned to them or made available to them by the Services for this purpose. See also counterdrug operations. (ref JP 3-07.4)
  • counterdrug operations - Civil or military actions taken to reduce or eliminate illicit drug trafficking. See also counterdrug; counterdrug operational support. (ref JP 3-07.4)
  • counterespionage - That aspect of counterintelligence designed to detect, destroy, neutralize, exploit, or prevent espionage activities through identification, penetration, manipulation, deception, and repression of individuals, groups, or organizations conducting or suspected of conducting espionage activities. (ref JP 2-01.2)
  • counterfire - Fire intended to destroy or neutralize enemy weapons. (ref JP 3-09)
  • counterforce - The employment of strategic air and missile forces in an effort to destroy, or render impotent, selected military capabilities of an enemy force under any of the circumstances by which hostilities may be initiated. counterguerrilla operations - Operations and activities conducted by armed forces, paramilitary forces, or nonmilitary agencies against guerrillas. (ref JP 3-24)
  • counter-improvised explosive device operations - The organization, integration, and synchronization of capabilities that enable offensive, defensive, stability, and support operations across all phases of operations or campaigns in order to defeat improvised explosive devices as operational and strategic weapons of influence. Also called C-IED operations. (ref JP 3-15.1)
  • countering weapons of mass destruction - Efforts against actors of concern to curtail the conceptualization, development, possession, proliferation, use, and effects of weapons of As Amended Through 15 February 2016 JP 1-02 53 mass destruction, related expertise, materials, technologies, and means of delivery. Also called CWMD. (ref JP 3-40)
  • counterinsurgency - Comprehensive civilian and military efforts designed to simultaneously defeat and contain insurgency and address its root causes. Also called COIN. (ref JP 3-24)
  • counterintelligence - Information gathered and activities conducted to identify, deceive, exploit, disrupt, or protect against espionage, other intelligence activities, sabotage, or assassinations conducted for or on behalf of foreign powers, organizations or persons or their agents, or international terrorist organizations or activities. Also called CI. See also counterespionage; security. (ref JP 2-01.2)
  • counterintelligence activities - One or more of the five functions of counterintelligence: operations, investigations, collection, analysis and production, and functional services. See also analysis and production; collection; counterintelligence; operation. (ref JP 2-01.2)
  • counterintelligence collection - The systematic acquisition of information (through investigations, operations, or liaison) concerning espionage, sabotage, terrorism, other intelligence activities or assassinations conducted by or on behalf of foreign governments or elements thereof, foreign organizations, or foreign persons that are directed against or threaten Department of Defense interests. See also counterintelligence. (ref JP 2-01.2)
  • counterintelligence insider threat - A person who uses their authorized access to Department of Defense facilities, systems, equipment, information or infrastructure to damage, disrupt operations, commit espionage on behalf of a foreign intelligence entity or support international terrorist organizations. (ref JP 2-01.2)
  • counterintelligence investigation - An official, systematic search for facts to determine whether a person(s) is engaged in activities that may be injurious to US national security or advantageous to a foreign power. See also counterintelligence. (ref JP 2-01.2)
  • counterintelligence operational tasking authority - The levying of counterintelligence requirements specific to joint military activities and operations. Counterintelligence operational tasking authority is exercised through supporting components. Also called CIOTA. See also counterintelligence. (ref JP 2-01.2)
  • counterintelligence operations - Proactive activities designed to identify, exploit, neutralize, or deter foreign intelligence collection and terrorist activities directed against the United States. See also counterintelligence; operation. (ref JP 2-01.2)
  • counterintelligence production - The process of analyzing all-source information concerning espionage or other multidiscipline intelligence collection threats, sabotage, terrorism, and other related threats to US military commanders, the Department of Defense, and the US Intelligence Community and developing it into a final product that As Amended Through 15 February 2016 54 JP 1-02 is disseminated. Counterintelligence production is used in formulating security policy, plans, and operations. See also counterintelligence. (ref JP 2-01.2)
  • counterintelligence support - Conducting counterintelligence activities to protect against espionage and other foreign intelligence activities, sabotage, international terrorist activities, or assassinations conducted for or on behalf of foreign powers, organizations, or persons. See also counterintelligence. (ref JP 2-01.2)
  • countermeasures - That form of military science that, by the employment of devices and/or techniques, has as its objective the impairment of the operational effectiveness of enemy activity. See also electronic warfare. (ref JP 3-13.1)
  • countermobility operations - The construction of obstacles and emplacement of minefields to delay, disrupt, and destroy the enemy by reinforcement of the terrain. See also minefield; operation; target acquisition. (ref JP 3-34)
  • counterproliferation - Those actions taken to reduce the risks posed by extant weapons of mass destruction to the United States, allies, and partners. Also called CP. See also nonproliferation. (ref JP 3-40)
  • countersurveillance - All measures, active or passive, taken to counteract hostile surveillance. See also surveillance. (ref JP 3-07.2)
  • counterterrorism - Activities and operations taken to neutralize terrorists and their organizations and networks in order to render them incapable of using violence to instill fear and coerce governments or societies to achieve their goals. Also called CT. See also antiterrorism; combating terrorism; terrorism. (ref JP 3-26)
  • counter threat finance - Activities conducted to deny, disrupt, destroy, or defeat the generation, storage, movement, and use of assets to fund activities that support an adversaryís ability to negatively affect United States interests. Also called CTF. (ref JP 3-05)
  • country team - The senior, in-country, United States coordinating and supervising body, headed by the chief of the United States diplomatic mission, and composed of the senior member of each represented United States department or agency, as desired by the chief of the United States diplomatic mission. Also called CT. (ref JP 3-07.4)
  • coup de main - An offensive operation that capitalizes on surprise and simultaneous execution of supporting operations to achieve success in one swift stroke. (ref JP 3-0)
  • courier - A messenger (usually a commissioned or warrant officer) responsible for the secure physical transmission and delivery of documents and material. (ref JP 2-01)
  • As Amended Through 15 February 2016 JP 1-02 55 course of action - 1. Any sequence of activities that an individual or unit may follow. 2. A scheme developed to accomplish a mission. 3. A product of the course-of-action development step of the joint operation planning process. Also called COA. (ref JP 5-0)
  • cover - In intelligence usage, those measures necessary to give protection to a person, plan, operation, formation, or installation from the enemy intelligence effort and leakage of information. (ref JP 2-01.2)
  • covering fire - 1. Fire used to protect troops when they are within range of enemy small arms. 2. In amphibious usage, fire delivered prior to the landing to cover preparatory operations such as underwater demolition or mine countermeasures. (ref JP 3-02)
  • covering force - 1. A force operating apart from the main force for the purpose of intercepting, engaging, delaying, disorganizing, and deceiving the enemy before the enemy can attack the force covered. 2. Any body or detachment of troops which provides security for a larger force by observation, reconnaissance, attack, or defense, or by any combination of these methods. (ref JP 3-18)
  • covert operation - An operation that is so planned and executed as to conceal the identity of or permit plausible denial by the sponsor. See also clandestine operation; overt operation. (ref JP 3-05)
  • crisis - An incident or situation involving a threat to the United States, its citizens, military forces, or vital interests that develops rapidly and creates a condition of such diplomatic, economic, or military importance that commitment of military forces and resources is contemplated to achieve national objectives. (ref JP 3-0)
  • crisis action planning - The Adaptive Planning and Execution system process involving the time-sensitive development of joint operation plans and operation orders for the deployment, employment, and sustainment of assigned and allocated forces and resources in response to an imminent crisis. Also called CAP. See also joint operation planning; Joint Operation Planning and Execution System. (ref JP 5-0)
  • crisis management - Measures, normally executed under federal law, to identify, acquire, and plan the use of resources needed to anticipate, prevent, and/or resolve a threat or an act of terrorism. Also called CrM. (ref JP 3-28)
  • critical asset - A specific entity that is of such extraordinary importance that its incapacitation or destruction would have a very serious, debilitating effect on the ability of a nation to continue to function effectively. (ref JP 3-07.2)
  • critical asset list - A prioritized list of assets or areas, normally identified by phase of the operation and approved by the joint force commander, that should be defended against air and missile threats. Also called CAL. (ref JP 3-01)
  • As Amended Through 15 February 2016 56 JP 1-02 critical capability - A means that is considered a crucial enabler for a center of gravity to function as such and is essential to the accomplishment of the specified or assumed objective(s). (ref JP 5-0)
  • critical element - 1. An element of an entity or object that enables it to perform its primary function. 2. An element of a target, which if effectively engaged, will serve to support the achievement of an operational objective and/or mission task. Also called CE. (ref JP 3- 60)
  • critical information - Specific facts about friendly intentions, capabilities, and activities needed by adversaries for them to plan and act effectively so as to guarantee failure or unacceptable consequences for friendly mission accomplishment. Also called CRITIC. (ref JP 2-0)
  • critical infrastructure and key resources - The infrastructure and assets vital to a nationís security, governance, public health and safety, economy, and public confidence. Also called CI/KR. (ref JP 3-27)
  • critical infrastructure protection - Actions taken to prevent, remediate, or mitigate the risks resulting from vulnerabilities of critical infrastructure assets. Also called CIP. See also defense critical infrastructure. (ref JP 3-28)
  • critical intelligence - Intelligence that is crucial and requires the immediate attention of the commander. (ref JP 2-0)
  • critical item list - A prioritized list identifying supply items and weapon systems that assist Service and Defense Logistics Agency selection of supply items and systems for production surge planning, or in operational situations, used by the combatant commander and/or subordinate joint force commander to cross-level critical supply items between Service components. Also called CIL. (ref JP 4-05)
  • criticality assessment - An assessment that identifies key assets and infrastructure that support Department of Defense missions, units, or activities and are deemed mission critical by military commanders or civilian agency managers. Also called CA. (ref JP 3-07.2)
  • critical joint duty assignment billet - A joint duty assignment position for which, considering the duties and responsibilities of the position, it is highly important that the assigned officer be particularly trained in, and oriented toward, joint matters. (ref JP 1-0)
  • critical occupational specialty - A military occupational specialty selected from among the combat arms in the Army or equivalent military specialties in the Navy, Air Force, or Marine Corps. Equivalent military specialties are those engaged in operational art in order to attain strategic goals in an operational area through the design, organization, and conduct of campaigns and major operations. Critical occupational specialties are designated by the Secretary of Defense. Also called COS. As Amended Through 15 February 2016 JP 1-02 57 critical requirement - An essential condition, resource, and means for a critical capability to be fully operational. (ref JP 5-0)
  • critical vulnerability - An aspect of a critical requirement which is deficient or vulnerable to direct or indirect attack that will create decisive or significant effects. (ref JP 5-0)
  • cross-leveling - At the theater strategic and operational levels, it is the process of diverting en route or in-theater materiel from one military element to meet the higher priority of another within the combatant commanderís directive authority for logistics. (ref JP 4-0)
  • cross-loading - The distribution of leaders, key weapons, personnel, and key equipment among the aircraft, vessels, or vehicles of a formation to aid rapid assembly of units at the drop zone or landing zone or preclude the total loss of command and control or unit effectiveness if an aircraft, vessel, or vehicle is lost. (ref JP 3-17)
  • cross-servicing - A subset of common-user logistics in which a function is performed by one Military Service in support of another Service and for which reimbursement is required from the Service receiving support. See also acquisition and cross-servicing agreement; common-user logistics. (ref JP 4-08)
  • cruise missile - Guided missile, the major portion of whose flight path to its target is conducted at approximately constant velocity; depends on the dynamic reaction of air for lift and upon propulsion forces to balance drag. (ref JP 3-01)
  • culminating point - The point at which a force no longer has the capability to continue its form of operations, offense or defense. (ref JP 5-0)
  • current force - The actual force structure and/or manning available to meet present contingencies. See also force. (ref JP 5-0)
  • custody - 1. The responsibility for the control of, transfer and movement of, access to, and maintenance of accountability for weapons and components. 2. Temporary restraint of a person. 3. The detention of a person by lawful authority or process. (ref JP 3-63)
  • customer direct - A materiel acquisition and distribution method that requires vendor delivery directly to the customer. Also called CD. (ref JP 4-09)
  • customer wait time - The total elapsed time between issuance of a customer order and satisfaction of that order. Also called CWT. (ref JP 4-09)
  • cybersecurity - Prevention of damage to, protection of, and restoration of computers, electronic communications systems, electronic communications services, wire communication, and electronic communication, including information contained therein, to ensure its availability, integrity, authentication, confidentiality, and nonrepudiation. (DODI 8500.01) As Amended Through 15 February 2016 58 JP 1-02 cyberspace - A global domain within the information environment consisting of the interdependent network of information technology infrastructures and resident data, including the Internet, telecommunications networks, computer systems, and embedded processors and controllers. (ref JP 3-12)
  • cyberspace operations - The employment of cyberspace capabilities where the primary purpose is to achieve objectives in or through cyberspace. (ref JP 3-0)
  • cyberspace superiority - The degree of dominance in cyberspace by one force that permits the secure, reliable conduct of operations by that force, and its related land, air, maritime, and space forces at a given time and place without prohibitive interference by an adversary. (ref JP 3-12)
  • As Amended Through 15 February 2016 D JP 1-02 59 damage assessment - 1. The determination of the effect of attacks on targets. 2. A determination of the effect of a compromise of classified information on national security. (ref JP 3-60)
  • damage criteria - The critical levels of various weapons effects required to create specified levels of damage. (ref JP 3-60)
  • damage estimation - A preliminary appraisal of the potential effects of an attack. See also attack assessment. (ref JP 3-60)
  • danger close - In close air support, artillery, mortar, and naval gunfire support fires, the term included in the method of engagement segment of a call for fire that indicates that friendly forces are within close proximity of the target. See also final protective fire. (ref JP 3-09.3)
  • dangerous cargo - Cargo that is subject to special regulations for its transport because of its dangerous properties. (ref JP 4-01.5)
  • data element - 1. A basic unit of information built on standard structures having a unique meaning and distinct units or values. 2. In electronic recordkeeping, a combination of characters or bytes referring to one separate item of information, such as name, address, or age. (ref JP 1-0)
  • date-time group - The date and time, expressed as six digits followed by the time zone suffix at which the message was prepared for transmission (first pair of digits denotes the date, second pair the hours, third pair the minutes, followed by a three-letter month abbreviation and two-digit year abbreviation.). Also called DTG. (ref JP 5-0)
  • datum (geodetic) - 1. A reference surface consisting of five quantities: the latitude and longitude of an initial point, the azimuth of a line from that point, and the parameters of the reference ellipsoid. 2. The mathematical model of the earth used to calculate the coordinates on any map. Different nations use different datum for printing coordinates on their maps. (ref JP 2-03)
  • D-day - The unnamed day on which a particular operation commences or is to commence. (ref JP 3-02)
  • de-arming - An operation in which a weapon is changed from a state of readiness for initiation to a safe condition. Also called safing. (ref JP 3-04)
  • debarkation - The unloading of troops, equipment, or supplies from a ship or aircraft. (ref JP 3-02.1)
  • As Amended Through 15 February 2016 60 JP 1-02 debarkation schedule - A schedule that provides for the timely and orderly debarkation of troops and equipment and emergency supplies for the waterborne ship-to-shore movement. (ref JP 3-02.1)
  • decedent effects - Personal effects found on human remains. Also called DE. (ref JP 4-06)
  • decentralized control - In air defense, the normal mode whereby a higher echelon monitors unit actions, making direct target assignments to units only when necessary to ensure proper fire distribution or to prevent engagement of friendly aircraft. See also centralized control. (ref JP 3-01)
  • decentralized execution - Delegation of execution authority to subordinate commanders. (ref JP 3-30)
  • deception action - A collection of related deception events that form a major component of a deception operation. (ref JP 3-13.4)
  • deception concept - The deception course of action forwarded to the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff for review as part of the combatant commanderís strategic concept. (ref JP 3-13.4)
  • deception event - A deception means executed at a specific time and location in support of a deception operation. (ref JP 3-13.4)
  • deception means - Methods, resources, and techniques that can be used to convey information to the deception target. There are three categories of deception means: a. physical means. Activities and resources used to convey or deny selected information to a foreign power. b. technical means. Military material resources and their associated operating techniques used to convey or deny selected information to a foreign power. c. administrative means. Resources, methods, and techniques to convey or deny oral, pictorial, documentary, or other physical evidence to a foreign power. (ref JP 3-13.4)
  • deception objective - The desired result of a deception operation expressed in terms of what the adversary is to do or not to do at the critical time and/or location. (ref JP 3-13.4)
  • deception story - A scenario that outlines the friendly actions that will be portrayed to cause the deception target to adopt the desired perception. (ref JP 3-13.4)
  • deception target - The adversary decision maker with the authority to make the decision that will achieve the deception objective. (ref JP 3-13.4)
  • decision - In an estimate of the situation, a clear and concise statement of the line of action intended to be followed by the commander as the one most favorable to the successful accomplishment of the assigned mission. (ref JP 5-0)
  • As Amended Through 15 February 2016 JP 1-02 61 decision point - A point in space and time when the commander or staff anticipates making a key decision concerning a specific course of action. See also course of action; decision support template; target area of interest. (ref JP 5-0)
  • decision support template - A combined intelligence and operations graphic based on the results of wargaming that depicts decision points, timelines associated with movement of forces and the flow of the operation, and other key items of information required to execute a specific friendly course of action. Also called DST. See also course of action; decision point. (ref JP 2-01.3)
  • decisive point - A geographic place, specific key event, critical factor, or function that, when acted upon, allows commanders to gain a marked advantage over an adversary or contribute materially to achieving success. See also center of gravity. (ref JP 5-0)
  • deck status light - A three-colored light (red, amber, green) controlled from the primary flight control. Navy - The light displays the status of the ship to support flight operations. United States Coast Guard - The light displays clearance for a helicopter to conduct a given evolution. (ref JP 3-04)
  • decompression - In personnel recovery, the process of normalizing psychological and behavioral reactions that recovered isolated personnel experienced or are currently experiencing as a result of their isolation and recovery. (ref JP 3-50)
  • decontamination - The process of making any person, object, or area safe by absorbing, destroying, neutralizing, making harmless, or removing chemical or biological agents, or by removing radioactive material clinging to or around it. (ref JP 3-11)
  • decoy - An imitation in any sense of a person, object, or phenomenon which is intended to deceive enemy surveillance devices or mislead enemy evaluation. Also called dummy. (ref JP 3-13.4)
  • defended asset list - A listing of those assets from the critical asset list prioritized by the joint force commander to be defended with the resources available. Also called DAL. (ref JP 3-01)
  • defense coordinating element - A staff and military liaison officers who assist the defense coordinating officer in facilitating coordination and support to activated emergency support functions. Also called DCE. (ref JP 3-28)
  • defense coordinating officer - Department of Defense single point of contact for domestic emergencies who is assigned to a joint field office to process requirements for military support, forward mission assignments through proper channels to the appropriate military organizations, and assign military liaisons, as appropriate, to activated emergency support functions. Also called DCO. (ref JP 3-28)
  • As Amended Through 15 February 2016 62 JP 1-02 defense critical infrastructure - Department of Defense and non-Department of Defense networked assets and facilities essential to project, support, and sustain military forces and operations worldwide. Also called DCI. (ref JP 3-27)
  • defense human intelligence executor - The senior Department of Defense intelligence official as designated by the head of each of the Department of Defense components who are authorized to conduct human intelligence and related intelligence activities. Also called DHE. (ref JP 2-01.2)
  • defense industrial base - The Department of Defense, government, and private sector worldwide industrial complex with capabilities to perform research and development, design, produce, and maintain military weapon systems, subsystems, components, or parts to meet military requirements. Also called DIB. (ref JP 3-27)
  • Defense Information Systems Network - The integrated network, centrally managed and configured by the Defense Information Systems Agency to provide dedicated point-topoint, switched voice and data, imagery, and video teleconferencing services for all Department of Defense activities. Also called DISN. (ref JP 6-0)
  • Defense Satellite Communications System - Geosynchronous military communications satellites that provide high data rate communications for military forces, diplomatic corps, and the White House. Also called DSCS. (ref JP 3-14)
  • defense sexual assault incident database - A Department of Defense database that captures and serves as the reporting source for all sexual assault data collected by the Services. Also called DSAID. (ref JP 1-0)
  • defense support of civil authorities - Support provided by US Federal military forces, Department of Defense civilians, Department of Defense contract personnel, Department of Defense component assets, and National Guard forces (when the Secretary of Defense, in coordination with the governors of the affected states, elects and requests to use those forces in Title 32, United States Code, status) in response to requests for assistance from civil authorities for domestic emergencies, law enforcement support, and other domestic activities, or from qualifying entities for special events. Also called DSCA. Also known as civil support. (DODD 3025.18) Defense Support Program - Satellites that provide early warning of missile launches. Also called DSP. (ref JP 3-14)
  • Defense Switched Network - The component of the Defense Communications System that handles Department of Defense voice, data, and video communications. Also called DSN. (ref JP 6-0)
  • Defense Transportation System - That portion of the worldwide transportation infrastructure that supports Department of Defense transportation needs in peace and As Amended Through 15 February 2016 JP 1-02 63 war. Also called DTS. See also common-user transportation; transportation system. (ref JP 4-01)
  • defensive counterair - All defensive measures designed to neutralize or destroy enemy forces attempting to penetrate or attack through friendly airspace. Also called DCA. See also counterair; offensive counterair. (ref JP 3-01)
  • defensive cyberspace operation response action - Deliberate, authorized defensive measures or activities taken outside of the defended network to protect and defend Department of Defense cyberspace capabilities or other designated systems. Also called DCO-RA. (ref JP 3-12)
  • defensive cyberspace operations - Passive and active cyberspace operations intended to preserve the ability to utilize friendly cyberspace capabilities and protect data, networks, net-centric capabilities, and other designated systems. Also called DCO. (ref JP 3-12)
  • defensive minefield - 1. In naval mine warfare, a minefield laid in international waters or international straits with the declared intention of controlling shipping in defense of sea communications. 2. In land mine warfare, a minefield laid in accordance with an established plan to prevent a penetration between positions and to strengthen the defense of the positions themselves. See also minefield. (ref JP 3-15)
  • defensive space control - Operations conducted to preserve the ability to exploit space capabilities via active and passive actions, while protecting friendly space capabilities from attack, interference, or unintentional hazards. (ref JP 3-14)
  • defilade - 1. Protection from hostile observation and fire provided by an obstacle such as a hill, ridge, or bank. 2. A vertical distance by which a position is concealed from enemy observation. 3. To shield from enemy fire or observation by using natural or artificial obstacles. (ref JP 3-09)
  • definitive care - Care rendered to conclusively manage a patientís condition, such as full range of preventive, curative acute, convalescent, restorative, and rehabilitative medical care. (ref JP 4-02)
  • degaussing - The process whereby a shipís magnetic field is reduced by the use of electromagnetic coils, permanent magnets, or other means. (ref JP 3-15)
  • delayed entry program - A program under which an individual may enlist in a Reserve Component of a military service and specify a future reporting date for entry on active duty that would coincide with availability of training spaces and with personal plans such as high school graduation. Also called DEP. See also active duty. (ref JP 4-05)
  • delaying operation - An operation in which a force under pressure trades space for time by slowing down the enemyís momentum and inflicting maximum damage on the enemy without, in principle, becoming decisively engaged. (ref JP 3-04)
  • As Amended Through 15 February 2016 64 JP 1-02 delegation of authority - The action by which a commander assigns part of his or her authority, commensurate with the assigned task, to a subordinate commander. (ref JP 1)
  • deliberate planning - 1. The Adaptive Planning and Execution system process involving the development of joint operation plans for contingencies identified in joint strategic planning documents. 2. A planning process for the deployment and employment of apportioned forces and resources that occurs in response to a hypothetical situation. (ref JP 5-0)
  • demilitarized zone - A defined area in which the stationing or concentrating of military forces, or the retention or establishment of military installations of any description, is prohibited. (ref JP 3-07.3)
  • demobilization - 1. The process of transitioning a conflict or wartime military establishment and defense-based civilian economy to a peacetime configuration while maintaining national security and economic vitality. 2. The process necessary to release from active duty, or federal service, units and Reserve Component members who were ordered to active duty, or called to federal service. See also mobilization. (ref JP 4-05)
  • demonstration - 1. An attack or show of force on a front where a decision is not sought, made with the aim of deceiving the enemy. See also amphibious demonstration; diversion. 2. In military deception, a show of force in an area where a decision is not sought that is made to deceive an adversary. It is similar to a feint but no actual contact with the adversary is intended. (ref JP 3-13.4)
  • denial measure - An action to hinder or deny the enemy the use of territory, personnel, or facilities to include destruction, removal, contamination, or erection of obstructions. (ref JP 3-15)
  • denied area - An area under enemy or unfriendly control in which friendly forces cannot expect to operate successfully within existing operational constraints and force capabilities. (ref JP 3-05)
  • Department of Defense civilian - A Federal civilian employee of the Department of Defense directly hired and paid from appropriated or nonappropriated funds, under permanent or temporary appointment. (ref JP 1-0)
  • Department of Defense components - The Office of the Secretary of Defense, the Military Departments, the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff and the Joint Staff, the combatant commands, the Office of the Inspector General of the Department of Defense, the Department of Defense agencies, Department of Defense field activities, and all other organizational entities in the Department of Defense. (ref JP 1)
  • Department of Defense construction agent - United States Army Corps of Engineers, Naval Facilities Engineering Command, or other such approved Department of Defense activity, that is assigned design or execution responsibilities associated with military As Amended Through 15 February 2016 JP 1-02 65 construction programs, facilities support, or civil engineering support to the combatant commanders in contingency operations. See also contingency operation. (ref JP 3-34)
  • Department of Defense container system - All Department of Defense owned, leased, and controlled 20- or 40-foot intermodal International Organization for Standardization containers and flatracks, supporting equipment such as generator sets and chassis, container handling equipment, information systems, the 463L system, and other infrastructure that supports Department of Defense transportation and logistic operations, including commercially provided transportation services. See also container-handling equipment. (ref JP 4-09)
  • Department of Defense information network - The set of information capabilities, and associated processes for collecting, processing, storing, disseminating, and managing information on-demand to warfighters, policy makers, and support personnel, whether interconnected or stand-alone, including owned and leased communications and computing systems and services, software (including applications), data, security services, other associated services, and national security systems. Also called DODIN. (ref JP 6-0)
  • Department of Defense information network operations - Operations to design, build, configure, secure, operate, maintain, and sustain Department of Defense networks to create and preserve information assurance on the Department of Defense information networks. (ref JP 3-12)
  • Department of Defense Intelligence Information System - The combination of Department of Defense personnel, procedures, equipment, computer programs, and supporting communications that support the timely and comprehensive preparation and presentation of intelligence and information to military commanders and national-level decision makers. Also called DODIIS. (ref JP 2-0)
  • Department of Defense support to counterdrug operations - Support provided by the Department of Defense to law enforcement agencies to detect, monitor, and counter the production, trafficking, and use of illegal drugs. See also counterdrug operations. (ref JP 3-07.4)
  • Department of the Air Force - The executive part of the Department of the Air Force at the seat of government and all field headquarters, forces, Reserve Component, installations, activities, and functions under the control or supervision of the Secretary of the Air Force. Also called DAF. See also Military Department. (ref JP 1)
  • Department of the Army - The executive part of the Department of the Army at the seat of government and all field headquarters, forces, Reserve Component, installations, activities, and functions under the control or supervision of the Secretary of the Army. Also called DA. See also Military Department. (ref JP 1)
  • Department of the Navy - The executive part of the Department of the Navy at the seat of government; the headquarters, United States Marine Corps; the entire operating forces As Amended Through 15 February 2016 66 JP 1-02 of the United States Navy and of the United States Marine Corps, including the Reserve Component of such forces; all field activities, headquarters, forces, bases, installations, activities, and functions under the control or supervision of the Secretary of the Navy; and the United States Coast Guard when operating as a part of the Navy pursuant to law. Also called DON. See also Military Department. (ref JP 1)
  • departure airfield - An airfield on which troops and/or materiel are enplaned for flight. See also airfield. (ref JP 3-17)
  • departure point - A navigational check point used by aircraft as a marker for setting course. (ref JP 3-17)
  • dependents - An employeeís spouse; children who are unmarried and under age 21 years or who, regardless of age, are physically or mentally incapable of self-support; dependent parents, including step and legally adoptive parents of the employeeís spouse; and dependent brothers and sisters, including step and legally adoptive brothers and sisters of the employeeís spouse who are unmarried and under 21 years of age or who, regardless of age, are physically or mentally incapable of self-support. (ref JP 3-68)
  • deployment - The rotation of forces into and out of an operational area. See also deployment order; deployment planning; prepare to deploy order. (ref JP 3-35)
  • deployment health surveillance - The regular or repeated collection, analysis, archiving, interpretation, and distribution of health-related data used for monitoring the health of a population or of individuals, and for intervening in a timely manner to prevent, treat, or control the occurrence of disease or injury, which includes occupational and environmental health surveillance and medical surveillance subcomponents. (ref JP 4-02)
  • deployment order - A planning directive from the Secretary of Defense, issued by the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, that authorizes and directs the transfer of forces between combatant commands by reassignment or attachment. Also called DEPORD. See also deployment; deployment planning; prepare to deploy order. (ref JP 5-0)
  • deployment planning - Operational planning directed toward the movement of forces and sustainment resources from their original locations to a specific operational area for conducting the joint operations contemplated in a given plan. See also deployment; deployment order; prepare to deploy order. (ref JP 5-0)
  • depot - 1. supply - An activity for the receipt, classification, storage, accounting, issue, maintenance, procurement, manufacture, assembly, research, salvage, or disposal of material. 2. personnel - An activity for the reception, processing, training, assignment, and forwarding of personnel replacements. (ref JP 4-0)
  • design basis threat - The threat against which buildings and other structures must be protected and upon which the protective systemís design is based. Also called DBT. (ref JP 3-07.2)
  • As Amended Through 15 February 2016 JP 1-02 67 desired perception - In military deception, what the deception target must believe for it to make the decision that will achieve the deception objective. (ref JP 3-13.4)
  • desired point of impact - A precise point, associated with a target and assigned as the impact point for a single unitary weapon to create a desired effect. Also called DPI. See also aimpoint. (ref JP 3-60)
  • detainee - Any person captured, detained, or otherwise under the control of Department of Defense personnel. (ref JP 3-63)
  • detainee collection point - A facility or other location where detainees are assembled for subsequent movement to a detainee holding area. Also called DCP. (ref JP 3-63)
  • detainee holding area - A facility or other location where detainees are administratively processed and provided custodial care pending disposition and subsequent release, transfer, or movement to a theater detention facility. Also called DHA. (ref JP 3-63)
  • detainee operations - A broad term that encompasses the capture, initial detention and screening, transportation, treatment and protection, housing, transfer, and release of the wide range of persons who could be categorized as detainees. (ref JP 3-63)
  • detection - 1. In tactical operations, the perception of an object of possible military interest but unconfirmed by recognition. 2. In surveillance, the determination and transmission by a surveillance system that an event has occurred. 3. In arms control, the first step in the process of ascertaining the occurrence of a violation of an arms control agreement. 4. In chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear environments, the act of locating chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear hazards by use of chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear detectors or monitoring and/or survey teams. See also hazard. (ref JP 3-11)
  • deterrence - The prevention of action by the existence of a credible threat of unacceptable counteraction and/or belief that the cost of action outweighs the perceived benefits. (ref JP 3-0)
  • deterrent options - A course of action, developed on the best economic, diplomatic, and military judgment, designed to dissuade an adversary from a current course of action or contemplated operations. (ref JP 5-0)
  • development assistance - Programs, projects, and activities carried out by the United States Agency for International Development that improve the lives of the citizens of developing countries while furthering United States foreign policy interests in expanding democracy and promoting free market economic growth. (ref JP 3-08)
  • direct action - Short-duration strikes and other small-scale offensive actions conducted as a special operation in hostile, denied, or diplomatically sensitive environments and which As Amended Through 15 February 2016 68 JP 1-02 employ specialized military capabilities to seize, destroy, capture, exploit, recover, or damage designated targets. Also called DA. See also special operations; special operations forces. (ref JP 3-05)
  • direct air support center - The principal air control agency of the United States Marine Corps air command and control system responsible for the direction and control of air operations directly supporting the ground combat element. Also called DASC. See also Marine air command and control system; tactical air operations center. (ref JP 3-09.3)
  • direct air support center (airborne) - An airborne aircraft equipped with the necessary staff personnel, communications, and operations facilities to function as a direct air support center. Also called DASC(A). See also direct air support center. (ref JP 3-09.3)
  • directed energy - An umbrella term covering technologies that relate to the production of a beam of concentrated electromagnetic energy or atomic or subatomic particles. Also called DE. See also directed-energy device; directed-energy weapon. (ref JP 3-13.1)
  • directed-energy device - A system using directed energy primarily for a purpose other than as a weapon. See also directed energy; directed-energy weapon. (ref JP 3-13.1)
  • directed-energy warfare - Military action involving the use of directed-energy weapons, devices, and countermeasures. Also called DEW. See also directed energy; directedenergy device; directed-energy weapon; electromagnetic spectrum; electronic warfare. (ref JP 3-13.1)
  • directed-energy weapon - A weapon or system that uses directed energy to incapacitate, damage, or destroy enemy equipment, facilities, and/or personnel. See also directed energy; directed-energy device. (ref JP 3-13.1)
  • direct fire - Fire delivered on a target using the target itself as a point of aim for either the weapon or the director. (ref JP 3-09.3)
  • direction finding - A procedure for obtaining bearings of radio frequency emitters by using a highly directional antenna and a display unit on an intercept receiver or ancillary equipment. Also called DF. (ref JP 3-13.1)
  • directive authority for logistics - Combatant commander authority to issue directives to subordinate commanders to ensure the effective execution of approved operation plans, optimize the use or reallocation of available resources, and prevent or eliminate redundant facilities and/or overlapping functions among the Service component commands. Also called DAFL. See also combatant command (command authority); logistics. (ref JP 1)
  • direct liaison authorized - That authority granted by a commander (any level) to a subordinate to directly consult or coordinate an action with a command or agency within or outside of the granting command. Also called DIRLAUTH. (ref JP 1)
  • As Amended Through 15 February 2016 JP 1-02 69 director of mobility forces - The designated agent for all air mobility issues in the area of responsibility or joint operations area, exercising coordinating authority between the air operations center (or appropriate theater command and control node), the 618 Air Operations Center (Tanker Airlift Control Center), and the joint deployment and distribution operation center or joint movement center, in order to expedite the resolution of air mobility issues. Also called DIRMOBFOR. See also air operations center; coordinating authority. (ref JP 3-17)
  • direct support - A mission requiring a force to support another specific force and authorizing it to answer directly to the supported forceís request for assistance. Also called DS. See also close support; general support; mission; mutual support; support. (ref JP 3-09.3)
  • disarmament - The reduction of a military establishment to some level set by international agreement. See also arms control agreement. (ref JP 3-0)
  • disaster assistance response team - A team of specialists, trained in a variety of disaster relief skills, rapidly deployed to assist US embassies and United States Agency for International Development missions with the management of US Government response to disasters. Also called DART. See also foreign disaster; foreign disaster relief. (ref JP 3-08)
  • disease and nonbattle injury - All illnesses and injuries not resulting from enemy or terrorist action or caused by conflict. Also called DNBI. (ref JP 4-02)
  • disengagement - The act of geographically separating the forces of disputing parties. (ref JP 3-07.3)
  • dislocated civilian - A broad term primarily used by the Department of Defense that includes a displaced person, an evacuee, an internally displaced person, a migrant, a refugee, or a stateless person. Also called DC. See also displaced person; evacuee; internally displaced person; migrant; refugee; stateless person. (ref JP 3-29)
  • dispersal - Relocation of forces for the purpose of increasing survivability. (ref JP 3-01)
  • dispersal airfield - An airfield, military or civil, to which aircraft might move before H-hour on either a temporary duty or permanent change of station basis and be able to conduct operations. See also airfield. (ref JP 3-01)
  • dispersion - 1. The spreading or separating of troops, materiel, establishments, or activities, which are usually concentrated in limited areas to reduce vulnerability. (ref JP 5-0)
  • 2 - In chemical and biological operations, the dissemination of agents in liquid or aerosol form. (ref JP 3-41)
    3. In airdrop operations, the scatter of personnel and/or cargo on the drop zone. (ref JP 3-17)
    4. In naval control of shipping, the reberthing of a ship in the periphery of the port area or in the vicinity of the port for its own protection in order to minimize the risk of damage from attack. (ref JP 4-01.2)
  • As Amended Through 15 February 2016 70 JP 1-02 displaced person - A broad term used to refer to internally and externally displaced persons collectively. See also evacuee; refugee. (ref JP 3-29)
  • display - In military deception, a static portrayal of an activity, force, or equipment intended to deceive the adversaryís visual observation. (ref JP 3-13.4)
  • dissemination and integration - In intelligence usage, the delivery of intelligence to users in a suitable form and the application of the intelligence to appropriate missions, tasks, and functions. See also intelligence process. (ref JP 2-01)
  • distant retirement area - In amphibious operations, the sea area located to seaward of the landing area to which assault ships may retire and operate in the event of adverse weather or to prevent concentration of ships in the landing area. See also amphibious operation; landing area. (ref JP 3-02)
  • distressed person - An individual who requires search and rescue assistance to remove he or she from life-threatening or isolating circumstances in a permissive environment. (ref JP 3-50)
  • distribution - 1. The arrangement of troops for any purpose, such as a battle, march, or maneuver. 2. A planned pattern of projectiles about a point. 3. A planned spread of fire to cover a desired frontage or depth. 4. An official delivery of anything, such as orders or supplies. 5. The operational process of synchronizing all elements of the logistic system to deliver the ďright thingsĒ to the ďright placeĒ at the ďright timeĒ to support the geographic combatant commander. 6. The process of assigning military personnel to activities, units, or billets. (ref JP 4-0)
  • distribution manager - The executive agent for managing distribution with the combatant commanderís area of responsibility. See also area of responsibility; distribution. (ref JP 4-09)
  • distribution pipeline - Continuum or channel through which the Department of Defense conducts distribution operations, representing the end-to-end flow of resources from supplier to consumer and, in some cases, back to the supplier in retrograde activities. See also distribution. (ref JP 4-09)
  • distribution plan - A reporting system comprising reports, updates, and information systems feeds that articulate the requirements of the theater distribution system to the strategic and operational resources assigned responsibility for support to the theater. See also distribution; distribution system; theater distribution; theater distribution system. (ref JP 4-09)
  • distribution point - A point at which supplies and/or ammunition, obtained from supporting supply points by a division or other unit, are broken down for distribution to subordinate units. (ref JP 4-09)
  • As Amended Through 15 February 2016 JP 1-02 71 distribution system - That complex of facilities, installations, methods, and procedures designed to receive, store, maintain, distribute, and control the flow of military materiel between the point of receipt into the military system and the point of issue to using activities and units. (ref JP 4-09)
  • diversion - 1. The act of drawing the attention and forces of an enemy from the point of the principal operation; an attack, alarm, or feint that diverts attention. 2. A change made in a prescribed route for operational or tactical reasons that does not constitute a change of destination. 3. A rerouting of cargo or passengers to a new transshipment point or destination or on a different mode of transportation prior to arrival at ultimate destination. 4. In naval mine warfare, a route or channel bypassing a dangerous area by connecting one channel to another or it may branch from a channel and rejoin it on the other side of the danger. See also demonstration. (ref JP 3-03)
  • doctrine - Fundamental principles by which the military forces or elements thereof guide their actions in support of national objectives. It is authoritative but requires judgment in application. See also multinational doctrine; joint doctrine. (CJCSI 5120.02) domestic emergencies - Civil defense emergencies, civil disturbances, major disasters, or natural disasters affecting the public welfare and occurring within the United States and its territories. See also natural disaster. (ref JP 3-27)
  • domestic intelligence - Intelligence relating to activities or conditions within the United States that threaten internal security and that might require the employment of troops; and intelligence relating to activities of individuals or agencies potentially or actually dangerous to the security of the Department of Defense. (ref JP 3-08)
  • dominant user - The Service or multinational partner who is the principal consumer of a particular common-user logistic supply or service within a joint or multinational operation and will normally act as the lead Service to provide this particular commonuser logistic supply or service to other Service components, multinational partners, other governmental agencies, or nongovernmental agencies as directed by the combatant commander. See also common-user logistics; lead Service or agency for commonuser logistics. (ref JP 4-0)
  • double agent - Agent in contact with two opposing intelligence services, only one of which is aware of the double contact or quasi-intelligence services. Also called DA. (ref JP 2-01.2)
  • double container - A 9.8125 feet by 8 feet by 8 feet (2991 millimeters by 2438 millimeters by 2438 millimeters) reusable International Standards Organization compliant double container, with double doors at both ends, used for the storage, transportation, and distribution of dry cargo. Also called BICON. (ref JP 4-09)
  • downgrade - To determine that classified information requires, in the interests of national security, a lower degree of protection against unauthorized disclosure than currently As Amended Through 15 February 2016 72 JP 1-02 provided, coupled with a changing of the classification designation to reflect such a lower degree. (ref JP 3-08)
  • downloading - An operation that removes airborne weapons or stores from an aircraft. (ref JP 3-04)
  • drop altitude - The altitude above mean sea level at which airdrop is executed. (ref JP 3-17)
  • drop zone - A specific area upon which airborne troops, equipment, or supplies are airdropped. Also called DZ. (ref JP 3-17)
  • drug interdiction - A continuum of events focused on interrupting illegal drugs smuggled by air, sea, or land. See also counterdrug operations. (ref JP 3-07.4)
  • dual-capable aircraft - Allied and US fighter aircraft tasked and configured to perform either conventional or theater nuclear missions. Also called DCA. dual-role tanker - An aircraft that can carry support personnel, supplies, and equipment for the deploying force while escorting and/or refueling combat aircraft to the area of responsibility. See also air refueling. (ref JP 3-17)
  • dummy - See decoy. (ref JP 3-13.4)
  • dwell time - 1. The length of time a target is expected to remain in one location. (ref JP 3-60)
    2. The period of time between the release from involuntary active and the reporting date for a subsequent tour of active duty pursuant to Title 10, United States Code, Section 12302. Such time includes any voluntary active duty performed between two periods of involuntary active duty pursuant to Title 10, United States Code, Section 12302. (DODD 1235.10) dynamic targeting - Targeting that prosecutes targets identified too late, or not selected for action in time to be included in deliberate targeting. (ref JP 3-60)
  • dynamic threat assessment - An intelligence assessment developed by the Defense Intelligence Agency that details the threat, capabilities, and intentions of adversaries in each of the priority plans in the Joint Strategic Capabilities Plan. Also called DTA. (ref JP 2-0)
  • As Amended Through 15 February 2016 E JP 1-02 73 earliest arrival date - A day, relative to C-day, that is specified as the earliest date when a unit, a resupply shipment, or replacement personnel can be accepted at a port of debarkation during a deployment. Also called EAD. See also latest arrival date. (ref JP 5-0)
  • early warning - Early notification of the launch or approach of unknown weapons or weapons carriers. Also called EW. See also attack assessment. (ref JP 3-01)
  • economy of force - The judicious employment and distribution of forces so as to expend the minimum essential combat power on secondary efforts in order to allocate the maximum possible combat power on primary efforts. (ref JP 3-0)
  • E-day - The day landing force personnel, supplies, and equipment begin to embark aboard amphibious warfare or commercial ships. (ref JP 3-02.1)
  • effect - 1. The physical or behavioral state of a system that results from an action, a set of actions, or another effect. 2. The result, outcome, or consequence of an action. 3. A change to a condition, behavior, or degree of freedom. (ref JP 3-0)
  • effective United States-controlled ships - United States-owned foreign flag ships that can be tasked by the Maritime Administration to support Department of Defense requirements when necessary. Also called EUSCS. (ref JP 4-01.2)
  • electro-explosive device - An explosive or pyrotechnic component that initiates an explosive, burning, electrical, or mechanical train and is activated by the application of electrical energy. Also called EED. (ref JP 3-04)
  • electromagnetic battle management - The dynamic monitoring, assessing, planning, and directing of joint electromagnetic spectrum operations in support of the commanderís scheme of maneuver. Also called EMBM. (ref JP 3-13.1)
  • electromagnetic compatibility - The ability of systems, equipment, and devices that use the electromagnetic spectrum to operate in their intended environments without causing or suffering unacceptable or unintentional degradation because of electromagnetic radiation or response. Also called EMC. See also electromagnetic spectrum; electromagnetic spectrum management; electronic warfare. (ref JP 3-13.1)
  • electromagnetic environment - The resulting product of the power and time distribution, in various frequency ranges, of the radiated or conducted electromagnetic emission levels encountered by a military force, system, or platform when performing its assigned mission in its intended operational environment. Also called EME. (ref JP 3-13.1)
  • As Amended Through 15 February 2016 74 JP 1-02 electromagnetic environmental effects - The impact of the electromagnetic environment upon the operational capability of military forces, equipment, systems, and platforms. Also called E3. (ref JP 3-13.1)
  • electromagnetic hardening - Action taken to protect personnel, facilities, and/or equipment by blanking, filtering, attenuating, grounding, bonding, and/or shielding against undesirable effects of electromagnetic energy. See also electronic warfare. (ref JP 3-13.1)
  • electromagnetic interference - Any electromagnetic disturbance, induced intentionally or unintentionally, that interrupts, obstructs, or otherwise degrades or limits the effective performance of electronics and electrical equipment. Also called EMI. (ref JP 3-13.1)
  • electromagnetic intrusion - The intentional insertion of electromagnetic energy into transmission paths in any manner, with the objective of deceiving operators or of causing confusion. See also electronic warfare. (ref JP 3-13.1)
  • electromagnetic jamming - The deliberate radiation, reradiation, or reflection of electromagnetic energy for the purpose of preventing or reducing an enemyís effective use of the electromagnetic spectrum, and with the intent of degrading or neutralizing the enemyís combat capability. See also electromagnetic spectrum; electromagnetic spectrum management; electronic warfare. (ref JP 3-13.1)
  • electromagnetic operational environment - The background electromagnetic environment and the friendly, neutral, and adversarial electromagnetic order of battle within the electromagnetic area of influence associated with a given operational area. Also called EMOE. (ref JP 6-01)
  • electromagnetic pulse - The electromagnetic radiation from a strong electronic pulse, most commonly caused by a nuclear explosion that may couple with electrical or electronic systems to produce damaging current and voltage surges. Also called EMP. See also electromagnetic radiation. (ref JP 3-13.1)
  • electromagnetic radiation - Radiation made up of oscillating electric and magnetic fields and propagated with the speed of light. (ref JP 6-01)
  • electromagnetic radiation hazards - Transmitter or antenna installation that generates or increases electromagnetic radiation in the vicinity of ordnance, personnel, or fueling operations in excess of established safe levels. Also called EMR hazards or RADHAZ. (ref JP 3-13.1)
  • electromagnetic spectrum - The range of frequencies of electromagnetic radiation from zero to infinity. It is divided into 26 alphabetically designated bands. See also electronic warfare. (ref JP 3-13.1)
  • As Amended Through 15 February 2016 JP 1-02 75 electromagnetic spectrum control - The coordinated execution of joint electromagnetic spectrum operations with other lethal and nonlethal operations that enable freedom of action in the electromagnetic operational environment. Also called EMSC. (ref JP 3-13.1)
  • electromagnetic spectrum management - Planning, coordinating, and managing use of the electromagnetic spectrum through operational, engineering, and administrative procedures. See also electromagnetic spectrum. (ref JP 6-01)
  • electromagnetic vulnerability - The characteristics of a system that cause it to suffer a definite degradation (incapability to perform the designated mission) as a result of having been subjected to a certain level of electromagnetic environmental effects. Also called EMV. (ref JP 3-13.1)
  • electronic attack - Division of electronic warfare involving the use of electromagnetic energy, directed energy, or antiradiation weapons to attack personnel, facilities, or equipment with the intent of degrading, neutralizing, or destroying enemy combat capability and is considered a form of fires. Also called EA. See also electronic protection; electronic warfare; electronic warfare support. (ref JP 3-13.1)
  • electronic intelligence - Technical and geolocation intelligence derived from foreign noncommunications electromagnetic radiations emanating from other than nuclear detonations or radioactive sources. Also called ELINT. See also electronic warfare; foreign instrumentation signals intelligence; intelligence; signals intelligence. (ref JP 3-13.1)
  • electronic masking - The controlled radiation of electromagnetic energy on friendly frequencies in a manner to protect the emissions of friendly communications and electronic systems against enemy electronic warfare support measures/signals intelligence without significantly degrading the operation of friendly systems. (ref JP 3-13.1)
  • electronic probing - Intentional radiation designed to be introduced into the devices or systems of potential enemies for the purpose of learning the functions and operational capabilities of the devices or systems. (ref JP 3-13.1)
  • electronic protection - Division of electronic warfare involving actions taken to protect personnel, facilities, and equipment from any effects of friendly or enemy use of the electromagnetic spectrum that degrade, neutralize, or destroy friendly combat capability. Also called EP. See also electronic attack, electronic warfare; electronic warfare support. (ref JP 3-13.1)
  • electronic reconnaissance - The detection, location, identification, and evaluation of foreign electromagnetic radiations. See also electromagnetic radiation; reconnaissance. (ref JP 3-13.1)
  • As Amended Through 15 February 2016 76 JP 1-02 electronics security - The protection resulting from all measures designed to deny unauthorized persons information of value that might be derived from their interception and study of noncommunications electromagnetic radiations, e.g., radar. (ref JP 3-13.1)
  • electronic warfare - Military action involving the use of electromagnetic and directed energy to control the electromagnetic spectrum or to attack the enemy. Also called EW. See also directed energy; electromagnetic spectrum; electronic attack; electronic protection; electronic warfare support. (ref JP 3-13.1)
  • electronic warfare frequency deconfliction - Actions taken to integrate those frequencies used by electronic warfare systems into the overall frequency deconfliction process. See also electronic warfare. (ref JP 3-13.1)
  • electronic warfare reprogramming - The deliberate alteration or modification of electronic warfare or target sensing systems, or the tactics and procedures that employ them, in response to validated changes in equipment, tactics, or the electromagnetic environment. See also electronic warfare. (ref JP 3-13.1)
  • electronic warfare support - Division of electronic warfare involving actions tasked by, or under direct control of, an operational commander to search for, intercept, identify, and locate or localize sources of intentional and unintentional radiated electromagnetic energy for the purpose of immediate threat recognition, targeting, planning and conduct of future operations. Also called ES. See also electronic attack; electronic protection; electronic warfare. (ref JP 3-13.1)
  • electro-optical-infrared countermeasure - A device or technique employing electrooptical-infrared materials or technology that is intended to impair the effectiveness of enemy activity, particularly with respect to precision guided weapons and sensor systems. Also called EO-IR CM. (ref JP 3-13.1)
  • element - An organization formed around a specific function within a designated directorate of a joint force commanderís headquarters. (ref JP 3-33)
  • elevated causeway system - An elevated causeway pier that provides a means of delivering containers, certain vehicles, and bulk cargo ashore without the lighterage contending with the surf zone. Also called ELCAS. See also causeway. (ref JP 4-01.6)
  • elicitation - In intelligence usage, the acquisition of information from a person or group in a manner that does not disclose the intent of the interview or conversation. (ref JP 2-0)
  • embarkation - The process of putting personnel and/or vehicles and their associated stores and equipment into ships and/or aircraft. (ref JP 3-02.1)
  • embarkation and tonnage table - A consolidated table showing personnel and cargo, by troop or naval units, loaded aboard a combat-loaded ship. (ref JP 3-02.1)
  • As Amended Through 15 February 2016 JP 1-02 77 embarkation area - An area ashore, including a group of embarkation points, in which final preparations for embarkation are completed and through which assigned personnel and loads for craft and ships are called forward to embark. See also mounting area. (ref JP 3-02.1)
  • embarkation element - A temporary administrative formation of personnel with supplies and equipment embarking or to be embarked (combat loaded) aboard the ships of one transport element. (ref JP 3-02.1)
  • embarkation group - A temporary administrative formation of personnel with supplies and equipment embarking or to be embarked (combat loaded) aboard the ships of one transport element group. (ref JP 3-02.1)
  • embarkation officer - An officer on the staff of units of the landing force who advises the commander thereof on matters pertaining to embarkation planning and loading ships. See also combat cargo officer. (ref JP 3-02.1)
  • embarkation order - An order specifying dates, times, routes, loading diagrams, and methods of movement to shipside or aircraft for troops and their equipment. (ref JP 3-02.1)
  • embarkation organization - A temporary administrative formation of personnel with supplies and equipment embarking or to be embarked aboard ships. See also embarkation team. (ref JP 3-02.1)
  • embarkation phase - In amphibious operations, the phase that encompasses the orderly assembly of personnel and materiel and their subsequent loading aboard ships and/or aircraft in a sequence designed to meet the requirements of the landing force concept of operations ashore. (ref JP 3-02.1)
  • embarkation plans - The plans prepared by the landing force and appropriate subordinate commanders containing instructions and information concerning the organization for embarkation, assignment to shipping, supplies and equipment to be embarked, location and assignment of embarkation areas, control and communication arrangements, movement schedules and embarkation sequence, and additional pertinent instructions relating to the embarkation of the landing force. (ref JP 3-02)
  • embarkation team - A temporary administrative formation of all personnel with supplies and equipment embarking or to be embarked (combat loaded) aboard one ship. See also embarkation organization. (ref JP 3-02.1)
  • embarkation unit - A temporary administrative formation of personnel with supplies and equipment embarking or to be embarked (combat loaded) aboard the ships of one transport unit, which is dissolved upon completion of the embarkation. (ref JP 3-02.1)
  • As Amended Through 15 February 2016 78 JP 1-02 emergency action committee - An organization established at a foreign service post by the chief of mission or principal officer for the purpose of directing and coordinating the postís response to contingencies. Also called EAC. (ref JP 3-68)
  • emergency authority - A Federal military commanderís authority, in extraordinary emergency circumstances where prior authorization by the President is impossible and duly constituted local authorities are unable to control the situation, to engage temporarily in activities that are necessary to quell large-scale, unexpected civil disturbances because (1) such activities are necessary to prevent significant loss of life or wanton destruction of property and are necessary to restore governmental function and public order or (2) duly constituted Federal, state, or local authorities are unable or decline to provide adequate protection for Federal property or Federal governmental functions. (DODD 3025.18) emergency-essential employee - A Department of Defense civilian employee whose assigned duties and responsibilities must be accomplished following the evacuation of non-essential personnel (including dependents) during a declared emergency or outbreak of war. See also evacuation. (ref JP 1-0)
  • emergency locator beacon - A generic term for all radio beacons used for emergency locating purposes. See also personal locator beacon. (ref JP 3-50)
  • emergency operations center - A temporary or permanent facility where the coordination of information and resources to support domestic incident management activities normally takes place. Also called EOC. (ref JP 3-41)
  • emergency preparedness - Measures taken in advance of an emergency to reduce the loss of life and property and to protect a nationís institutions from all types of hazards through a comprehensive emergency management program of preparedness, mitigation, response, and recovery. Also called EP. (ref JP 3-28)
  • emergency preparedness liaison officer - A senior reserve officer who represents their Service at the appropriate joint field office conducting planning and coordination responsibilities in support of civil authorities. Also called EPLO. (ref JP 3-28)
  • emergency repair - The least amount of immediate repair to damaged facilities necessary for the facilities to support the mission. See also facility substitutes. (ref JP 3-34)
  • emergency support functions - A grouping of government and certain private-sector capabilities into an organizational structure to provide the support, resources, program implementation, and services that are most likely to be needed to save lives, protect property and the environment, restore essential services and critical infrastructure, and help victims and communities return to normal, when feasible, following domestic incidents. Also called ESFs. (ref JP 3-28)
  • As Amended Through 15 February 2016 JP 1-02 79 emission control - The selective and controlled use of electromagnetic, acoustic, or other emitters to optimize command and control capabilities while minimizing, for operations security: a. detection by enemy sensors; b. mutual interference among friendly systems; and/or c. enemy interference with the ability to execute a military deception plan. Also called EMCON. See also electronic warfare. (ref JP 3-13.1)
  • emission security - The component of communications security that results from all measures taken to deny unauthorized persons information of value that might be derived from intercept and analysis of compromising emanations from crypto-equipment and telecommunications systems. See also communications security. (ref JP 6-0)
  • employment - The strategic, operational, or tactical use of forces. (ref JP 5-0)
  • end evening civil twilight - The point in time when the sun has dropped 6 degrees beneath the western horizon, and is the instant at which there is no longer sufficient light to see objects with the unaided eye. Also called EECT. (ref JP 2-01.3)
  • end item - A final combination of end products, component parts, and/or materials that is ready for its intended use. (ref JP 4-02)
  • end of evening nautical twilight - The point in time when the sun has dropped 12 degrees below the western horizon, and is the instant of last available daylight for the visual control of limited military operations. Also called EENT. (ref JP 2-01.3)
  • end state - The set of required conditions that defines achievement of the commanderís objectives. (ref JP 3-0)
  • end-to-end - A term that describes joint distribution operations boundaries, which begin at the point of origin and terminate at the geographic combatant commanderís designated point of need within a desired operational area, including the return of forces and materiel. (ref JP 4-09)
  • enemy combatant - In general, a person engaged in hostilities against the United States or its coalition partners during an armed conflict. Also called EC. (DODD 2310.01E) engage - 1. In air defense, a fire control order used to direct or authorize units and/or weapon systems to fire on a designated target. See also cease engagement; hold fire. (ref JP 3-01)
    2. To bring the enemy under fire. (ref JP 3-09.3)
  • engagement - 1. In air defense, an attack with guns or air-to-air missiles by an interceptor aircraft, or the launch of an air defense missile by air defense artillery and the missileís subsequent travel to intercept. (ref JP 3-01)
    2. A tactical conflict, usually between opposing lower echelons maneuver forces. See also battle; campaign. (ref JP 3-0)
  • engagement authority - An authority vested with a joint force commander that may be delegated to a subordinate commander, that permits an engagement decision. (ref JP 3-01)
  • As Amended Through 15 February 2016 80 JP 1-02 engineer support plan - An appendix to the logistics annex or separate annex of an operation plan that identifies the minimum essential engineering services and construction requirements required to support the commitment of military forces. Also called ESP. See also operation plan. (ref JP 3-34)
  • en route care - Continuation of the provision of care during movement (evacuation) between the health service support capabilities in the roles of care, without clinically compromising the patientís condition. See also evacuation. (ref JP 4-02)
  • enterprise force structure - The digitized hierarchical representation of Department of Defense organizations, documented in accordance with the standardized precepts of the Organizational and Force Structure Construct, generated and shared from .org servers for Department of Defense-wide integration and use. (DODI 8260.03) entity - Within the context of targeting, a term used to describe facilities, organizations, individuals, equipment, or virtual (nontangible) things. (ref JP 3-60)
  • environmental baseline survey - A multi-disciplinary site survey conducted prior to or in the initial stage of an operational deployment. Also called EBS. See also general engineering. (ref JP 3-34)
  • environmental considerations - The spectrum of environmental media, resources, or programs that may affect the planning and execution of military operations. (ref JP 3-34)
  • equipment - In logistics, all nonexpendable items needed to outfit or equip an individual or organization. See also component; supplies. (ref JP 4-0)
  • escapee - Any person who has been physically captured by the enemy and succeeds in getting free. (ref JP 3-50)
  • escort - A member of the Armed Forces assigned to accompany, assist, or guide an individual or group, e.g., an escort officer. (ref JP 4-06)
  • espionage - The act of obtaining, delivering, transmitting, communicating, or receiving information about the national defense with an intent, or reason to believe, that the information may be used to the injury of the United States or to the advantage of any foreign nation. Espionage is a violation of Title 18 United States Code, Sections 792- 798 and Article 106, Uniform Code of Military Justice. See also counterintelligence. (ref JP 2-01.2)
  • essential care - Medical treatment provided to manage the casualty throughout the roles of care, which includes all care and treatment to either return the patient to duty (within the theater evacuation policy), or begin initial treatment required for optimization of outcome, and/or stabilization to ensure the patient can tolerate evacuation. See also en route care; first responder; forward resuscitative care; theater. (ref JP 4-02)
  • As Amended Through 15 February 2016 JP 1-02 81 essential elements of friendly information - Key questions likely to be asked by adversary officials and intelligence systems about specific friendly intentions, capabilities, and activities, so they can obtain answers critical to their operational effectiveness. Also called EEFI. (ref JP 2-01)
  • essential elements of information - The most critical information requirements regarding the adversary and the environment needed by the commander by a particular time to relate with other available information and intelligence in order to assist in reaching a logical decision. Also called EEIs. (ref JP 2-0)
  • essential task - A specified or implied task that an organization must perform to accomplish the mission that is typically included in the mission statement. See also implied task; specified task. (ref JP 5-0)
  • establishing directive - An order issued to specify the purpose of the support relationship. (ref JP 3-02)
  • estimate - 1. An analysis of a foreign situation, development, or trend that identifies its major elements, interprets the significance, and appraises the future possibilities and the prospective results of the various actions that might be taken. 2. An appraisal of the capabilities, vulnerabilities, and potential courses of action of a foreign nation or combination of nations in consequence of a specific national plan, policy, decision, or contemplated course of action. 3. An analysis of an actual or contemplated clandestine operation in relation to the situation in which it is or would be conducted in order to identify and appraise such factors as available as well as needed assets and potential obstacles, accomplishments, and consequences. See also intelligence estimate. (ref JP 2-01)
  • estimative intelligence - Intelligence that identifies, describes, and forecasts adversary capabilities and the implications for planning and executing military operations. (ref JP 2-0)
  • evacuation - 1. Removal of a patient by any of a variety of transport means from a theater of military operation, or between health services capabilities, for the purpose of preventing further illness or injury, providing additional care, or providing disposition of patients from the military health care system. (ref JP 4-02)
    2. The clearance of personnel, animals, or materiel from a given locality. (ref JP 3-68)
    3. The controlled process of collecting, classifying, and shipping unserviceable or abandoned materiel, United States or foreign, to appropriate reclamation, maintenance, technical intelligence, or disposal facilities. (ref JP 4-09)
    4. The ordered or authorized departure of noncombatant evacuees from a specific area to another in the same or different countries by Department of State, Department of Defense, or appropriate military commander. See also evacuee; noncombatant evacuation operation. (ref JP 3-68)
  • As Amended Through 15 February 2016 82 JP 1-02 evacuee - A civilian removed from a place of residence by military direction for reasons of personal security or the requirements of the military situation. See also displaced person; refugee. (ref JP 3-57)
  • evader - Any person isolated in hostile or unfriendly territory who eludes capture. (ref JP 3-50)
  • evaluation - In intelligence usage, appraisal of an item of information in terms of credibility, reliability, pertinence, and accuracy. (ref JP 2-01)
  • evaluation agent - The command or agency designated in the evaluation directive to be responsible for the planning, coordination, and conduct of the required evaluation of a joint test publication. Also called EA. See also joint doctrine; joint test publication. (CJCSM 5120.01) evaluation and feedback - In intelligence usage, continuous assessment of intelligence operations throughout the intelligence process to ensure that the commanderís intelligence requirements are being met. See intelligence process. (ref JP 2-01)
  • evasion - The process whereby isolated personnel avoid capture with the goal of successfully returning to areas under friendly control. (ref JP 3-50)
  • evasion aid - In personnel recovery, any piece of information or equipment designed to assist an individual in avoiding capture. See also blood chit; evasion; evasion chart; pointee-talkee; recovery; recovery operations. (ref JP 3-50)
  • evasion chart - A special map or chart designed as an evasion aid. Also called EVC. See also evasion; evasion aid. (ref JP 3-50)
  • evasion plan of action - A course of action, developed prior to executing a combat mission, that is intended to improve a potential isolated personís chances of successful evasion and recovery by providing the recovery forces with an additional source of information that can increase the predictability of the evaderís action and movement. Also called EPA. See also course of action; evader; evasion. (ref JP 3-50)
  • event matrix - A cross-referenced description of the indicators and activity expected to occur in each named area of interest. See also activity; area of interest; indicator. (ref JP 2-01.3)
  • event template - A guide for collection planning that depicts the named areas of interest where activity, or its lack of activity, will indicate which course of action the adversary has adopted. See also activity; area of interest; collection planning; course of action. (ref JP 2-01.3)
  • exclusion zone - A zone established by a sanctioning body to prohibit specific activities in a specific geographic area in order to persuade nations or groups to modify their behavior As Amended Through 15 February 2016 JP 1-02 83 to meet the desires of the sanctioning body or face continued imposition of sanctions, or use or threat of force. (ref JP 3-0)
  • exclusive economic zone - A maritime zone adjacent to the territorial sea that may not extend beyond 200 nautical miles from the baselines from which the breadth of the territorial sea is measured. Also called EEZ. (ref JP 3-15)
  • execute order - 1. An order issued by the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, at the direction of the Secretary of Defense, to implement a decision by the President to initiate military operations. 2. An order to initiate military operations as directed. Also called EXORD. (ref JP 5-0)
  • execution planning - The Adaptive Planning and Execution system translation of an approved course of action into an executable plan of action through the preparation of a complete operation plan or operation order. Also called EP. See also Joint Operation Planning and Execution System. (ref JP 5-0)
  • executive agent - A term used to indicate a delegation of authority by the Secretary of Defense or Deputy Secretary of Defense to a subordinate to act on behalf of the Secretary of Defense. Also called EA. (ref JP 1)
  • exercise - A military maneuver or simulated wartime operation involving planning, preparation, and execution that is carried out for the purpose of training and evaluation. See also command post exercise; maneuver. (ref JP 3-34)
  • exfiltration - The removal of personnel or units from areas under enemy control by stealth, deception, surprise, or clandestine means. See also special operations; unconventional warfare. (ref JP 3-50)
  • expeditionary force - An armed force organized to accomplish a specific objective in a foreign country. (ref JP 3-0)
  • expendable supplies - Supplies that are consumed in use, such as ammunition, paint, fuel, cleaning and preserving materials, surgical dressings, drugs, medicines, etc., or that lose their identity, such as spare parts, etc., and may be dropped from stock record accounts when it is issued or used. (ref JP 4-02)
  • exploitation - 1. Taking full advantage of success in military operations, following up initial gains, and making permanent the temporary effects already created. 2. Taking full advantage of any information that has come to hand for tactical, operational, or strategic purposes. 3. An offensive operation that usually follows a successful attack and is designed to disorganize the enemy in depth. See also attack. (ref JP 2-01.3)
  • explosive cargo - Cargo such as artillery ammunition, bombs, depth charges, demolition material, rockets, and missiles. (ref JP 4-01.5)
  • As Amended Through 15 February 2016 84 JP 1-02 explosive hazard - Any hazard containing an explosive component to include unexploded explosive ordnance (including land mines), booby traps (some booby traps are nonexplosive), improvised explosive devices (which are an improvised type of booby trap), captured enemy ammunition, and bulk explosives. Also called EH. (ref JP 3-15)
  • explosive hazard incident - The suspected or detected presence of unexploded or damaged explosive ordnance that constitutes a hazard to operations, installations, personnel, or material. Not included in this definition are the accidental arming or other conditions that develop during the manufacture of high explosive material, technical service assembly operations, or the laying of mines and demolition charges. (ref JP 3-15.1)
  • explosive ordnance - All munitions containing explosives, nuclear fission or fusion materials, and biological and chemical agents. (ref JP 3-34)
  • explosive ordnance disposal - The detection, identification, on-site evaluation, rendering safe, recovery, and final disposal of unexploded explosive ordnance. Also called EOD. (ref JP 3-34)
  • explosive ordnance disposal unit - Personnel with special training and equipment who render explosive ordnance safe, make intelligence reports on such ordnance, and supervise the safe removal thereof. (ref JP 3-34)
  • exposure dose - The amount of radiation, as measured in roentgen, at a given point in relation to its ability to produce ionization. (ref JP 3-41)
  • external audience - In public affairs, all people who are not United States military members, Department of Defense civilian employees, and their immediate families. See also internal audience; public. (ref JP 3-61)
  • external support contract - Contract awarded by contracting organizations whose contracting authority does not derive directly from the theater support contracting head(s) of contracting activity or from systems support contracting authorities. See also systems support contract; theater support contract. (ref JP 4-10)
  • As Amended Through 15 February 2016 F JP 1-02 85 fabricator - An individual or group who, usually without genuine resources, invents or inflates information for personal or political gain or political purposes. (ref JP 2-01.2)
  • facility - A real property entity consisting of one or more of the following: a building, a structure, a utility system, pavement, and underlying land. (ref JP 3-34)
  • facility substitutes - Items such as tents and prepackaged structures requisitioned through the supply system that may be used to substitute for constructed facilities. (ref JP 3-34)
  • family readiness - The state of being prepared to effectively navigate the challenges of daily living experienced in the unique context of military service, to include: mobility and financial readiness, mobilization and deployment readiness, and personal and family life readiness. (DODI 1342.22) feasibility - The joint operation plan review criterion for assessing whether the assigned mission can be accomplished using available resources within the time contemplated by the plan. See also acceptability; adequacy. (ref JP 5-0)
  • feasibility assessment - A basic target analysis that provides an initial determination of the viability of a proposed target for special operations forces employment. Also called FA. (ref JP 3-05)
  • federal service - A term applied to National Guard members and units when called to active duty to serve the United States Government under Article I, Section 8 and Article II, Section 2 of the Constitution and Title 10, United States Code, Sections 12401 to 12408. See also active duty; Reserve Component. (ref JP 4-05)
  • feint - In military deception, an offensive action involving contact with the adversary conducted for the purpose of deceiving the adversary as to the location and/or time of the actual main offensive action. (ref JP 3-13.4)
  • field artillery - Equipment, supplies, ammunition, and personnel involved in the use of cannon, rocket, or surface-to-surface missile launchers. Also called FA. (ref JP 3-09)
  • fighter engagement zone - In air defense, that airspace of defined dimensions within which the responsibility for engagement of air threats normally rests with fighter aircraft. Also called FEZ. (ref JP 3-01)
  • fighter escort - An offensive counterair operation providing dedicated protection sorties by air-to-air capable fighters in support of other offensive air and air support missions over enemy territory, or in a defensive counterair role to protect high value airborne assets. (ref JP 3-01)
  • As Amended Through 15 February 2016 86 JP 1-02 fighter sweep - An offensive mission by fighter aircraft to seek out and destroy enemy aircraft or targets of opportunity in a designated area. (ref JP 3-01)
  • final governing standards - A comprehensive set of country-specific substantive environmental provisions, typically technical limitations on effluent, discharges, etc., or a specific management practice. Also called FGSs. (ref JP 3-34)
  • final protective fire - An immediately available prearranged barrier of fire designed to impede enemy movement across defensive lines or areas. Also called FPF. (ref JP 3-09.3)
  • finance support - A financial management function to provide financial advice and recommendations, pay support, disbursing support, establishment of local depository accounts, essential accounting support, and support of the procurement process. See also financial management. (ref JP 1-06)
  • financial management - The combination of the two core functions of resource management and finance support. Also called FM. See also finance support; resource management. (ref JP 1-06)
  • fire direction center - That element of a command post, consisting of gunnery and communications personnel and equipment, by means of which the commander exercises fire direction and/or fire control. Also called FDC. (ref JP 3-09.3)
  • fires - The use of weapon systems or other actions to create specific lethal or nonlethal effects on a target. (ref JP 3-09)
  • fire support - Fires that directly support land, maritime, amphibious, and special operations forces to engage enemy forces, combat formations, and facilities in pursuit of tactical and operational objectives. See also fires. (ref JP 3-09)
  • fire support area - An appropriate maneuver area assigned to fire support ships by the naval force commander from which they can deliver gunfire support to an amphibious operation. Also called FSA. See also amphibious operation; fire support. (ref JP 3-09)
  • fire support coordination - The planning and executing of fire so that targets are adequately covered by a suitable weapon or group of weapons. (ref JP 3-09)
  • fire support coordination center - A single location in which are centralized communications facilities and personnel incident to the coordination of all forms of fire support for Marine forces. Also called FSCC. See also fire support; fire support coordination; support; supporting arms coordination center. (ref JP 3-09)
  • fire support coordination line - A fire support coordination measure established by the land or amphibious force commander to support common objectives within an area of operation; beyond which all fires must be coordinated with affected commanders prior As Amended Through 15 February 2016 JP 1-02 87 to engagement, and short of the line, all fires must be coordinated with the establishing commander prior to engagement. Also called FSCL. See also fires; fire support. (ref JP 3-09)
  • fire support coordination measure - A measure employed by commanders to facilitate the rapid engagement of targets and simultaneously provide safeguards for friendly forces. Also called FSCM. See also fire support coordination. (ref JP 3-0)
  • fire support coordinator - 1. The officer in charge of the fire support coordination center. Also called FSC. 2. The brigade combat teamís organic fires battalion commander; if a fires brigade is designated as the division force field artillery headquarters, the fires brigade commander is the divisionís fire support coordinator and is assisted by the chief of fires who then serves as the deputy fire support coordinator during the period the force field artillery headquarters is in effect. Also called FSCOORD. (ref JP 3-09)
  • fire support element - That section of the tactical operations center at every echelon above company responsible for targeting coordination and for integrating fires under the control or in support of the force. Also called FSE. Also called fire cell (FC) within the United States Army. See also fire support; force; support. (ref JP 3-09)
  • fire support officer - The field artillery officer from the operational to tactical level responsible for advising the supported commander or assisting the senior fires officer of the organization on fires functions and fire support. Also called FSO. See also field artillery; fire support; support. (ref JP 3-09)
  • fire support station - An exact location at sea within a fire support area from which a fire support ship delivers fire. Also called FSS. (ref JP 3-02)
  • fire support team - A field artillery team provided for each maneuver company/troop and selected units to plan and coordinate all supporting fires available to the unit, including mortars, field artillery, naval surface fire support, and close air support integration. Also called FIST. See also close air support; field artillery; fire support; support. (ref JP 3-09.3)
  • first responder - A primary health care provider who provides immediate clinical care and stabilization in preparation for evacuation to the next health service support capability in the roles of care, and treats Service members for common acute minor illnesses. See also essential care; evacuation. (ref JP 4-02)
  • first responder care - The health care capability that provides immediate clinical care and stabilization to the patient in preparation for evacuation to the next health service support capability in the continuum of care. (ref JP 4-02)
  • fixed port - Terminals with an improved network of cargo-handling facilities designed for the transfer of freight. See also maritime terminal. (ref JP 4-01.5)
  • As Amended Through 15 February 2016 88 JP 1-02 fixed price contract - A type of contract that generally provides for a firm price or, under appropriate circumstances, may provide for an adjustable price for the supplies or services being procured. (ref JP 4-10)
  • flame field expedients - Simple, handmade devices used to produce flame or illumination. Also called FFE. (ref JP 3-15)
  • flash burn - A burn caused by excessive exposure (of bare skin) to thermal radiation. (ref JP 3-41)
  • flatrack - Portable, open-topped, open-sided units that fit into existing below-deck container cell guides and provide a capability for container ships to carry oversized cargo and wheeled and tracked vehicles. (ref JP 4-09)
  • fleet - An organization of ships, aircraft, Marine forces, and shore-based fleet activities all under a commander who may exercise operational as well as administrative control. See also numbered fleet. (ref JP 3-02.1)
  • Fleet Marine Force - A balanced force of combined arms comprising land, air, and service elements of the United States Marine Corps, which is an integral part of a United States fleet and has the status of a type command. Also called FMF. (ref JP 4-02)
  • flexible deterrent option - A planning construct intended to facilitate early decision making by developing a wide range of interrelated responses that begin with deterrent-oriented actions carefully tailored to produce a desired effect. Also called FDO. See also deterrent options. (ref JP 5-0)
  • flexible response - The capability of military forces for effective reaction to any enemy threat or attack with actions appropriate and adaptable to the circumstances existing. (ref JP 5-0)
  • flight - 1. In Navy and Marine Corps usage, a specified group of aircraft usually engaged in a common mission. 2. The basic tactical unit in the Air Force, consisting of four or more aircraft in two or more elements. 3. A single aircraft airborne on a nonoperational mission. (ref JP 3-30)
  • flight deck - 1. In certain airplanes, an elevated compartment occupied by the crew for operating the airplane in flight. 2. The upper deck of an aircraft carrier that serves as a runway. The deck of an air-capable ship, amphibious aviation assault ship, or aircraft carrier used to launch and recover aircraft. (ref JP 3-04)
  • flight deck officer - Officer responsible for the safe movement of aircraft on or about the flight deck of an aviation-capable ship. Also called FDO. (ref JP 3-04)
  • flight quarters - A ship configuration that assigns and stations personnel at critical positions to conduct safe flight operations. (ref JP 3-04)
  • As Amended Through 15 February 2016 JP 1-02 89 floating craft company - A company-sized unit made up of various watercraft teams such as tugs, barges, and barge cranes. (ref JP 4-01.6)
  • floating dump - Emergency supplies preloaded in landing craft, amphibious vehicles, or in landing ships that are located in the vicinity of the appropriate control officer, who directs their landing as requested by the troop commander concerned. (ref JP 3-02)
  • fly-in echelon - Airlifted forces and equipment to include flight ferry aircraft and aviation support equipment needed to support operations; typically associated with the use of prepositioned assets. Also called FIE. (ref JP 3-02.1)
  • follow-up - In amphibious operations, the reinforcements and stores carried on ships and aircraft (not originally part of the amphibious force) that are off-loaded after the assault and assault follow-on echelons have been landed. See also amphibious operation; assault; assault follow-on echelon. (ref JP 3-02)
  • follow-up shipping - Ships not originally a part of the amphibious task force but which deliver troops and supplies to the objective area after the action phase has begun. (ref JP 3-02)
  • footprint - 1. The area on the surface of the earth within a satelliteís transmitter or sensor field of view. 2. The amount of personnel, spares, resources, and capabilities physically present and occupying space at a deployed location. (ref JP 4-01.5)
  • force - 1. An aggregation of military personnel, weapon systems, equipment, and necessary support, or combination thereof. 2. A major subdivision of a fleet. (ref JP 1)
  • force/activity designator - Number used in conjunction with urgency of need designators to establish a matrix of priorities used for supply requisitions. Also called F/AD. See also force. (ref JP 4-09)
  • force beddown - The provision of expedient facilities for troop support to provide a platform for the projection of force. See also facility substitutes. (ref JP 3-34)
  • force closure - The point in time when a supported joint force commander determines that sufficient personnel and equipment resources are in the assigned operational area to carry out assigned tasks. See also closure; force. (ref JP 3-35)
  • force health protection - Measures to promote, improve, or conserve the behavioral and physical well-being of Service members to enable a healthy and fit force, prevent injury and illness, and protect the force from health hazards. Also called FHP. See also force; protection. (ref JP 4-02)
  • As Amended Through 15 February 2016 90 JP 1-02 force management - An organizing construct of processes, policies, organizational information, and tools that informs senior leader decision making on the global joint sourcing of the defense strategy. (DODI 8260.03) force module - A grouping of combat, combat support, and combat service support forces, with their accompanying supplies and the required nonunit resupply and personnel necessary to sustain forces for a minimum of 30 days. Also called FM. (ref JP 4-01.5)
  • force planning - 1. Planning associated with the creation and maintenance of military capabilities by the Military Departments, Services, and US Special Operations Command. 2. In the Joint Operation Planning and Execution System, the planning conducted by the supported combatant command and its components to determine required force capabilities to accomplish an assigned mission. (ref JP 5-0)
  • force projection - The ability to project the military instrument of national power from the United States or another theater, in response to requirements for military operations. See also force. (ref JP 3-0)
  • force protection - Preventive measures taken to mitigate hostile actions against Department of Defense personnel (to include family members), resources, facilities, and critical information. Also called FP. See also force; force protection condition; protection. (ref JP 3-0)
  • force protection condition - A Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff-approved standard for identification of and recommended responses to terrorist threats against United States personnel and facilities. Also called FPCON. See also antiterrorism; force protection. (ref JP 3-07.2)
  • force protection detachment - A counterintelligence element that provides counterintelligence support to transiting and assigned ships, personnel, and aircraft in regions of elevated threat. Also called FPD. (ref JP 2-01.2)
  • force protection working group - Cross-functional working group whose purpose is to conduct risk assessment and risk management and to recommend mitigating measures to the commander. Also called FPWG. (ref JP 3-10)
  • force requirement number - An alphanumeric code used to uniquely identify force entries in a given operation plan time-phased force and deployment data. Also called FRN. (ref JP 3-35)
  • force sequencing - The phased introduction of forces into and out of the operational area. (ref JP 3-68)
  • force sourcing - The identification of the actual units, their origins, ports of embarkation, and movement characteristics to satisfy the time-phased force requirements of a supported commander. (ref JP 5-0)
  • As Amended Through 15 February 2016 JP 1-02 91 force structure - The composition of Department of Defense organizations, both military and civilian, that comprise and support United States defense forces as specified by the National Defense Authorization Acts of current and applicable previous years, and defines the organizational hierarchy through which leadership authorities are exercised. (DODI 8260.03) force tracking - The process of gathering and maintaining information on the location, status, and predicted movement of each element of a unit including the unitís command element, personnel, and unit-related supplies and equipment while in transit to the specified operational area. (ref JP 3-35)
  • force visibility - The current and accurate status of forces; their current mission; future missions; location; mission priority; and readiness status. (ref JP 3-35)
  • forcible entry - Seizing and holding of a military lodgment in the face of armed opposition. See also lodgment. (ref JP 3-18)
  • foreign assistance - Assistance to foreign nations ranging from the sale of military equipment to donations of food and medical supplies to aid survivors of natural and manmade disasters; that may be provided through development assistance, humanitarian assistance, and security assistance. See also domestic emergencies; foreign disaster; foreign humanitarian assistance; security assistance. (ref JP 3-29)
  • foreign consequence management - United States Government activity that assists friends and allies in responding to the effects from an intentional or accidental chemical, biological, radiological, or nuclear incident on foreign territory in order to maximize preservation of life. Also called FCM. (ref JP 3-41)
  • foreign disaster - A calamitous situation or event that occurs naturally or through human activities, which threatens or inflicts human suffering on a scale that may warrant emergency relief assistance from the United States Government or from foreign partners. See also foreign disaster relief. (ref JP 3-29)
  • foreign disaster relief - Assistance that can be used immediately to alleviate the suffering of foreign disaster victims that normally includes services and commodities as well as the rescue and evacuation of victims; the provision and transportation of food, water, clothing, medicines, beds, bedding, and temporary shelter; the furnishing of medical equipment, medical and technical personnel; and making repairs to essential services. Also called FDR. See also foreign disaster. (ref JP 3-29)
  • foreign humanitarian assistance - Department of Defense activities conducted outside the United States and its territories to directly relieve or reduce human suffering, disease, hunger, or privation. Also called FHA. See also foreign assistance. (ref JP 3-29)
  • As Amended Through 15 February 2016 92 JP 1-02 foreign instrumentation signals intelligence - A subcategory of signals intelligence, consisting of technical information and intelligence derived from the intercept of foreign electromagnetic emissions associated with the testing and operational deployment of non-US aerospace, surface, and subsurface systems. Foreign instrumentation signals include but are not limited to telemetry, beaconry, electronic interrogators, and video data links. Also called FISINT. See also signals intelligence. (ref JP 2-01)
  • foreign intelligence - Information relating to capabilities, intentions, and activities of foreign governments or elements thereof, foreign organizations, or foreign persons, or international terrorist activities. Also called FI. See also intelligence. (ref JP 2-0)
  • foreign intelligence entity - Any known or suspected foreign organization, person, or group (public, private, or governmental) that conducts intelligence activities to acquire US information, block or impair US intelligence collection, influence US policy, or disrupts US systems and programs. The term includes foreign intelligence and security services and international terrorists. Also called FIE. (ref JP 2-01.2)
  • foreign internal defense - Participation by civilian and military agencies of a government in any of the action programs taken by another government or other designated organization to free and protect its society from subversion, lawlessness, insurgency, terrorism, and other threats to its security. Also called FID. (ref JP 3-22)
  • foreign military intelligence collection activities - Entails the overt debriefing, by trained human intelligence personnel, of all US persons employed by the Department of Defense who have access to information of potential national security value. Also called FORMICA. (ref JP 2-01.2)
  • foreign military sales - That portion of United States security assistance authorized by the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, as amended, and the Arms Export Control Act of 1976, as amended. This assistance differs from the Military Assistance Program and the International Military Education and Training Program in that the recipient provides reimbursement for defense articles and services transferred. Also called FMS. (ref JP 4-08)
  • foreign national - Any person other than a US citizen, US permanent or temporary legal resident alien, or person in US custody. (ref JP 1-0)
  • foreign nation support - Civil and/or military assistance rendered to a nation when operating outside its national boundaries during military operations based on agreements mutually concluded between nations or on behalf of intergovernmental organizations. Also called FNS. See also host-nation support. (ref JP 1-06)
  • foreign object damage - Rags, pieces of paper, line, articles of clothing, nuts, bolts, or tools that, when misplaced or caught by air currents normally found around aircraft operations (jet blast, rotor or prop wash, engine intake), cause damage to aircraft systems or weapons or injury to personnel. Also called FOD. (ref JP 3-04)
  • As Amended Through 15 February 2016 JP 1-02 93 foreign service national - Foreign nationals who provide clerical, administrative, technical, fiscal, and other support at foreign service posts abroad and are not citizens of the United States. Also called FSN. (ref JP 3-68)
  • forensic-enabled intelligence - The intelligence resulting from the integration of scientifically examined materials and other information to establish full characterization, attribution, and the linkage of events, locations, items, signatures, nefarious intent, and persons of interest. Also called FEI. (ref JP 2-0)
  • formerly restricted data - Information removed from the restricted data category upon a joint determination by the Department of Energy (or antecedent agencies) and Department of Defense that such information relates primarily to the military utilization of atomic weapons and that such information can be adequately safeguarded as classified defense information. (Section 142d, Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended.) (ref JP 2- 01)
  • forward air controller - An officer (aviator/pilot) member of the tactical air control party who, from a forward ground or airborne position, controls aircraft in close air support of ground troops. Also called FAC. See also close air support. (ref JP 3-09.3)
  • forward air controller (airborne) - A specifically trained and qualified aviation officer, normally an airborne extension of the tactical air control party, who exercises control from the air of aircraft engaged in close air support of ground troops. Also called FAC(A). (ref JP 3-09.3)
  • forward area - An area in proximity to combat. (ref JP 4-02)
  • forward arming and refueling point - A temporary facility, organized, equipped, and deployed to provide fuel and ammunition necessary for the employment of aviation maneuver units in combat. Also called FARP. (ref JP 3-09.3)
  • forward aviation combat engineering - A mobility operation in which engineers perform tasks in support of forward aviation ground facilities. Also called FACE. See also combat engineering; reconnaissance. (ref JP 3-34)
  • forward edge of the battle area - The foremost limits of a series of areas in which ground combat units are deployed, excluding the areas in which the covering or screening forces are operating, designated to coordinate fire support, the positioning of forces, or the maneuver of units. Also called FEBA. (ref JP 3-09.3)
  • forward line of own troops - A line that indicates the most forward positions of friendly forces in any kind of military operation at a specific time. Also called FLOT. (ref JP 3-03)
  • As Amended Through 15 February 2016 94 JP 1-02 forward-looking infrared - An airborne, electro-optical thermal imaging device that detects far-infrared energy, converts the energy into an electronic signal, and provides a visible image for day or night viewing. Also called FLIR. (ref JP 3-09.3)
  • forward observer - An observer operating with front line troops trained to adjust ground or naval gunfire and pass back battlefield information. Also called FO. See also forward air controller; spotter. (ref JP 3-09)
  • forward operating base - An airfield used to support tactical operations without establishing full support facilities. Also called FOB. (ref JP 3-09.3)
  • forward operating site - A scaleable location outside the United States and US territories intended for rotational use by operating forces. Such expandable ďwarm facilitiesĒ may be maintained with a limited US military support presence and possibly pre-positioned equipment. Forward operating sites support rotational rather than permanently stationed forces and are a focus for bilateral and regional training. Also called FOS. See also cooperative security location; main operating base. (CJCS CM-0007-05) forward presence - Maintaining forward-deployed or stationed forces overseas to demonstrate national resolve, strengthen alliances, dissuade potential adversaries, and enhance the ability to respond quickly to contingencies. (ref JP 3-32)
  • forward resuscitative care - Care provided as close to the point of injury as possible based on current operational requirements to attain stabilization, achieve the most efficient use of life-and-limb saving medical treatment, and provide essential care so the patient can tolerate evacuation, which is known as Role 2 care in the North Atlantic Treaty Organization doctrine. Also called FRC. See also essential care; evacuation; medical treatment facility. (ref JP 4-02)
  • foundation geospatial-intelligence data - The base underlying data to provide context and a framework for display and visualization of the environment to support analysis operations and intelligence, which consists of: features; elevation; controlled imagery; geodetic sciences; geographic names and boundaries; aeronautical, maritime and human geography. (ref JP 2-03)
  • 463L system - A material handling system that consists of military and civilian aircraft cargo restraint rail systems, aircraft pallets, nets, tie down, coupling devices, facilities, handling equipment, procedures, and other components designed to efficiently accomplish the air logistics and aerial delivery mission. (ref JP 4-09)
  • fragmentary order - An abbreviated form of an operation order issued as needed after an operation order to change or modify that order or to execute a branch or sequel to that order. Also called FRAGORD. (ref JP 5-0)
  • freedom of navigation operations - Operations conducted to demonstrate US navigation, overflight, and related interests on, or under, and over the seas. (ref JP 3-0)
  • As Amended Through 15 February 2016 JP 1-02 95 free drop - The dropping of equipment or supplies from an aircraft without the use of parachutes. See also airdrop; air movement; free fall; high velocity drop; low velocity drop. (ref JP 3-17)
  • free fall - A parachute maneuver in which the parachute is manually activated at the discretion of the jumper or automatically at a preset altitude. See also airdrop; air movement; free drop; high velocity drop; low velocity drop. (ref JP 3-17)
  • free-fire area - A specific area into which any weapon system may fire without additional coordination with the establishing headquarters. Also called FFA. (ref JP 3-09)
  • free mail - Correspondence of a personal nature that weighs less than 11 ounces, to include audio and video recording tapes, from a member of the Armed Forces or designated civilian, mailed postage free from a Secretary of Defense approved free mail zone. (ref JP 1-0)
  • frequency deconfliction - A systematic management procedure to coordinate the use of the electromagnetic spectrum for operations, communications, and intelligence functions. Frequency deconfliction is one element of electromagnetic spectrum management. See also electromagnetic spectrum; electromagnetic spectrum management; electronic warfare. (ref JP 3-13.1)
  • friendly - A contact positively identified as friendly. (ref JP 3-01)
  • friendly force information requirement - Information the commander and staff need to understand the status of friendly force and supporting capabilities. Also called FFIR. (ref JP 3-0)
  • friendly force tracking - The process of fixing, observing, and reporting the location and movement of friendly forces. Also called FFT. (ref JP 3-09)
  • frustrated cargo - Any shipment of supplies and/or equipment which, while en route to destination, is stopped prior to receipt and for which further disposition instructions must be obtained. (ref JP 4-01.5)
  • full mobilization - Expansion of the active Armed Forces resulting from action by Congress and the President to mobilize for the duration of the emergency plus six months all Reserve Component units and individuals in the existing approved force structure, as well as all retired military personnel, and the resources needed for their support to meet the requirements of a war or other national emergency involving an external threat to the national security. (ref JP 4-05)
  • full-spectrum superiority - The cumulative effect of dominance in the air, land, maritime, and space domains and information environment (which includes cyberspace) that As Amended Through 15 February 2016 96 JP 1-02 permits the conduct of joint operations without effective opposition or prohibitive interference. (ref JP 3-0)
  • function - The broad, general, and enduring role for which an organization is designed, equipped, and trained. (ref JP 1)
  • functional component command - A command normally, but not necessarily, composed of forces of two or more Military Departments which may be established across the range of military operations to perform particular operational missions that may be of short duration or may extend over a period of time. See also component; Service component command. (ref JP 1)
  • functional damage assessment - The estimate of the effect of military force to degrade or destroy the functional or operational capability of the target to perform its intended mission and on the level of success in achieving operational objectives established against the target. See also damage assessment; target. (ref JP 3-60)
  • fusion - In intelligence usage, the process of managing information to conduct all-source analysis and derive a complete assessment of activity. (ref JP 2-0)
  • As Amended Through 15 February 2016 G JP 1-02 97 general agency agreement - A contract between the Maritime Administration and a steamship company which, as general agent, exercises administrative control over a government-owned ship for employment by the Military Sealift Command. Also called GAA. See also Military Sealift Command. (ref JP 3-02.1)
  • general cargo - Cargo that is suitable for loading in general, nonspecialized stowage areas or standard shipping containers; e.g., boxes, barrels, bales, crates, packages, bundles, and pallets. (ref JP 4-09)
  • general engineering - Those engineering capabilities and activities, other than combat engineering, that provide infrastructure and modify, maintain, or protect the physical environment. Also called GE. (ref JP 3-34)
  • general military intelligence - Intelligence concerning the military capabilities of foreign countries or organizations, or topics affecting potential United States or multinational military operations. Also called GMI. See also intelligence. (ref JP 2-0)
  • general support - 1. That support which is given to the supported force as a whole and not to any particular subdivision thereof. See also close support; direct support; mutual support; support. 2. A tactical artillery mission. Also called GS. See also direct support; general support-reinforcing. (ref JP 3-09.3)
  • general support-reinforcing - The artillery mission of supporting the force as a whole and of providing reinforcing fires for other artillery units. Also called GSR. (ref JP 3-09.3)
  • general unloading period - In amphibious operations, that part of the ship-to-shore movement in which unloading is primarily logistic in character, and emphasizes speed and volume of unloading operations. See also initial unloading period. (ref JP 3-02)
  • geographic coordinates - The quantities of latitude and longitude which define the position of a point on the surface of the Earth with respect to the reference spheroid. (ref JP 2-03)
  • geospatial engineering - Those engineering capabilities and activities that contribute to a clear understanding of the physical environment by providing geospatial information and services to commanders and staffs. See also geospatial information and services. (ref JP 3-34)
  • geospatial information - Information that identifies the geographic location and characteristics of natural or constructed features and boundaries on the Earth, including: statistical data and information derived from, among other things, remote sensing, mapping, and surveying technologies; and mapping, charting, geodetic data and related products. (ref JP 2-03)
  • As Amended Through 15 February 2016 98 JP 1-02 geospatial information and services - The collection, information extraction, storage, dissemination, and exploitation of geodetic, geomagnetic, imagery, gravimetric, aeronautical, topographic, hydrographic, littoral, cultural, and toponymic data accurately referenced to a precise location on the Earthís surface. Also called GI&S. (ref JP 2-03)
  • geospatial intelligence - The exploitation and analysis of imagery and geospatial information to describe, assess, and visually depict physical features and geographically referenced activities on the Earth. Geospatial intelligence consists of imagery, imagery intelligence, and geospatial information. Also called GEOINT. (ref JP 2-03)
  • geospatial-intelligence base for contingency operations - A mobile visualization tool that provides access to geospatial data where networks or infrastructure have been damaged or do not exist. Also called GIBCO. (ref JP 3-68)
  • geospatial intelligence operations - The tasks, activities, and events to collect, manage, analyze, generate, visualize, and provide imagery, imagery intelligence, and geospatial information necessary to support national and defense missions and international arrangements. Also called GEOINT operations. (ref JP 2-03)
  • Global Air Transportation Execution System - The Air Mobility Commandís aerial port operations and management information system designed to support automated cargo and passenger processing, the reporting of in-transit visibility data to the Global Transportation Network, and billing to Air Mobility Commandís financial management directorate. Also called GATES. See also Air Mobility Command. (ref JP 3-17)
  • global ballistic missile defense - Defense against ballistic missile threats that cross one or more geographical combatant command boundaries and requires synchronization among the affected combatant commands. Also called GBMD. (ref JP 3-01)
  • Global Combat Support System-Joint - The primary information technology application used to provide automation support to the joint logistician. Also called GCSS-J. (ref JP 4-0)
  • Global Command and Control System - A deployable command and control system supporting forces for joint and multinational operations across the range of military operations with compatible, interoperable, and integrated communications systems. Also called GCCS. See also command and control; command and control system. (ref JP 6-0)
  • Global Decision Support System - The command and control system employed by mobility air forces that provides schedules, arrival and/or departure information, and status data to support in-transit visibility of mobility airlift and air refueling aircraft and aircrews. Also called GDSS. See also Air Mobility Command; in-transit visibility. (ref JP 3-17)
  • As Amended Through 15 February 2016 JP 1-02 99 global distribution - The process that coordinates and synchronizes fulfillment of joint force requirements from point of origin to point of employment. See also distribution. (ref JP 4-09)
  • global distribution of materiel - The process of providing materiel from the source of supply to its point of consumption or use on a worldwide basis. See also global distribution. (ref JP 4-09)
  • global fleet station - A persistent sea base of operations from which to interact with partner nation military and civilian populations and the global maritime community. Also called GFS. (ref JP 3-32)
  • global force management - 1. A process that provides near-term sourcing solutions while providing the integrating mechanism between force apportionment, allocation, and assignment. Also call GFM. (ref JP 3-35)
    2. A process to align assignment, allocation, and apportionment of forces to combatant commanders in support of the national defense strategy and joint force availability requirements. (DODI 8260.03) global maritime partnership - An approach to cooperation among maritime nations with a shared stake in international commerce, safety, security, and freedom of the seas. Also called GMP. (ref JP 3-32)
  • Global Patient Movement Requirements Center - A joint activity reporting directly to the Commander, United States Transportation Command, which provides medical regulating and aeromedical evacuation scheduling for the continental United States and intertheater operations, provides support to the theater patient movement requirements centers, and coordinates with supporting resource providers to identify available assets and communicates transport to bed plans to the appropriate transportation agency for execution. Also called GPMRC. See also medical treatment facility. (ref JP 4-02)
  • Global Positioning System - A satellite-based radio navigation system operated by the Department of Defense to provide all military, civil, and commercial users with precise positioning, navigation, and timing. Also called GPS. (ref JP 3-14)
  • global transportation management - The integrated process of satisfying transportation requirements using the Defense Transportation System to meet national security objectives. Also called GTM. See also Defense Transportation System. (ref JP 4-01)
  • go/no-go - A critical point at which a decision to proceed or not must be made. (ref JP 3-02)
  • governance - The stateís ability to serve the citizens through the rules, processes, and behavior by which interests are articulated, resources are managed, and power is exercised in a society, including the representative participatory decision-making processes typically guaranteed under inclusive, constitutional authority. (ref JP 3-24)
  • As Amended Through 15 February 2016 100 JP 1-02 governing factors - In the context of joint operation planning, those aspects of the situation (or externally imposed factors) that the commander deems critical to the accomplishment of the mission. (ref JP 5-0)
  • grid coordinates - Coordinates of a grid coordinate system to which numbers and letters are assigned for use in designating a point on a gridded map, photograph, or chart. (ref JP 3-09)
  • ground alert - That status in which aircraft on the ground/deck are fully serviced and armed, with combat crews in readiness to take off within a specified period of time after receipt of a mission order. See also airborne alert. (ref JP 3-01)
  • ground-based interceptor - A fixed-based, surface-to-air missile for defense against longrange ballistic missiles using an exo-atmospheric hit-to-kill interception of the targeted reentry vehicle in the midcourse phase of flight. Also called GBI. (ref JP 3-01)
  • ground-based midcourse defense - A surface-to-air ballistic missile defense system for exo-atmospheric midcourse phase interception of long-range ballistic missiles using the ground-based interceptors. Also called GMD. (ref JP 3-01)
  • group - 1. A flexible administrative and tactical unit composed of either two or more battalions or two or more squadrons. 2. A number of ships and/or aircraft, normally a subdivision of a force, assigned for a specific purpose. 3. A long-standing functional organization that is formed to support a broad function within a joint force commanderís headquarters. Also called GP. (ref JP 3-33)
  • guarded frequencies - A list of time-oriented, enemy frequencies that are currently being exploited for combat information and intelligence or jammed after the commander has weighed the potential operational gain against the loss of the technical information. See also electronic warfare. (ref JP 3-13.1)
  • guerrilla force - A group of irregular, predominantly indigenous personnel organized along military lines to conduct military and paramilitary operations in enemy-held, hostile, or denied territory. (ref JP 3-05)
  • guided missile - An unmanned vehicle moving above the surface of the Earth whose trajectory or flight path is capable of being altered by an external or internal mechanism. See also ballistic missile. (ref JP 3-01)
  • gun-target line - An imaginary straight line from gun to target. Also called GTL. (ref JP 3-09.3)
  • As Amended Through 15 February 2016 H JP 1-02 101 half-life - The time required for the activity of a given radioactive species to decrease to half of its initial value due to radioactive decay. (ref JP 3-11)
  • hasty breach - The creation of lanes through enemy minefields by expedient methods such as blasting with demolitions, pushing rollers or disabled vehicles through the minefields when the time factor does not permit detailed reconnaissance, deliberate breaching, or bypassing the obstacle. (ref JP 3-15)
  • hazard - A condition with the potential to cause injury, illness, or death of personnel; damage to or loss of equipment or property; or mission degradation. See also injury; risk. (ref JP 3-33)
  • hazardous cargo - Cargo that includes not only large bulk-type categories such as explosives, pyrotechnics, petroleum, oils, and lubricants, compressed gases, corrosives and batteries, but lesser quantity materials like super-tropical bleach (oxiderizer), pesticides, poisons, medicines, specialized medical chemicals and medical waste that can be loaded as cargo. (ref JP 3-02.1)
  • hazards of electromagnetic radiation to fuels - The potential hazard that is created when volatile combustibles, such as fuel, are exposed to electromagnetic fields of sufficient energy to cause ignition. Also called HERF. (ref JP 3-04)
  • hazards of electromagnetic radiation to ordnance - The danger of accidental actuation of electro-explosive devices or otherwise electrically activating ordnance because of radio frequency electromagnetic fields. Also called HERO. See also electromagnetic radiation; HERO SAFE ordnance; HERO UNSAFE ordnance; ordnance. (ref JP 3-04)
  • hazards of electromagnetic radiation to personnel - The potential hazard that exists when personnel are exposed to an electromagnetic field of sufficient intensity to heat the human body. Also called HERP. (ref JP 3-04)
  • head of contracting activity - The official who has overall responsibility for managing the contracting activity. Also called HCA. (ref JP 4-10)
  • head-up display - A display of flight, navigation, attack, or other information superimposed upon the pilotís forward field of view. Also called HUD. See also flight. (ref JP 3-09.3)
  • health care provider - Any member of the Armed Forces, civilian employee of the Department of Defense, or personal services contract employee under Title 10, United States Code, Section 1091 authorized by the Department of Defense to perform health care functions. Also called DOD health care provider. (ref JP 4-02)
  • As Amended Through 15 February 2016 102 JP 1-02 health service support - All services performed, provided, or arranged to promote, improve, conserve, or restore the mental or physical well-being of personnel, which include, but are not limited to, the management of health services resources, such as manpower, monies, and facilities; preventive and curative health measures; evacuation of the wounded, injured, or sick; selection of the medically fit and disposition of the medically unfit; blood management; medical supply, equipment, and maintenance thereof; combat and operational stress control; and medical, dental, veterinary, laboratory, optometric, nutrition therapy, and medical intelligence services. Also called HSS. (ref JP 4-02)
  • health surveillance - The regular or repeated collection, analysis, and interpretation of health-related data and the dissemination of information to monitor the health of a population and to identify potential health risks, thereby enabling timely interventions to prevent, treat, reduce, or control disease and injury, which includes occupational and environmental health surveillance and medical surveillance subcomponents. (ref JP 4-02)
  • health threat - A composite of ongoing or potential enemy actions; adverse environmental, occupational, and geographic and meteorological conditions; endemic diseases; and employment of chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear weapons (to include weapons of mass destruction) that have the potential to affect the short- or long-term health (including psychological impact) of personnel. (ref JP 4-02)
  • heavy-lift cargo - 1. Any single cargo lift, weighing over 5 long tons, and to be handled aboard ship. 2. In Marine Corps usage, individual units of cargo that exceed 800 pounds in weight or 100 cubic feet in volume. (ref JP 4-01.5)
  • heavy-lift ship - A ship specially designed and capable of loading and unloading heavy and bulky items and has booms of sufficient capacity to accommodate a single lift of 100 tons. (ref JP 4-01.2)
  • height of burst - The vertical distance from the Earthís surface or target to the point of burst. Also called HOB. (ref JP 3-41)
  • helicopter coordination section - The section within the Navy tactical air control center that coordinates rotary-wing air operations with the air traffic control center(s) in the amphibious force. Also called HCS. (ref JP 3-02)
  • HERO SAFE ordnance - Any ordnance item that is percussion initiated, sufficiently shielded or otherwise so protected that all electro-explosive devices contained by the item are immune to adverse effects (safety or reliability) when the item is employed in its expected radio frequency environments, provided that the general hazards of electromagnetic radiation to ordnance requirements defined in the hazards from electromagnetic radiation manual are observed. See also electromagnetic radiation; hazards of electromagnetic radiation to ordnance; HERO SUSCEPTIBLE ordnance; HERO UNSAFE ordnance; ordnance. (ref JP 3-04)
  • As Amended Through 15 February 2016 JP 1-02 103 HERO SUSCEPTIBLE ordnance - Any ordnance item containing electro-explosive devices proven by test or analysis to be adversely affected by radio frequency energy to the point that the safety and/or reliability of the system is in jeopardy when the system is employed in its expected radio frequency environment. See also electromagnetic radiation; hazards of electromagnetic radiation to ordnance; HERO SAFE ordnance; HERO UNSAFE ordnance; ordnance. (ref JP 3-04)
  • HERO UNSAFE ordnance - Any ordnance item containing electro-explosive devices that has not been classified as HERO SAFE or HERO SUSCEPTIBLE ordnance as a result of a hazards of electromagnetic radiation to ordnance (HERO) analysis or test is considered HERO UNSAFE ordnance. Additionally, any ordnance item containing electro-explosive devices (including those previously classified as HERO SAFE or HERO SUSCEPTIBLE ordnance) that has its internal wiring exposed; when tests are being conducted on that item that result in additional electrical connections to the item; when electro-explosive devices having exposed wire leads are present and handled or loaded in any but the tested condition; when the item is being assembled or disassembled; or when such ordnance items are damaged causing exposure of internal wiring or components or destroying engineered HERO protective devices. See also electromagnetic radiation; hazards of electromagnetic radiation to ordnance; HERO SAFE ordnance; HERO SUSCEPTIBLE ordnance; ordnance. (ref JP 3-04)
  • H-hour - 1. The specific hour on D-day at which a particular operation commences. (ref JP 5- 0)
    2. In amphibious operations, the time the first landing craft or amphibious vehicle of the waterborne wave lands or is scheduled to land on the beach, and in some cases, the commencement of countermine breaching operations. (ref JP 3-02)
  • high altitude bombing - Horizontal bombing with the height of release over 15,000 feet. (ref JP 3-09.3)
  • high-altitude missile engagement zone - In air defense, that airspace of defined dimensions within which the responsibility for engagement of air threats normally rests with highaltitude surface-to-air missiles. Also called HIMEZ. (ref JP 3-01)
  • high-density airspace control zone - Airspace designated in an airspace control plan or airspace control order in which there is a concentrated employment of numerous and varied weapons and airspace users. Also called HIDACZ. (ref JP 3-52)
  • high-payoff target - A target whose loss to the enemy will significantly contribute to the success of the friendly course of action. Also called HPT. See also high-value target; target. (ref JP 3-60)
  • high-risk personnel - Personnel who, by their grade, assignment, symbolic value, or relative isolation, are likely to be attractive or accessible terrorist targets. Also called HRP. See also antiterrorism. (ref JP 3-07.2)
  • As Amended Through 15 February 2016 104 JP 1-02 high value airborne asset protection - A defensive counterair mission using fighter escorts that defends airborne national assets which are so important that the loss of even one could seriously impact United States warfighting capabilities or provide the enemy with significant propaganda value. Also called HVAA protection. See also defensive counterair. (ref JP 3-01)
  • high-value target - A target the enemy commander requires for the successful completion of the mission. Also called HVT. See also high-payoff target; target. (ref JP 3-60)
  • high velocity drop - A drop procedure in which the drop velocity is greater than 30 feet per second and lower than free drop velocity. See also airdrop. (ref JP 3-17)
  • homeland - The physical region that includes the continental United States, Alaska, Hawaii, United States territories, and surrounding territorial waters and airspace. (ref JP 3-28)
  • homeland defense - The protection of United States sovereignty, territory, domestic population, and critical infrastructure against external threats and aggression or other threats as directed by the President. Also called HD. (ref JP 3-27)
  • homeland security - A concerted national effort to prevent terrorist attacks within the United States; reduce Americaís vulnerability to terrorism, major disasters, and other emergencies; and minimize the damage and recover from attacks, major disasters, and other emergencies that occur. Also called HS. (ref JP 3-27)
  • home station - The permanent location of active duty units and Reserve Component units. See also active duty; Reserve Component. (ref JP 4-05)
  • homing - The technique whereby a mobile station directs itself, or is directed, towards a source of primary or reflected energy, or to a specified point. (ref JP 3-50)
  • homing adaptor - A device, when used with an aircraft radio receiver, that produces aural and/or visual signals indicating the direction of a transmitting radio station with respect to the heading of the aircraft. (ref JP 3-50)
  • honey pot - A trap set to detect, deflect, or in some manner counteract attempts at unauthorized use of information systems. Generally it consists of a computer, data, or a network site that appears to be part of a network, but is actually isolated, (un)protected, and monitored, and which seems to contain information or a resource of value to attackers. (ref JP 3-13.4)
  • horizontal stowage - The lateral distribution of unit equipment or categories of supplies so that they can be unloaded simultaneously from two or more holds. (ref JP 3-02.1)
  • hostage rescue - A personnel recovery method used to recover isolated personnel who are specifically designated as hostages. Also called HR. (ref JP 3-50)
  • As Amended Through 15 February 2016 JP 1-02 105 host country - A nation which permits, either by written agreement or official invitation, government representatives and/or agencies of another nation to operate, under specified conditions, within its borders. (ref JP 2-01.2)
  • hostile act - An attack or other use of force against the United States, United States forces, or other designated persons or property to preclude or impede the mission and/or duties of United States forces, including the recovery of United States personnel or vital United States Government property. (ref JP 3-28)
  • hostile casualty - A person who is the victim of a terrorist activity or who becomes a casualty ďin action.Ē ďIn actionĒ characterizes the casualty as having been the direct result of hostile action, sustained in combat or relating thereto, or sustained going to or returning from a combat mission provided that the occurrence was directly related to hostile action. Included are persons killed or wounded mistakenly or accidentally by friendly fire directed at a hostile force or what is thought to be a hostile force. However, not to be considered as sustained in action and not to be interpreted as hostile casualties are injuries or death due to the elements, self-inflicted wounds, combat fatigue, and except in unusual cases, wounds or death inflicted by a friendly force while the individual is in an absent-without-leave, deserter, or dropped-from-rolls status or is voluntarily absent from a place of duty. See also casualty. hostile intent - The threat of imminent use of force against the United States, United States forces, or other designated persons or property. (ref JP 3-01)
  • host nation - A nation which receives the forces and/or supplies of allied nations and/or NATO organizations to be located on, to operate in, or to transit through its territory. Also called HN. (ref JP 3-57)
  • host-nation support - Civil and/or military assistance rendered by a nation to foreign forces within its territory during peacetime, crises or emergencies, or war based on agreements mutually concluded between nations. Also called HNS. See also host nation. (ref JP 4-0)
  • hub - An organization that sorts and distributes inbound cargo from wholesale supply sources (airlifted, sealifted, and ground transportable) and/or from within the theater. See also hub and spoke distribution; spoke. (ref JP 4-09)
  • hub and spoke distribution - A physical distribution system, in which a major port serves as a central point from which cargo is moved to and from several radiating points to increase transportation efficiencies and in-transit visibility. See also distribution; distribution system; hub; in-transit visibility; spoke. (ref JP 4-09)
  • human factors - The physical, cultural, psychological, and behavioral attributes of an individual or group that influence perceptions, understanding, and interactions. (ref JP 2-0)
  • human intelligence - A category of intelligence derived from information collected and provided by human sources. Also called HUMINT. (ref JP 2-0)
  • As Amended Through 15 February 2016 106 JP 1-02 humanitarian and civic assistance - Assistance to the local populace, specifically authorized by Title 10, United States Code, Section 401, and funded under separate authorities, provided by predominantly United States forces in conjunction with military operations. Also called HCA. See also foreign humanitarian assistance. (ref JP 3-29)
  • humanitarian assistance coordination center - A temporary center established by a geographic combatant commander to assist with interagency coordination and planning during the early planning and coordination stages of foreign humanitarian assistance operations. Also called HACC. See also foreign humanitarian assistance; interagency coordination. (ref JP 3-29)
  • humanitarian demining assistance - The activities related to the furnishing of education, training, and technical assistance with respect to the detection and clearance of land mines and other explosive remnants of war. (ref JP 3-29)
  • humanitarian mine action - Activities that strive to reduce the social, economic, and environmental impact of land mines, unexploded ordnance and small arms ammunition - also characterized as explosive remnants of war. (ref JP 3-15)
  • humanitarian operations center - An international and interagency body that coordinates the overall relief strategy and unity of effort among all participants in a large foreign humanitarian assistance operation. Also called HOC. See also operation. (ref JP 3-29)
  • hung ordnance - Those weapons or stores on an aircraft that the pilot has attempted to drop or fire but could not because of a malfunction of the weapon, rack or launcher, or aircraft release and control system. (ref JP 3-04)
  • hydrographic reconnaissance - Reconnaissance of an area of water to determine depths, beach gradients, the nature of the bottom, and the location of coral reefs, rocks, shoals, and man-made obstacles. (ref JP 3-02)
  • hygiene services - The provision of personal hygiene facilities and waste collection; and the cleaning, repair, replacement, and return of individual clothing and equipment items in a deployed environment. (ref JP 4-0)
  • hyperspectral imagery - Term used to describe the imagery derived from subdividing the electromagnetic spectrum into very narrow bandwidths allowing images useful in precise terrain or target analysis to be formed. Also called HSI. (ref JP 2-03)
  • As Amended Through 15 February 2016 I JP 1-02 107 identification - 1. The process of determining the friendly or hostile character of an unknown detected contact. 2. In arms control, the process of determining which nation is responsible for the detected violations of any arms control measure. 3. In ground combat operations, discrimination between recognizable objects as being friendly or enemy, or the name that belongs to the object as a member of a class. Also called ID. (ref JP 3-01)
  • identification, friend or foe - A device that emits a signal positively identifying it as a friendly. Also called IFF. See also air defense. (ref JP 3-52)
  • identification maneuver - A maneuver performed for identification purposes. (ref JP 3-52)
  • identity intelligence - The intelligence resulting from the processing of identity attributes concerning individuals, groups, networks, or populations of interest. Also called I2. (ref JP 2-0)
  • imagery - A likeness or presentation of any natural or man-made feature or related object or activity, and the positional data acquired at the same time the likeness or representation was acquired, including: products produced by space-based national intelligence reconnaissance systems; and likeness and presentations produced by satellites, airborne platforms, unmanned aerial vehicles, or other similar means (except that such term does not include handheld or clandestine photography taken by or on behalf of human intelligence collection organizations). (ref JP 2-03)
  • imagery exploitation - The cycle of processing, using, interpreting, mensuration and/or manipulating imagery, and any assembly or consolidation of the results for dissemination. (ref JP 2-03)
  • imagery intelligence - The technical, geographic, and intelligence information derived through the interpretation or analysis of imagery and collateral materials. Also called IMINT. See also intelligence. (ref JP 2-03)
  • immediate air support - Air support to meet specific requests which arise during the course of a battle and which by their nature cannot be planned in advance. (ref JP 3-09.3)
  • immediate decontamination - Decontamination carried out by individuals immediately upon becoming contaminated to save lives, minimize casualties, and limit the spread of contamination. Also called emergency decontamination. See also contamination; decontamination. (ref JP 3-11)
  • immediate response - Any form of immediate action taken in the United States and territories to save lives, prevent human suffering, or mitigate great property damage in response to a request for assistance from a civil authority, under imminently serious conditions when time does not permit approval from a higher authority. (ref JP 3-28)
  • As Amended Through 15 February 2016 108 JP 1-02 immediate response authority - A Federal military commanderís, Department of Defense component headís, and/or responsible Department of Defense civilian officialís authority temporarily to employ resources under their control, subject to any supplemental direction provided by higher headquarters, and provide those resources to save lives, prevent human suffering, or mitigate great property damage in response to a request for assistance from a civil authority, under imminently serious conditions when time does not permit approval from a higher authority within the United States. Immediate response authority does not permit actions that would subject civilians to the use of military power that is regulatory, prescriptive, proscriptive, or compulsory. (DODD 3025.18) implementation - Procedures governing the mobilization of the force and the deployment, employment, and sustainment of military operations in response to execution orders issued by the Secretary of Defense. Also called IMP. (ref JP 5-0)
  • implied task - In the context of joint operation planning, a task derived during mission analysis that an organization must perform or prepare to perform to accomplish a specified task or the mission, but which is not stated in the higher headquarters order. See also essential task; specified task. (ref JP 5-0)
  • imprest fund - A cash fund of a fixed amount established through an advance of funds, without appropriation change, to an authorized imprest fund cashier to effect immediate cash payments of relatively small amounts for authorized purchases of supplies and nonpersonal services. (ref JP 1-0)
  • improvised explosive device - A weapon that is fabricated or emplaced in an unconventional manner incorporating destructive, lethal, noxious, pyrotechnic, or incendiary chemicals designed to kill, destroy, incapacitate, harass, deny mobility, or distract. Also called IED. (ref JP 3-15.1)
  • inactive duty training - Authorized training performed by a member of a Reserve Component not on active duty or active duty for training and consisting of regularly scheduled unit training assemblies, additional training assemblies, periods of appropriate duty or equivalent training, and any special additional duties authorized for Reserve Component personnel by the Secretary concerned, and performed by them in connection with the prescribed activities of the organization in which they are assigned with or without pay. Also called IDT. See also active duty for training. (ref JP 1)
  • inactive status - Status of reserve members on an inactive status list of a Reserve Component or assigned to the Inactive Army National Guard. (ref JP 4-05)
  • incapacitating agent - A chemical agent, which produces temporary disabling conditions that can be physical or mental and persist for hours or days after exposure to the agent has ceased. (ref JP 3-11)
  • As Amended Through 15 February 2016 JP 1-02 109 incident - An occurrence, caused by either human action or natural phenomena, that requires action to prevent or minimize loss of life, or damage, loss of, or other risks to property, information, and/or natural resources. See also information operations. (ref JP 3-28)
  • incident awareness and assessment - The Secretary of Defense approved use of Department of Defense intelligence, surveillance, reconnaissance, and other intelligence capabilities for domestic non-intelligence support for defense support of civil authorities. Also called IAA. (ref JP 3-28)
  • incident command system - A standardized on-scene emergency management construct designed to aid in the management of resources during incidents. Also called ICS. (ref JP 3-28)
  • incident management - A national comprehensive approach to preventing, preparing for, responding to, and recovering from terrorist attacks, major disasters, and other emergencies. (ref JP 3-28)
  • incremental costs - Costs additional to the Service appropriations that would not have been incurred absent support of the contingency operation. See also financial management. (ref JP 1-06)
  • indications - In intelligence usage, information in various degrees of evaluation, all of which bear on the intention of a potential enemy to adopt or reject a course of action. (ref JP 2-0)
  • indicator - 1. In intelligence usage, an item of information which reflects the intention or capability of an adversary to adopt or reject a course of action. (ref JP 2-0)
    2. In operations security usage, data derived from friendly detectable actions and open-source information that an adversary can interpret and piece together to reach conclusions or estimates of friendly intentions, capabilities, or activities. (ref JP 3-13.3)
  • indigenous populations and institutions - The societal framework of an operational environment including citizens, legal and illegal immigrants, dislocated civilians, and governmental, tribal, ethnic, religious, commercial, and private organizations and entities. Also called IPI. (ref JP 3-57)
  • individual mobilization augmentee - An individual reservist attending drills who receives training and is preassigned to an Active Component organization, a Selective Service System, or a Federal Emergency Management Agency billet that must be filled on, or shortly after, mobilization. Also called IMA. (ref JP 4-05)
  • individual protective equipment - In chemical, biological, radiological, or nuclear operations, the personal clothing and equipment required to protect an individual from chemical, biological, and radiological hazards and some nuclear hazards. Also called IPE. (ref JP 3-11)
  • As Amended Through 15 February 2016 110 JP 1-02 Individual Ready Reserve - A manpower pool consisting of individuals who have had some training or who have served previously in the Active Component or in the Selected Reserve, and may have some period of their military service obligation remaining. Also called IRR. See also Selected Reserve. (ref JP 4-05)
  • industrial mobilization - The transformation of industry from its peacetime activity to the industrial program necessary to support the national military objectives. See also mobilization. (ref JP 4-05)
  • industrial preparedness - The state of preparedness of industry to produce essential materiel to support the national military objectives. (ref JP 4-05)
  • industrial preparedness program - Plans, actions, or measures for the transformation of the industrial base, both government-owned and civilian-owned, from its peacetime activity to the emergency program necessary to support the national military objectives. Also called IPP. (ref JP 4-05)
  • inertial navigation system - A self-contained navigation system using inertial detectors, which automatically provides vehicle position, heading, and velocity. Also called INS. (ref JP 3-09)
  • influence mine - A mine actuated by the effect of a target on some physical condition in the vicinity of the mine or on radiations emanating from the mine. See also mine. (ref JP 3-15)
  • influence sweep - A sweep designed to produce an influence similar to that produced by a ship and thus actuate mines. (ref JP 3-15)
  • information assurance - Actions that protect and defend information systems by ensuring availability, integrity, authentication, confidentiality, and nonrepudiation. Also called IA. See also information operations. (ref JP 3-12)
  • information environment - The aggregate of individuals, organizations, and systems that collect, process, disseminate, or act on information. (ref JP 3-13)
  • information management - The function of managing an organizationís information resources for the handling of data and information acquired by one or many different systems, individuals, and organizations in a way that optimizes access by all who have a share in that data or a right to that information. Also called IM. (ref JP 3-0)
  • information operations - The integrated employment, during military operations, of information-related capabilities in concert with other lines of operation to influence, disrupt, corrupt, or usurp the decision-making of adversaries and potential adversaries while protecting our own. Also called IO. See also electronic warfare; military deception; operations security; military information support operations. (ref JP 3-13)
  • As Amended Through 15 February 2016 JP 1-02 111 information operations force - A force consisting of units, staff elements, individual military professionals in the Active and Reserve Components, and DOD civilian employees who conduct or directly support the integration of information-related capabilities against adversaries and potential adversaries during military operations as well as those who train these professionals. Also called IO force. (DODD 3600.01) information operations intelligence integration - The integration of intelligence disciplines and analytic methods to characterize and forecast, identify vulnerabilities, determine effects, and assess the information environment. Also called IOII. (ref JP 3-13)
  • information-related capability - A tool, technique, or activity employed within a dimension of the information environment that can be used to create effects and operationally desirable conditions. Also called IRC. (ref JP 3-13)
  • information report - Report used to forward raw information collected to fulfill intelligence requirements. (ref JP 2-01)
  • information requirements - In intelligence usage, those items of information regarding the adversary and other relevant aspects of the operational environment that need to be collected and processed in order to meet the intelligence requirements of a commander. Also called IR. See also priority intelligence requirement. (ref JP 2-0)
  • information superiority - The operational advantage derived from the ability to collect, process, and disseminate an uninterrupted flow of information while exploiting or denying an adversaryís ability to do the same. See also information operations. (ref JP 3-13)
  • infrared imagery - That imagery produced as a result of sensing electromagnetic radiations emitted or reflected from a given target surface in the infrared position of the electromagnetic spectrum (approximately 0.72 to 1,000 microns). (ref JP 2-03)
  • infrared pointer - A low power laser device operating in the near infrared light spectrum that is visible with light amplifying night vision devices. Also called IR pointer. (ref JP 3-09.3)
  • initial operational capability - The first attainment of the capability to employ effectively a weapon, item of equipment, or system of approved specific characteristics that is manned or operated by an adequately trained, equipped, and supported military unit or force. Also called IOC. initial radiation - The radiation, essentially neutrons and gamma rays, resulting from a nuclear burst and emitted from the fireball within one minute after burst. See also residual radiation. (ref JP 3-11)
  • initial reception point - In personnel recovery, a secure area or facility under friendly control where initial reception of recovered isolated personnel can safely take place. As Amended Through 15 February 2016 112 JP 1-02 (ref JP 3-50)
  • initial response force - The first unit, usually military police, on the scene of a terrorist incident. See also antiterrorism. (ref JP 3-07.2)
  • initial unloading period - In amphibious operations, that part of the ship-to-shore movement in which unloading is primarily tactical in character and must be instantly responsive to landing force requirements. See also general unloading period. (ref JP 3-02)
  • initiating directive - An order to a subordinate commander to conduct military operations as directed. Also called ID. (ref JP 3-18)
  • injury - 1. A term comprising such conditions as fractures, wounds, sprains, strains, dislocations, concussions, and compressions. 2. Conditions resulting from extremes of temperature or prolonged exposure. 3. Acute poisonings (except those due to contaminated food) resulting from exposure to a toxic or poisonous substance. See also casualty. (ref JP 4-02)
  • inland petroleum distribution system - A multi-product system consisting of both commercially available and military standard petroleum equipment that can be assembled by military personnel and, when assembled into an integrated petroleum distribution system, provides the military with the capability required to support an operational force with bulk fuels. Also called IPDS. (ref JP 4-03)
  • inner transport area - In amphibious operations, an area as close to the landing beach as depth of water, navigational hazards, boat traffic, and enemy action permit, to which transports may move to expedite unloading. See also outer transport area; transport area. (ref JP 3-02)
  • instrument approach procedure - A series of predetermined maneuvers for the orderly transfer of an aircraft under instrument flight conditions from the beginning of the initial approach to a landing or to a point from which a landing may be made visually or the missed approach procedure is initiated. (ref JP 3-04)
  • instrument meteorological conditions - Meteorological conditions expressed in terms of visibility, distance from cloud, and ceiling; less than minimums specified for visual meteorological conditions. Also called IMC. See also visual meteorological conditions. (ref JP 3-04)
  • instruments of national power - All of the means available to the government in its pursuit of national objectives. They are expressed as diplomatic, economic, informational and military. (ref JP 1)
  • in support of - Assisting or protecting another formation, unit, or organization while remaining under original control. (ref JP 1)
  • As Amended Through 15 February 2016 JP 1-02 113 insurgency - The organized use of subversion and violence to seize, nullify, or challenge political control of a region. Insurgency can also refer to the group itself. (ref JP 3-24)
  • integrated air and missile defense - The integration of capabilities and overlapping operations to defend the homeland and United States national interests, protect the joint force, and enable freedom of action by negating an adversaryís ability to create adverse effects from their air and missile capabilities. Also called IAMD. (ref JP 3-01)
  • integrated consumable item support - A decision support system that takes time-phased force and deployment data and calculates the ability of the Defense Logistics Agency to support those plans. Also called ICIS. (ref JP 4-03)
  • Integrated Data Environment/Global Transportation Network Convergence - The intransit visibility system of record providing expanded common integrated data and application services enabling a common logistics picture, distribution visibility, and materiel asset/in-transit visibility for distribution solutions. Also called IGC. (ref JP 4-09)
  • integrated financial operations - The integration, synchronization, prioritization, and targeting of fiscal resources and capabilities across United States departments and agencies, multinational partners, and nongovernmental organizations against an adversary and in support of the population. Also called IFO. (ref JP 1-06)
  • integrated logistic support - A composite of all the support considerations necessary to assure the effective and economical support of a system for its life cycle. Also called ILS. (ref JP 4-01.5)
  • integrated materiel management - The exercise of total Department of Defense-level management responsibility for a federal supply group or class, commodity, or item for a single agency, which normally includes computation of requirements, funding, budgeting, storing, issuing, cataloging, standardizing, and procuring functions. Also called IMM. (ref JP 4-09)
  • integrated priority list - A list of a combatant commanderís highest priority requirements, prioritized across Service and functional lines, defining shortfalls in key programs that, in the judgment of the combatant commander, adversely affect the capability of the combatant commanderís forces to accomplish their assigned mission. Also called IPL. (ref JP 1-04)
  • integrated staff - A staff in which one officer only is appointed to each post on the establishment of the headquarters, irrespective of nationality and Service. See also multinational staff; joint staff. (ref JP 3-16)
  • integration - 1. In force protection, the synchronized transfer of units into an operational commander's force prior to mission execution. 2. The arrangement of military forces and their actions to create a force that operates by engaging as a whole. 3. In photography, a As Amended Through 15 February 2016 114 JP 1-02 process by which the average radar picture seen on several scans of the time base may be obtained on a print, or the process by which several photographic images are combined into a single image. See also force protection. (ref JP 1)
  • intelligence - 1. The product resulting from the collection, processing, integration, evaluation, analysis, and interpretation of available information concerning foreign nations, hostile or potentially hostile forces or elements, or areas of actual or potential operations. 2. The activities that result in the product. 3. The organizations engaged in such activities. See also acoustic intelligence; all-source intelligence; communications intelligence; critical intelligence; domestic intelligence; electronic intelligence; foreign intelligence; foreign instrumentation signals intelligence; general military intelligence; imagery intelligence; joint intelligence; measurement and signature intelligence; medical intelligence; national intelligence; open-source intelligence; operational intelligence; scientific and technical intelligence; strategic intelligence; tactical intelligence; target intelligence; technical intelligence; terrain intelligence. (ref JP 2-0)
  • intelligence annex - A supporting document of an operation plan or order that provides detailed information on the enemy situation, assignment of intelligence tasks, and intelligence administrative procedures. (ref JP 2-01)
  • intelligence asset - Any resource utilized by an intelligence organization for an operational support role. (ref JP 2-0)
  • intelligence community - All departments or agencies of a government that are concerned with intelligence activity, either in an oversight, managerial, support, or participatory role. Also called IC. (ref JP 2-0)
  • intelligence database - The sum of holdings of intelligence data and finished intelligence products at a given organization. (ref JP 2-01)
  • intelligence discipline - A well-defined area of intelligence planning, collection, processing, exploitation, analysis, and reporting using a specific category of technical or human resources. See also counterintelligence; human intelligence; imagery intelligence; intelligence; measurement and signature intelligence; open-source intelligence; signals intelligence; technical intelligence. (ref JP 2-0)
  • intelligence estimate - The appraisal, expressed in writing or orally, of available intelligence relating to a specific situation or condition with a view to determining the courses of action open to the enemy or adversary and the order of probability of their adoption. (ref JP 2-0)
  • intelligence federation - A formal agreement in which a combatant command joint intelligence center receives preplanned intelligence support from other joint intelligence centers, Service intelligence organizations, reserve organizations, and national agencies during crisis or contingency operations. (ref JP 2-01)
  • As Amended Through 15 February 2016 JP 1-02 115 intelligence information report - The primary vehicle used to provide human intelligence information to the consumer. It utilizes a message format structure that supports automated data entry into intelligence community databases. Also called IIR. (ref JP 2-01.2)
  • intelligence interrogation - The systematic process of using approved interrogation approaches to question a captured or detained person to obtain reliable information to satisfy intelligence requirements, consistent with applicable law. (ref JP 2-01.2)
  • intelligence mission management - A systematic process by a joint intelligence staff to proactively and continuously formulate and revise command intelligence requirements, and track the resulting information through the processing, exploitation, and dissemination process to satisfy user requirements. Also called IMM. (ref JP 2-01)
  • intelligence operations - The variety of intelligence and counterintelligence tasks that are carried out by various intelligence organizations and activities within the intelligence process. See also analysis and production; collection; dissemination and integration; evaluation and feedback; planning and direction; processing and exploitation. (ref JP 2-01)
  • intelligence planning - The intelligence component of the Adaptive Planning and Execution system, which coordinates and integrates all available Defense Intelligence Enterprise capabilities to meet combatant commander intelligence requirements. Also called IP. (ref JP 2-0)
  • intelligence preparation of the battlespace - The analytical methodologies employed by the Services or joint force component commands to reduce uncertainties concerning the enemy, environment, time, and terrain. Also called IPB. See also joint intelligence preparation of the operational environment. (ref JP 2-01.3)
  • intelligence process - The process by which information is converted into intelligence and made available to users, consisting of the six interrelated intelligence operations: planning and direction, collection, processing and exploitation, analysis and production, dissemination and integration, and evaluation and feedback. See also analysis and production; collection; dissemination and integration; evaluation and feedback; intelligence; planning and direction; processing and exploitation. (ref JP 2-01)
  • intelligence production - The integration, evaluation, analysis, and interpretation of information from single or multiple sources into finished intelligence for known or anticipated military and related national security consumer requirements. (ref JP 2-0)
  • intelligence-related activities - Those activities outside the consolidated defense intelligence program that: respond to operational commandersí tasking for time-sensitive information on foreign entities; respond to national intelligence community tasking of systems whose primary mission is support to operating forces; train personnel for As Amended Through 15 February 2016 116 JP 1-02 intelligence duties; provide an intelligence reserve; or are devoted to research and development of intelligence or related capabilities. (Specifically excluded are programs that are so closely integrated with a weapon system that their primary function is to provide immediate-use targeting data.) (ref JP 2-01)
  • intelligence report - A specific report of information, usually on a single item, made at any level of command in tactical operations and disseminated as rapidly as possible in keeping with the timeliness of the information. Also called INTREP. (ref JP 2-01)
  • intelligence reporting - The preparation and conveyance of information by any means. More commonly, the term is restricted to reports as they are prepared by the collector and as they are transmitted by the collector to the latterís headquarters and by this component of the intelligence structure to one or more intelligence-producing components. Thus, even in this limited sense, reporting embraces both collection and dissemination. The term is applied to normal and specialist intelligence reports. (ref JP 2-01.2)
  • intelligence requirement - 1. Any subject, general or specific, upon which there is a need for the collection of information, or the production of intelligence. 2. A requirement for intelligence to fill a gap in the commandís knowledge or understanding of the operational environment or threat forces. Also called IR. See also intelligence; priority intelligence requirement. (ref JP 2-0)
  • intelligence source - The means or system that can be used to observe and record information relating to the condition, situation, or activities of a targeted location, organization, or individual. See also intelligence; source. (ref JP 2-0)
  • intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance - An activity that synchronizes and integrates the planning and operation of sensors, assets, and processing, exploitation, and dissemination systems in direct support of current and future operations. This is an integrated intelligence and operations function. Also called ISR. See also intelligence; intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance visualization; reconnaissance; surveillance. (ref JP 2-01)
  • intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance visualization - The capability to graphically display the current and future locations of intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance sensors, their projected platform tracks, vulnerability to threat capabilities and meteorological and oceanographic phenomena, fields of regard, tasked collection targets, and products to provide a basis for dynamic retasking and timesensitive decision making. Also called ISR visualization. See also intelligence; intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance; reconnaissance; surveillance. (ref JP 2-01)
  • intelligence system - Any formal or informal system to manage data gathering, to obtain and process the data, to interpret the data, and to provide reasoned judgments to decision makers as a basis for action. (ref JP 2-01)
  • As Amended Through 15 February 2016 JP 1-02 117 interagency - Of or pertaining to United States Government agencies and departments, including the Department of Defense. See also interagency coordination. (ref JP 3-08)
  • interagency coordination - Within the context of Department of Defense involvement, the coordination that occurs between elements of Department of Defense, and engaged US Government agencies and departments for the purpose of achieving an objective. (ref JP 3-0)
  • intercontinental ballistic missile - A land-based, long-range ballistic missile with a range capability greater than 3,000 nautical miles. Also called ICBM. (ref JP 3-01)
  • interdiction - 1. An action to divert, disrupt, delay, or destroy the enemyís military surface capability before it can be used effectively against friendly forces, or to otherwise achieve objectives. 2. In support of law enforcement, activities conducted to divert, disrupt, delay, intercept, board, detain, or destroy, under lawful authority, vessels, vehicles, aircraft, people, cargo, and money. See also air interdiction. (ref JP 3-03)
  • intergovernmental organization - An organization created by a formal agreement between two or more governments on a global, regional, or functional basis to protect and promote national interests shared by member states. Also called IGO. (ref JP 3-08)
  • intermediate-range ballistic missile - A land-based ballistic missile with a range capability from 1,500 to 3,000 nautical miles. Also called IRBM. (ref JP 3-01)
  • intermediate staging base - A tailorable, temporary location used for staging forces, sustainment and/or extraction into and out of an operational area. Also called ISB. See also base; staging base. (ref JP 3-35)
  • intermodal - Type of international freight system that permits transshipping among sea, highway, rail, and air modes of transportation through use of American National Standards Institute and International Organization for Standardization containers, linehaul assets, and handling equipment. (ref JP 4-09)
  • internal audience - In public affairs, United States military members and Department of Defense civilian employees and their immediate families. See also external audience; public. (ref JP 3-61)
  • internal defense and development - The full range of measures taken by a nation to promote its growth and to protect itself from subversion, lawlessness, insurgency, terrorism, and other threats to its security. Also called IDAD. See also foreign internal defense. (ref JP 3-22)
  • internally displaced person - Any person who has been forced or obliged to flee or to leave their home or places of habitual residence, in particular as a result of or in order to avoid the effects of armed conflict, situations of generalized violence, violations of human As Amended Through 15 February 2016 118 JP 1-02 rights or natural or human-made disasters, and who have not crossed an internationally recognized state border. Also called IDP. (ref JP 3-29)
  • internal security - The state of law and order prevailing within a nation. (ref JP 3-08)
  • International Convention for Safe Containers - A convention held in Geneva, Switzerland, on 2 Dec 1972, which resulted in setting standard safety requirements for containers moving in international transport. These requirements were ratified by the United States on 3 January 1978. Also called CSC. (ref JP 4-09)
  • international military education and training - Formal or informal instruction provided to foreign military students, units, and forces on a nonreimbursable (grant) basis by offices or employees of the United States, contract technicians, and contractors. Instruction may include correspondence courses; technical, educational, or informational publications; and media of all kinds. Also called IMET. See also United States Military Service funded foreign training. (ref JP 3-22)
  • interoperability - 1. The ability to operate in synergy in the execution of assigned tasks. (ref JP 3-0)
    2. The condition achieved among communications-electronics systems or items of communications-electronics equipment when information or services can be exchanged directly and satisfactorily between them and/or their users. (ref JP 6-0)
  • interorganizational coordination - The interaction that occurs among elements of the Department of Defense; engaged United States Government agencies; state, territorial, local, and tribal agencies; foreign military forces and government agencies; intergovernmental organizations; nongovernmental organizations; and the private sector. (ref JP 3-08)
  • interpretation - A part of the analysis and production phase in the intelligence process in which the significance of information is judged in relation to the current body of knowledge. See also intelligence process. (ref JP 2-01)
  • interrogation - Systematic effort to procure information by direct questioning of a person under the control of the questioner. (ref JP 2-01.2)
  • inter-Service support - Action by one Service or element thereof to provide logistics and/or administrative support to another Service or element thereof. See also support. (ref JP 4-0)
  • intertheater airlift - The common-user airlift linking theaters to the continental United States and to other theaters as well as the airlift within the continental United States. See also intratheater airlift. (ref JP 3-17)
  • intertheater patient movement - Moving patients between, into, and out of the different theaters of the geographic combatant commands and into the continental United States As Amended Through 15 February 2016 JP 1-02 119 or another supporting theater. See also en route care; evacuation; intratheater patient movement. (ref JP 4-02)
  • in-transit visibility - The ability to track the identity, status, and location of Department of Defense units, and non-unit cargo (excluding bulk petroleum, oils, and lubricants) and passengers; patients; and personal property from origin to consignee or destination across the range of military operations. Also called ITV. (ref JP 4-01.2)
  • intratheater airlift - Airlift conducted within a theater with assets assigned to a geographic combatant commander or attached to a subordinate joint force commander. See also intertheater airlift. (ref JP 3-17)
  • intratheater patient movement - Moving patients within the theater of a combatant command or in the continental United States. See also en route care; evacuation; intertheater patient movement. (ref JP 4-02)
  • inventory control - That phase of military logistics that includes managing, cataloging, requirements determinations, procurement, distribution, overhaul, and disposal of materiel. Also called inventory management; materiel control; materiel management; supply management. (ref JP 4-09)
  • inventory control point - An organizational unit or activity within a Department of Defense supply system that is assigned the primary responsibility for the materiel inventory management of a group of items either for a particular Service or for the Defense Department as a whole. Also called ICP. (ref JP 4-09)
  • ionizing radiation - Particulate (alpha, beta, and neutron) and electromagnetic (X-ray and gamma) radiation of sufficient energy to displace electrons from atoms, producing ions. (ref JP 3-11)
  • irregular warfare - A violent struggle among state and non-state actors for legitimacy and influence over the relevant population(s). Also called IW. (ref JP 1)
  • isolated personnel - United States military, Department of Defense civilians and contractor personnel (and others designated by the President or Secretary of Defense) who are separated from their unit (as an individual or a group) while participating in a United States sponsored military activity or mission and are, or may be, in a situation where they must survive, evade, resist, or escape. See also combat search and rescue; search and rescue. (ref JP 3-50)
  • isolated personnel report - A Department of Defense form containing information designed to facilitate the identification and authentication of an isolated person by a recovery force. Also called ISOPREP. See also authentication; evader. (ref JP 3-50)
  • As Amended Through 15 February 2016 120 JP 1-02 item manager - An individual within the organization of an inventory control point or other such organization assigned management responsibility for one or more specific items of materiel. (ref JP 4-09)
  • As Amended Through 15 February 2016 J JP 1-02 121 J-2X - The staff element of the intelligence directorate of a joint staff that combines and represents the principal authority for counterintelligence and human intelligence support. See also counterintelligence; human intelligence. (ref JP 2-01.2)
  • joint - Connotes activities, operations, organizations, etc., in which elements of two or more Military Departments participate. (ref JP 1)
  • joint air attack team - A combination of attack and/or scout rotary-wing aircraft and fixedwing close air support aircraft operating together to locate and attack high priority targets and other targets of opportunity. Also called JAAT. See also close air support. (ref JP 3- 09.3)
  • joint air component coordination element - A general term for the liaison element that serves as the direct representative of the joint force air component commander for joint air operations. Also called JACCE. (ref JP 3-30)
  • joint air-ground integration center - A staff organization designed to enhance joint collaborative efforts to deconflict joint air-ground assets in the divisionís airspace. Also called JAGIC. (ref JP 3-09.3)
  • joint air operations - Air operations performed with air capabilities/forces made available by components in support of the joint force commanderís operation or campaign objectives, or in support of other components of the joint force. (ref JP 3-30)
  • joint air operations center - A jointly staffed facility established for planning, directing, and executing joint air operations in support of the joint force commanderís operation or campaign objectives. Also called JAOC. See also joint air operations. (ref JP 3-30)
  • joint air operations plan - A plan for a connected series of joint air operations to achieve the joint force commanderís objectives within a given time and joint operational area. Also called JAOP. See also joint air operations. (ref JP 3-30)
  • joint base - In base defense operations, a locality from which operations of two or more of the Military Departments are projected or supported and which is manned by significant elements of two or more Military Departments or in which significant elements of two or more Military Departments are located. See also base. (ref JP 3-10)
  • joint captured materiel exploitation center - An element responsible for deriving intelligence information from captured enemy materiel. It is normally subordinate to the intelligence directorate of a joint staff. Also called JCMEC. (ref JP 2-01)
  • joint civil-military operations task force - A joint task force composed of civil-military operations units from more than one Service. Also called JCMOTF. See also civilmilitary operations; joint task force. (ref JP 3-57)
  • As Amended Through 15 February 2016 122 JP 1-02 joint combined exchange training - A program conducted overseas to fulfill United States forces training requirements and at the same time exchange the sharing of skills between United States forces and host nation counterparts. Also called JCET. (ref JP 3-05)
  • joint communications network - The aggregation of the joint multichannel trunking and switching system and the joint command and control communications system(s) in a theater. Also called JCN. (ref JP 6-0)
  • joint concept - Links strategic guidance to the development and employment of future joint force capabilities and serve as ďengines for transformationĒ that may ultimately lead to doctrine, organization, training, materiel, leadership and education, personnel and facilities (DOTMLPF) and policy changes. (CJCSI 3010.02) joint contracting support board - A board established to coordinate all contracting support and to determine specific contracting mechanisms to obtain commercially procured common logistic supplies and services within the operational area. Also called JCSB. See also combatant commander logistic procurement support board; joint requirements review board. (ref JP 4-10)
  • joint counterintelligence unit - An organization composed of Service and Department of Defense agency counterintelligence personnel, formed under the authority of the Secretary of Defense and assigned to a combatant commander, which focuses on combatant command strategic and operational counterintelligence missions. Also called JCIU. (ref JP 2-01.2)
  • joint data network operations officer - The joint task force operations directorate officer responsible to the commander for integrating data from supporting components into a common database used to generate the common tactical picture. Also called JDNO. (ref JP 3-01)
  • joint deployable intelligence support system - A transportable workstation and communications suite that electronically extends a joint intelligence center to a joint task force or other tactical user. Also called JDISS. (ref JP 2-0)
  • joint deployment and distribution enterprise - The complex of equipment, procedures, doctrine, leaders, technical connectivity, information, shared knowledge, organizations, facilities, training, and materiel necessary to conduct joint distribution operations. Also called JDDE. (ref JP 4-0)
  • joint deployment and distribution operations center - A combatant command movement control organization designed to synchronize and optimize national and theater multimodal resources for deployment, distribution, and sustainment, Also called JDDOC. (ref JP 4-09)
  • As Amended Through 15 February 2016 JP 1-02 123 joint desired point of impact - A unique, alpha-numeric coded precise aimpoint associated with a target to achieve an explicit weaponeering objective, and identified by a three dimensional (latitude, longitude, elevation) mensurated coordinate. Also called a JDPI. See also aimpoint; desired point of impact. (ref JP 3-60)
  • joint distribution - The operational process of synchronizing all elements of the joint logistic system using the Joint Deployment and Distribution Enterprise for end-to-end movement of forces and materiel from point of origin to the designated point of need. (ref JP 4-09)
  • joint doctrine - Fundamental principles that guide the employment of United States military forces in coordinated action toward a common objective and may include terms, tactics, techniques, and procedures. See also Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff instruction; Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff manual; doctrine; joint publication; joint test publication; multinational doctrine. (CJCSI 5120.02) joint doctrine development community - The Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, the Services, the combatant commands, the Joint Staff, the combat support agencies, the doctrine development agencies of the Services and the joint community, the National Defense University, the United States Element, North American Aerospace Defense Command, the National Guard Bureau, and Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff controlled activities. Also called JDDC. (CJCSI 5120.02) Joint Doctrine Development System - The system of lead agents, Joint Staff doctrine sponsors, primary review authorities, coordinating review authorities, technical review authorities, assessment agents, evaluation agents, Joint Doctrine Planning Conferences, procedures, and the hierarchical framework designed to initiate, develop, approve, and maintain joint publications. Also called JDDS. (CJCSI 5120.02) Joint Doctrine Planning Conference - A forum convened by the Joint Staff Directorate for Joint Force Development that meets semiannually to address and vote on project proposals; discuss key joint doctrinal and operational issues; discuss potential changes to the joint doctrine development process; keep up to date on the status of the joint publication projects and emerging publications; and keep abreast of other initiatives of interest to the members. Also called JDPC. (CJCSM 5120.01) joint document exploitation center - An element, normally subordinate to the intelligence directorate of a joint staff, responsible for deriving intelligence information from captured adversary documents including all forms of electronic data and other forms of stored textual and graphic information. Also called JDEC. See also intelligence. (ref JP 2- 01)
  • joint duty assignment - An assignment to a designated position in a multi-Service, joint or multinational command or activity that is involved in the integrated employment or support of the land, sea, and air forces of at least two of the three Military Departments. Such involvement includes, but is not limited to, matters relating to national military strategy, joint doctrine and policy, strategic planning, contingency planning, and As Amended Through 15 February 2016 124 JP 1-02 command and control of combat operations under a unified or specified command. Also called JDA. Joint Duty Assignment List - Positions designated as joint duty assignments are reflected in a list approved by the Secretary of Defense and maintained by the Joint Staff. The Joint Duty Assignment List is reflected in the Joint Duty Assignment Management Information System. Also called JDAL. joint electromagnetic spectrum management operations - Those interrelated functions of frequency management, host nation coordination, and joint spectrum interference resolution that together enable the planning, management, and execution of operations within the electromagnetic operational environment during all phases of military operations. Also called JEMSMO. (ref JP 6-01)
  • joint electromagnetic spectrum operations - Those activities consisting of electronic warfare and joint electromagnetic spectrum management operations used to exploit, attack, protect, and manage the electromagnetic operational environment to achieve the commanderís objectives. Also called JEMSO. (ref JP 6-01)
  • joint engagement zone - In air defense, that airspace of defined dimensions within which multiple air defense systems (surface-to-air missiles and aircraft) are simultaneously employed to engage air threats. Also called JEZ. (ref JP 3-01)
  • joint facilities utilization board - A joint board that evaluates and reconciles component requests for real estate, use of existing facilities, inter-Service support, and construction to ensure compliance with Joint Civil-Military Engineering Board priorities. Also called JFUB. (ref JP 3-34)
  • joint field office - A temporary multiagency coordination center established at the incident site to provide a central location for coordination of federal, state, local, tribal, nongovernmental, and private-sector organizations with primary responsibility for incident oversight, direction, or assistance to effectively coordinate protection, prevention, preparedness, response, and recovery actions. Also called JFO. (ref JP 3-28)
  • joint fires - Fires delivered during the employment of forces from two or more components in coordinated action to produce desired effects in support of a common objective. See also fires. (ref JP 3-0)
  • joint fires element - An optional staff element that provides recommendations to the operations directorate to accomplish fires planning and synchronization. Also called JFE. See also fire support; joint fires. (ref JP 3-60)
  • joint fires observer - A trained Service member who can request, adjust, and control surface-to-surface fires, provide targeting information in support of Type 2 and 3 close air support terminal attack control, and perform autonomous terminal guidance operations. Also called JFO. (ref JP 3-09.3)
  • As Amended Through 15 February 2016 JP 1-02 125 joint fire support - Joint fires that assist air, land, maritime, and special operations forces to move, maneuver, and control territory, populations, airspace, and key waters. See also fire support; joint fires. (ref JP 3-0)
  • joint flow and analysis system for transportation - System that determines the transportation feasibility of a course of action or operation plan; provides daily lift assets needed to move forces and resupply; advises logistic planners of channel and port inefficiencies; and interprets shortfalls from various flow possibilities. Also called JFAST. See also course of action; operation plan; system. (ref JP 3-35)
  • joint force - A general term applied to a force composed of significant elements, assigned or attached, of two or more Military Departments operating under a single joint force commander. See also joint force commander. (ref JP 3-0)
  • joint force air component commander - The commander within a unified command, subordinate unified command, or joint task force responsible to the establishing commander for recommending the proper employment of assigned, attached, and/or made available for tasking air forces; planning and coordinating air operations; or accomplishing such operational missions as may be assigned. Also called JFACC. See also joint force commander. (ref JP 3-0)
  • joint force chaplain - The military chaplain designated by the joint force commander to serve as the senior chaplain for the joint force. Also called the JFCH. (ref JP 1-05)
  • joint force commander - A general term applied to a combatant commander, subunified commander, or joint task force commander authorized to exercise combatant command (command authority) or operational control over a joint force. Also called JFC. See also joint force. (ref JP 1)
  • joint force land component commander - The commander within a unified command, subordinate unified command, or joint task force responsible to the establishing commander for recommending the proper employment of assigned, attached, and/or made available for tasking land forces; planning and coordinating land operations; or accomplishing such operational missions as may be assigned. Also called JFLCC. See also joint force commander. (ref JP 3-0)
  • joint force maritime component commander - The commander within a unified command, subordinate unified command, or joint task force responsible to the establishing commander for recommending the proper employment of assigned, attached, and/or made available for tasking maritime forces and assets; planning and coordinating maritime operations; or accomplishing such operational missions as may be assigned. Also called JFMCC. See also joint force commander. (ref JP 3-0)
  • joint force special operations component commander - The commander within a unified command, subordinate unified command, or joint task force responsible to the As Amended Through 15 February 2016 126 JP 1-02 establishing commander for recommending the proper employment of assigned, attached, and/or made available for tasking special operations forces and assets; planning and coordinating special operations; or accomplishing such operational missions as may be assigned. Also called JFSOCC. See also joint force commander. (ref JP 3-0)
  • joint force surgeon - A general term applied to a Department of Defense medical department officer appointed by the joint force commander to serve as the joint force special staff officer responsible for establishing, monitoring, or evaluating joint force health service support. Also called JFS. See also health service support; joint force. (ref JP 4-02)
  • joint functions - Related capabilities and activities placed into six basic groups of command and control, intelligence, fires, movement and maneuver, protection, and sustainment to help joint force commanders synchronize, integrate, and direct joint operations. (ref JP 3-0)
  • joint individual augmentee - An unfunded temporary duty position (or member filling an unfunded temporary duty position) identified on a joint manning document by a supported combatant commander to augment headquarters operations during contingencies. Also called JIA. (ref JP 4-05)
  • joint integrated prioritized target list - A prioritized list of targets approved and maintained by the joint force commander. Also called JIPTL. See also target. (ref JP 3-60)
  • joint intelligence - Intelligence produced by elements of more than one Service of the same nation. (ref JP 2-0)
  • joint intelligence architecture - A dynamic, flexible structure that consists of the Defense Joint Intelligence Operations Center, combatant command joint intelligence operations centers, and subordinate joint task force intelligence operations centers or joint intelligence support elements to provide national, theater, and tactical commanders with the full range of intelligence required for planning and conducting operations. See also intelligence. (ref JP 2-0)
  • joint intelligence operations center - An interdependent, operational intelligence organization at the Department of Defense, combatant command, or joint task force (if established) level, that is integrated with national intelligence centers, and capable of accessing all sources of intelligence impacting military operations planning, execution, and assessment. Also called JIOC. (ref JP 2-0)
  • joint intelligence preparation of the operational environment - The analytical process used by joint intelligence organizations to produce intelligence estimates and other intelligence products in support of the joint force commanderís decision-making process. Also called JIPOE. (ref JP 2-01.3)
  • As Amended Through 15 February 2016 JP 1-02 127 joint intelligence support element - A subordinate joint force element whose focus is on intelligence support for joint operations, providing the joint force commander, joint staff, and components with the complete air, space, ground, and maritime adversary situation. Also called JISE. See also intelligence; joint force; joint operations. (ref JP 2-01)
  • joint interagency coordination group - A staff group that establishes regular, timely, and collaborative working relationships between civilian and military operational planners. Also called JIACG. (ref JP 3-08)
  • joint interface control officer - The senior interface control officer for multi-tactical data link networks in the joint force who is responsible for development and validation of the architecture, joint interoperability and management of the multi-tactical data link networks, and overseeing operations of a joint interface control cell. Also called JICO. (ref JP 3-01)
  • joint interrogation and debriefing center - Physical location for the exploitation of intelligence information from detainees and other sources. Also called JIDC. See also intelligence. (ref JP 2-01.2)
  • joint interrogation operations - 1. Activities conducted by a joint or interagency organization to extract information for intelligence purposes from enemy prisoners of war, dislocated civilians, enemy combatants, or other uncategorized detainees. 2. Activities conducted in support of law enforcement efforts to adjudicate enemy combatants who are believed to have committed crimes against US persons or property. Also called JIO. See also enemy combatant. (ref JP 2-01)
  • joint land operations - Land operations performed across the range of military operations with land forces made available by Service components in support of the joint force commanderís operation or campaign objectives, or in support of other components of the joint force. (ref JP 3-31)
  • joint land operations plan - A plan for a connected series of joint land operations to achieve the joint force commanderís objectives within a given time and operational area. (ref JP 3- 31)
  • joint logistics - The coordinated use, synchronization, and sharing of two or more Military Departmentsí logistic resources to support the joint force. See also logistics. (ref JP 4-0)
  • joint logistics enterprise - A multi-tiered matrix of key global logistics providers cooperatively engaged or structured to achieve a common purpose without jeopardizing the integrity of their own organizational missions and goals. Also called JLEnt. (ref JP 4-0)
  • Joint Logistics Operations Center - The Joint Logistics Operations Center is the current operations division within the Logistics Directorate of the Joint Staff, which monitors As Amended Through 15 February 2016 128 JP 1-02 crises, exercises, and interagency actions and works acquisition and cross-servicing agreements as well as international logistics. Also called JLOC. See also logistics. (ref JP 4-01)
  • joint logistics over-the-shore commander - The commander selected by the joint force commander and tasked to organize the efforts of all elements participating in accomplishing the joint logistics over-the-shore mission. See also joint logistics overthe-shore operations. (ref JP 4-01.6)
  • joint logistics over-the-shore operations - Operations in which Navy and Army logistics over-the-shore forces conduct logistics over-the-shore operations together under a joint force commander. Also called JLOTS operations. See also joint logistics; logistics over-the-shore operations. (ref JP 4-01.6)
  • joint manpower program - The policy, processes, and systems used in determination and prioritization within and among joint Service manpower requirements. Also called JMP. (ref JP 1-0)
  • joint meteorological and oceanographic coordination cell - A subset of a joint meteorological and oceanographic coordination organization, which is delegated the responsibility of executing the coordination of meteorological and oceanographic support operations in the operational area. Also called JMCC. (ref JP 3-59)
  • joint meteorological and oceanographic coordination organization - A Service meteorological and oceanographic organization that is designated within the operations order as the lead organization responsible for coordinating meteorological and oceanographic operations support in the operational area. Also called JMCO. (ref JP 3-59)
  • joint meteorological and oceanographic officer - Officer designated to provide direct meteorological and oceanographic support to a joint force commander. Also called JMO. (ref JP 3-59)
  • joint mission-essential task - A mission task selected by a joint force commander deemed essential to mission accomplishment and defined using the common language of the Universal Joint Task List in terms of task, condition, and standard. Also called JMET. See also condition, universal joint task list. (ref JP 3-33)
  • joint mortuary affairs office - Plans and executes all mortuary affairs programs within a theater. Provides guidance to facilitate the conduct of all mortuary programs and to maintain data (as required) pertaining to recovery, identification, and disposition of all US dead and missing in the assigned theater. Serves as the central clearing point for all mortuary affairs and monitors the deceased and missing personal effects program. Also called JMAO. See also mortuary affairs; personal effects. (ref JP 4-06)
  • As Amended Through 15 February 2016 JP 1-02 129 joint network operations control center - An element of the communications system directorate of a joint staff established as the single control agency for the management and direction of the joint force communications systems. Also called JNCC. (ref JP 6-0)
  • joint operation planning - Planning activities associated with joint military operations by combatant commanders and their subordinate joint force commanders in response to contingencies and crises. See also execution planning; Joint Operation Planning and Execution System; joint operation planning process. (ref JP 5-0)
  • Joint Operation Planning and Execution System - An Adaptive Planning and Execution system technology. Also called JOPES. See also joint operation planning; joint operations; level of detail. (ref JP 5-0)
  • joint operation planning process - An orderly, analytical process that consists of a logical set of steps to analyze a mission, select the best course of action, and produce a joint operation plan or order. Also called JOPP. See also joint operation planning; Joint Operation Planning and Execution System. (ref JP 5-0)
  • joint operations - A general term to describe military actions conducted by joint forces and those Service forces employed in specified command relationships with each other, which of themselves, do not establish joint forces. (ref JP 3-0)
  • joint operations area - An area of land, sea, and airspace, defined by a geographic combatant commander or subordinate unified commander, in which a joint force commander (normally a joint task force commander) conducts military operations to accomplish a specific mission. Also called JOA. See also area of responsibility; joint special operations area. (ref JP 3-0)
  • joint operations area forecast - The official baseline meteorological and oceanographic forecast for operational planning and mission execution within the joint operations area. Also called JOAF. (ref JP 3-59)
  • joint operations center - A jointly manned facility of a joint force commanderís headquarters established for planning, monitoring, and guiding the execution of the commanderís decisions. Also called JOC. (ref JP 3-41)
  • joint patient movement requirements center - A joint activity established to coordinate the joint patient movement requirements function for a joint task force operating within a unified command area of responsibility. Also called JPMRC. See also health service support; joint force surgeon; joint operations area; medical treatment facility. (ref JP 4-02)
  • joint patient movement team - Teams comprised of personnel trained in medical regulating and movement procedures. Also called JPMT. (ref JP 4-02)
  • As Amended Through 15 February 2016 130 JP 1-02 joint personnel accountability reconciliation and reporting - A data repository developed and implemented by the Defense Manpower Data Center that consumes and reconciles data from existing Service deployment systems. Also called JPARR. (ref JP 1-0)
  • joint personnel reception center - A center established in an operational area by the appropriate joint force commander with the responsibility for the in-processing and outprocessing of personnel upon their arrival in and departure from the theater. Also called JPRC. (ref JP 1-0)
  • joint personnel recovery center - The primary joint force organization responsible for planning and coordinating personnel recovery for military operations within the assigned operational area. Also called JPRC. See also combat search and rescue; search and rescue. (ref JP 3-50)
  • joint personnel training and tracking activity - The continental United States center established to facilitate the reception, accountability, processing, training, and onward movement of individual augmentees preparing for overseas movement to support a joint military operation. Also called JPTTA. (ref JP 1-0)
  • joint planning and execution community - Those headquarters, commands, and agencies involved in the training, preparation, mobilization, deployment, employment, support, sustainment, redeployment, and demobilization of military forces assigned or committed to a joint operation. Also called JPEC. (ref JP 5-0)
  • joint planning group - A planning organization consisting of designated representatives of the joint force headquarters principal and special staff sections, joint force components (Service and/or functional), and other supporting organizations or agencies as deemed necessary by the joint force commander. Also called JPG. See also crisis action planning; joint operation planning. (ref JP 5-0)
  • joint proponent - A Service, combatant command, or Joint Staff directorate assigned coordinating authority to lead the collaborative development and integration of joint capability with specific responsibilities designated by the Secretary of Defense. (SecDef Memo 03748-09) Joint Public Affairs Support Element - A deployable unit assigned to assist a joint force commander in developing and training public affairs forces in joint, interagency, and multinational environments. Also called JPASE. (ref JP 3-61)
  • joint publication - A compilation of agreed to fundamental principles, considerations, and guidance on a particular topic, approved by the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff that guides the employment of a joint force toward a common objective. Also called JP. See also Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff instruction; Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff manual; joint doctrine; joint test publication. (CJCSI 5120.02) As Amended Through 15 February 2016 JP 1-02 131 joint reception coordination center - An organization that, when established, ensures that Department of Defense personnel and noncombatant evacuees receive adequate assistance and support for an orderly and expedient debarkation, movement to final destination in the United States, and appropriate follow-on assistance at the final destination. Also called JRCC. (ref JP 3-68)
  • joint reception, staging, onward movement, and integration - A phase of joint force projection occurring in the operational area during which arriving personnel, equipment, and materiel transition into forces capable of meeting operational requirements. Also called JRSOI. See also integration; joint force; reception; staging. (ref JP 3-35)
  • joint requirements review board - The joint task force or subunified commanderís established board to review, validate, approve, and prioritize selected Service component contract support requests. Also called JRRB. See also combatant commander logistic procurement support board; joint contracting support board. (ref JP 4-10)
  • joint restricted frequency list - A time and geographically oriented listing of TABOO, PROTECTED, and GUARDED functions, nets, and frequencies and limited to the minimum number of frequencies necessary for friendly forces to accomplish objectives. Also called JRFL. See also electronic warfare; guarded frequencies; protected frequencies; TABOO frequencies. (ref JP 3-13.1)
  • joint security area - A specific surface area, designated by the joint force commander to facilitate protection of joint bases and their connecting lines of communications that support joint operations. Also called JSA. (ref JP 3-10)
  • joint security coordination center - A joint operations center tailored to assist the joint security coordinator in meeting the security requirements in the joint operational area. Also called JSCC. (ref JP 3-10)
  • joint security coordinator - The officer with responsibility for coordinating the overall security of the operational area in accordance with joint force commander directives and priorities. Also called JSC. (ref JP 3-10)
  • joint servicing - That function performed by a jointly staffed and financed activity in support of two or more Services. (ref JP 3-05)
  • joint special operations air component commander - The commander within a joint force special operations command responsible for planning and executing joint special operations air activities. Also called JSOACC. (ref JP 3-05)
  • joint special operations area - An area of land, sea, and airspace assigned by a joint force commander to the commander of a joint special operations force to conduct special operations activities. Also called JSOA. (ref JP 3-0)
  • As Amended Through 15 February 2016 132 JP 1-02 joint special operations task force - A joint task force composed of special operations units from more than one Service, formed to carry out a specific special operation or prosecute special operations in support of a theater campaign or other operations. Also called JSOTF. (ref JP 3-05)
  • joint staff - 1. The staff of a commander of a unified or specified command, subordinate unified command, joint task force, or subordinate functional component (when a functional component command will employ forces from more than one Military Department), that includes members from the several Services comprising the force. 2. (capitalized as Joint Staff) The staff under the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff that assists the Chairman and the other members of the Joint Chiefs of Staff in carrying out their responsibilities. Also called JS. (ref JP 1)
  • Joint Staff doctrine sponsor - A Joint Staff directorate assigned to coordinate a joint doctrine project with the Joint Staff. Also called JSDS. See also joint doctrine. (CJCSM 5120.01) Joint Strategic Capabilities Plan - A plan that provides guidance to the combatant commanders and the Joint Chiefs of Staff to accomplish tasks and missions based on current military capabilities. Also called JSCP. See also combatant commander; joint. (ref JP 5-0)
  • joint strategic exploitation center - Theater-level physical location for an exploitation facility that functions under the direction of the joint force commander and is used to hold detainees with potential long-term strategic intelligence value, deemed to be of interest to counterintelligence or criminal investigators, or who may be a significant threat to the United States, its citizens or interests, or US allies. Also called JSEC. (ref JP 2-01.2)
  • Joint Strategic Planning System - One of the primary means by which the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, in consultation with the other members of the Joint Chiefs of Staff and the combatant commanders, carries out the statutory responsibilities to assist the President and Secretary of Defense in providing strategic direction to the Armed Forces. Also called JSPS. (ref JP 5-0)
  • joint table of distribution - A manpower document that identifies the positions and enumerates the spaces that have been approved for each organizational element of a joint activity for a specific fiscal year (authorization year), and those accepted for the four subsequent fiscal years (program years). Also called JTD. See also joint manpower program. (ref JP 1-0)
  • joint targeting coordination board - A group formed by the joint force commander to accomplish broad targeting oversight functions that may include but are not limited to coordinating targeting information, providing targeting guidance, synchronization, and priorities, and refining the joint integrated prioritized target list. Also called JTCB. See also joint integrated prioritized target list; targeting. (ref JP 3-60)
  • As Amended Through 15 February 2016 JP 1-02 133 joint target list - A consolidated list of selected targets, upon which there are no restrictions placed, considered to have military significance in the joint force commanderís operational area. Also called JTL. See also joint; target. (ref JP 3-60)
  • joint task force - A joint force that is constituted and so designated by the Secretary of Defense, a combatant commander, a subunified commander, or an existing joint task force commander. Also called JTF. (ref JP 1)
  • Joint Task Force-Civil Support - A standing joint task force established to plan and integrate Department of Defense support to the designated lead federal agency for domestic chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear, and high-yield explosives consequence management operations. Also called JTF-CS. (ref JP 3-41)
  • joint terminal attack controller - A qualified (certified) Service member who, from a forward position, directs the action of combat aircraft engaged in close air support and other offensive air operations. Also called JTAC. See also terminal attack control. (ref JP 3-09.3)
  • joint test publication - A proposed publication produced for field-testing an emergent concept that has been validated through the Joint Experimentation Program or a similar joint process. Also called JTP. See also Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff instruction; joint doctrine; joint publication. (CJCSM 5120.01) Joint Transportation Board - Responsible to the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, the Joint Transportation Board assures that common-user transportation resources assigned or available to the Department of Defense are allocated to achieve maximum benefit in meeting Department of Defense objectives. Also called JTB. See also common-user transportation. (ref JP 4-01)
  • joint urban operations - Joint operations planned and conducted on, or against objectives within a topographical complex and its adjacent natural terrain, where man-made construction or the density of population are the dominant features. Also called JUOs. See also joint operations. (ref JP 3-06)
  • Joint Worldwide Intelligence Communications System - The sensitive compartmented information portion of the Defense Information Systems Network, which incorporates advanced networking technologies that permit point-to-point or multipoint information exchange involving voice, text, graphics, data, and video teleconferencing. Also called JWICS. (ref JP 2-0)
  • judge advocate - An officer of the Judge Advocate Generalís Corps of the Army, Air Force, Marine Corps, Navy, and the United States Coast Guard who is designated as a judge advocate. Also called JA. (ref JP 1-04)
  • As Amended Through 15 February 2016 134 JP 1-02 jumpmaster - The assigned airborne qualified individual who controls paratroops from the time they enter the aircraft until they exit. (ref JP 3-17)
  • As Amended Through 15 February 2016 K JP 1-02 135 key position - A civilian position, public or private (designated by the employer and approved by the Secretary concerned), that cannot be vacated during war or national emergency. (ref JP 1-0)
  • keystone publications - Joint doctrine publications that establish the doctrinal foundation for a series of joint publications in the hierarchy of joint publications. See also capstone publications; joint publication. (CJCSM 5120.01) key terrain - Any locality, or area, the seizure or retention of which affords a marked advantage to either combatant. (ref JP 2-01.3)
  • kill box - A three-dimensional permissive fire support coordination measure with an associated airspace coordinating measure used to facilitate the integration of fires. (ref JP 3-09)
  • As Amended Through 15 February 2016 136 JP 1-02 Intentionally Blank As Amended Through 15 February 2016 L JP 1-02 137 land control operations - The employment of land forces, supported by maritime and air forces (as appropriate) to control vital land areas. See also sea control operations. (ref JP 3-31)
  • land domain - The area of the Earthís surface ending at the high water mark and overlapping with the maritime domain in the landward segment of the littorals. (ref JP 3-31)
  • land forces - Personnel, weapon systems, vehicles, and support elements operating on land to accomplish assigned missions and tasks. (ref JP 3-31)
  • landing aid - Any illuminating light, radio beacon, radar device, communicating device, or any system of such devices for aiding aircraft in an approach and landing. (ref JP 3-04)
  • landing area - 1. That part of the operational area within which are conducted the landing operations of an amphibious force. 2. In airborne operations, the general area used for landing troops and materiel either by airdrop or air landing. 3. Any specially prepared or selected surface of land, water, or deck designated or used for takeoff and landing of aircraft. See also airfield; amphibious force; landing beach; landing force. (ref JP 3-02)
  • landing area diagram - A graphic means of showing, for amphibious operations, the beach designations, boat lanes, organization of the line of departure, scheduled waves, landing ship area, transport areas, and the fire support areas in the immediate vicinity of the boat lanes. (ref JP 3-02)
  • landing beach - That portion of a shoreline required for the landing of an amphibious force. (ref JP 3-02)
  • landing craft - A craft employed in amphibious operations, specifically designed for carrying troops and their equipment and for beaching, unloading, retracting, and resupply operations. (ref JP 3-02)
  • landing craft and amphibious vehicle assignment table - A table showing the assignment of personnel and materiel to each landing craft and amphibious vehicle and the assignment of the landing craft and amphibious vehicles to waves for the ship-to-shore movement. (ref JP 3-02)
  • landing craft availability table - A tabulation of the type and number of landing craft that will be available from each ship of the transport group. (ref JP 3-02)
  • landing diagram - A graphic means of illustrating the plan for the ship-to-shore movement. (ref JP 3-02)
  • As Amended Through 15 February 2016 138 JP 1-02 landing force - A Marine Corps or Army task organization, which is part of the amphibious force, formed to conduct amphibious operations. Also called LF. See also amphibious force; amphibious operation; amphibious task force; task organization. (ref JP 3-02)
  • landing force operational reserve material - Package of contingency supplies prepositioned and maintained onboard selected amphibious warfare ships to enhance reaction time and provide support for the embarked landing force in contingencies. Also called LFORM. (ref JP 3-02.1)
  • landing force support party - A temporary landing force organization composed of Navy and landing force elements, that facilitates the ship-to-shore movement and provides initial combat support and combat service support to the landing force. Also called LFSP. See also combat service support; combat support; landing force; ship-toshore movement. (ref JP 3-02)
  • landing group - In amphibious operations, a subordinate task organization of the landing force capable of conducting landing operations, under a single tactical command, against a position or group of positions. (ref JP 3-02)
  • landing plan - In amphibious operations, a collective term referring to all individually prepared naval and landing force documents that, taken together, present in detail all instructions for execution of the ship-to-shore movement. (ref JP 3-02)
  • landing sequence table - A document that incorporates the detailed plans for ship-to-shore movement of nonscheduled units. (ref JP 3-02)
  • landing signalman enlisted - Enlisted man responsible for ensuring that helicopters/tiltrotor aircraft, on signal, are safely started, engaged, launched, recovered, and shut down. Also called LSE. (ref JP 3-04)
  • landing signals officer - Officer responsible for the visual control of aircraft in the terminal phase of the approach immediately prior to landing. Also called LSO. See also terminal phase. (ref JP 3-04)
  • landing site - 1. A site within a landing zone containing one or more landing points. See also airfield. 2. In amphibious operations, a continuous segment of coastline over which troops, equipment and supplies can be landed by surface means. (ref JP 3-02)
  • landing zone - Any specified zone used for the landing of aircraft. Also called LZ. See also airfield. (ref JP 3-17)
  • laser-guided weapon - A weapon that uses a seeker to detect laser energy reflected from a laser marked/designated target and through signal processing provides guidance commands to a control system, which guides the weapon to the point from which the laser energy is being reflected. Also called LGW. (ref JP 3-09)
  • As Amended Through 15 February 2016 JP 1-02 139 laser rangefinder - A device that uses laser energy for determining the distance from the device to a place or object. (ref JP 3-09)
  • laser seeker - A device based on a direction-sensitive receiver that detects the energy reflected from a laser designated target and defines the direction of the target relative to the receiver. See also laser-guided weapon. (ref JP 3-09.3)
  • laser spot - The area on a surface illuminated by a laser. See also spot. (ref JP 3-09)
  • laser spot tracker - A device that locks on to the reflected energy from a laser-marked or designated target and defines the direction of the target relative to itself. Also called LST. (ref JP 3-09)
  • laser target designator - A device that emits a beam of laser energy which is used to mark a specific place or object. Also called LTD. See also target. (ref JP 3-09)
  • latest arrival date - A day, relative to C-Day, that is specified by the supported combatant commander as the latest date when a unit, a resupply shipment, or replacement personnel can arrive at the port of debarkation and support the concept of operations. Also called LAD. (ref JP 5-0)
  • law enforcement agency - Any of a number of agencies (outside the Department of Defense) chartered and empowered to enforce US laws in the United States, a state or territory (or political subdivision) of the United States, a federally recognized Native American tribe or Alaskan Native Village, or within the borders of a host nation. Also called LEA. (ref JP 3-28)
  • law of armed conflict - See law of war. (ref JP 1-04)
  • law of war - That part of international law that regulates the conduct of armed hostilities. Also called the law of armed conflict. See also rules of engagement. (ref JP 1-04)
  • lead - In intelligence usage, a person with potential for exploitation, warranting additional assessment, contact, and/or development. (ref JP 2-01.2)
  • lead agency - The US Government agency designated to coordinate the interagency oversight of the day-to-day conduct of an ongoing operation. (ref JP 3-08)
  • lead agent - 1. An individual Service, combatant command, or Joint Staff directorate assigned to develop and maintain a joint publication. (CJCSM 5120.01) 2. In medical materiel management, the designated unit or organization to coordinate or execute dayto-day conduct of an ongoing operation or function. Also called LA. (ref JP 4-02)
  • lead aircraft - 1. The airborne aircraft designated to exercise command of other aircraft within the flight. 2. An aircraft in the van of two or more aircraft. (ref JP 3-09.3)
  • As Amended Through 15 February 2016 140 JP 1-02 lead federal agency - The federal agency that leads and coordinates the overall federal response to an emergency. Also called LFA. (ref JP 3-41)
  • lead nation - The nation with the will, capability, competence, and influence to provide the essential elements of political consultation and military leadership to coordinate the planning, mounting, and execution of a multinational operation. See also logistic support; multinational force. (ref JP 3-16)
  • lead Service or agency for common-user logistics - A Service component or Department of Defense agency that is responsible for execution of common-user item or service support in a specific combatant command or multinational operation as defined in the combatant or subordinate joint force commanderís operation plan, operation order, and/or directives. See also common-user logistics. (ref JP 4-0)
  • letter of assist - A contractual document issued by the United Nations to a government authorizing it to provide goods or services to a peacekeeping operation. Also called LOA. See also peacekeeping. (ref JP 1-06)
  • letter of authorization - A document issued by the procuring contracting officer or designee that authorizes contractor personnel authorized to accompany the force to travel to, from, and within the operational area; and, outlines government furnished support authorizations within the operational area. Also called LOA. (ref JP 4-10)
  • letter of offer and acceptance - Standard Department of Defense form on which the United States Government documents its offer to transfer to a foreign government or international organization United States defense articles and services via foreign military sales pursuant to the Arms Export Control Act. Also called LOA. See also foreign military sales. (ref JP 4-08)
  • level of detail - Within the current joint planning and execution system, movement characteristics for both personnel and cargo are described at six distinct levels of detail. Levels I, V, and VI describe personnel and Levels I through IV and VI for cargo. Levels I through IV are coded and visible in the Joint Operation Planning and Execution System automated data processing. Levels V and VI are used by Joint Operation Planning and Execution System automated data processing feeder systems. a. level I - personnel: expressed as total number of passengers by unit line number. Cargo: expressed in total short tons, total measurement tons, total square feet, and total thousands of barrels by unit line number. Petroleum, oils, and lubricants is expressed by thousands of barrels by unit line number. b. level II - cargo: expressed by short tons and measurement tons of bulk, oversize, outsize, and non-air transportable cargo by unit line number. Also square feet for vehicles and non self-deployable aircraft and boats by unit line number. c. level III - cargo: detail by cargo category code expressed as short tons and measurement tons as well as square feet associated to that cargo category code for an individual unit line number. d. level IV - cargo: detail for individual dimensional data expressed in length, width, and height in number of inches, and weight/volume in short tons/measurement tons, along with a cargo description. Each cargo item is associated with a cargo category As Amended Through 15 February 2016 JP 1-02 141 code and a unit line number). e. level V - personnel: any general summarization/aggregation of level VI detail in distribution and deployment. f. level VI - personnel: detail expressed by name, Service, military occupational specialty and unique identification number. Cargo: detail expressed by association to a transportation control number or single tracking number or item of equipment to include federal stock number/national stock number and/or requisition number. Nested cargo, cargo that is contained within another equipment item, may similarly be identified. Also called JOPES level of detail. (CJCSM 3122.01A) leverage - In the context of joint operation planning, a relative advantage in combat power and/or other circumstances against the adversary across one or more domains or the information environment sufficient to exploit that advantage. See also operational art; operational design. (ref JP 5-0)
  • L-hour - 1. The specific hour on C-day at which a deployment operation commences or is to commence. (ref JP 5-0)
    2. In amphibious operations, the time at which the first helicopter or tiltrotor aircraft of the airborne ship-to-shore movement wave touches down or is scheduled to touch down in the landing zone (ref JP 3-02)
  • liaison - That contact or intercommunication maintained between elements of military forces or other agencies to ensure mutual understanding and unity of purpose and action. (ref JP 3-08)
  • life cycle - The total phases through which an item passes from the time it is initially developed until the time it is either consumed in use or disposed of as being excess to all known materiel requirements. (ref JP 4-02)
  • lighterage - The process in which small craft are used to transport cargo or personnel from ship-to-shore using amphibians, landing craft, discharge lighters, causeways, and barges. (ref JP 4-01.6)
  • limiting factor - A factor or condition that, either temporarily or permanently, impedes mission accomplishment. (ref JP 5-0)
  • line of communications - A route, either land, water, and/or air, that connects an operating military force with a base of operations and along which supplies and military forces move. Also called LOC. (ref JP 2-01.3)
  • line of demarcation - A line defining the boundary of a buffer zone used to establish the forward limits of disputing or belligerent forces after each phase of disengagement or withdrawal has been completed. See also buffer zone; disengagement; peace operations. (ref JP 3-07.3)
  • line of departure - 1. In land warfare, a line designated to coordinate the departure of attack elements. Also called LD. (ref JP 3-31)
    2. In amphibious operations, a suitably marked offshore coordinating line, which is located at the seaward end of a boat lane, to assist in As Amended Through 15 February 2016 142 JP 1-02 the landing of landing craft and amphibious vehicles on designated beaches at the scheduled times. Also called LOD. (ref JP 3-02)
  • line of effort - In the context of joint operation planning, using the purpose (cause and effect) to focus efforts toward establishing operational and strategic conditions by linking multiple tasks and missions. Also called LOE. (ref JP 5-0)
  • line of operation - A line that defines the interior or exterior orientation of the force in relation to the enemy or that connects actions on nodes and/or decisive points related in time and space to an objective(s). Also called LOO. (ref JP 5-0)
  • link - 1. A behavioral, physical, or functional relationship between nodes. 2. In communications, a general term used to indicate the existence of communications facilities between two points. 3. A maritime route, other than a coastal or transit route, which links any two or more routes. See also node. (ref JP 3-0)
  • listening watch - A continuous receiver watch established for the reception of communication addressed to, or of interest to, the unit maintaining the watch, with complete log optional. (ref JP 3-50)
  • littoral - The littoral comprises two segments of operational environment: 1. Seaward: the area from the open ocean to the shore, which must be controlled to support operations ashore. 2. Landward: the area inland from the shore that can be supported and defended directly from the sea. (ref JP 2-01.3)
  • loading plan - All of the individually prepared documents which, taken together, present in detail all instructions for the arrangement of personnel, and the loading of equipment for one or more units or other special grouping of personnel or material moving by highway, water, rail, or air transportation. (ref JP 3-02.1)
  • load signal - In personnel recovery, a visual signal displayed in a covert manner to indicate the presence of an individual or object at a given location. See also evasion; recovery operations. (ref JP 3-50)
  • locate - In personnel recovery, the task where actions are taken to precisely find and authenticate the identity of isolated personnel. (ref JP 3-50)
  • lodgment - A designated area in a hostile or potentially hostile operational area that, when seized and held, makes the continuous landing of troops and materiel possible and provides maneuver space for subsequent operations. (ref JP 3-18)
  • logistics - Planning and executing the movement and support of forces. (ref JP 4-0)
  • logistics over-the-shore operation area - That geographic area required to conduct a logistics over-the-shore operation. Also called LOA. See also logistics over-the-shore operations. (ref JP 4-01.6)
  • As Amended Through 15 February 2016 JP 1-02 143 logistics over-the-shore operations - The loading and unloading of ships without the benefit of deep draft-capable, fixed port facilities; or as a means of moving forces closer to tactical assembly areas dependent on threat force capabilities. Also called LOTS operations. See also joint logistics over-the-shore operations. (ref JP 4-01.6)
  • logistic support - Support that encompasses the logistic services, materiel, and transportation required to support the continental United States-based and worldwide deployed forces. (ref JP 4-0)
  • logistics supportability analysis - Combatant command internal assessment for the Joint Strategic Capabilities Plan on capabilities and shortfalls of key logistic capabilities required to execute and sustain the concept of support conducted on all level three plans with the time phased force deployment data. Also called LSA. (ref JP 4-0)
  • low-altitude missile engagement zone - In air defense, that airspace of defined dimensions within which the responsibility for engagement of air threats normally rests with low- to medium-altitude surface-to-air missiles. Also called LOMEZ. (ref JP 3-01)
  • low-level transit route - A temporary corridor of defined dimensions established in the forward area to minimize the risk to friendly aircraft from friendly air defenses or surface forces. Also called LLTR. (ref JP 3-52)
  • low velocity drop - A drop procedure in which the drop velocity does not exceed 30 feet per second. (ref JP 3-17)
  • low-visibility operations - Sensitive operations wherein the diplomatic-military restrictions inherent in covert and clandestine operations are either not necessary or not feasible; actions are taken as required to limit exposure of those involved and/or their activities and with the knowledge that the action and/or sponsorship of the operation may preclude plausible denial by the initiating power. (ref JP 3-05)
  • As Amended Through 15 February 2016 144 JP 1-02 Intentionally Blank As Amended Through 15 February 2016 M JP 1-02 145 magnetic mine - A mine that responds to the magnetic field of a target. (ref JP 3-15)
  • mail embargo - A temporary shutdown or redirection of mail flow to or from a specific location. (ref JP 1-0)
  • main operating base - A facility outside the United States and US territories with permanently stationed operating forces and robust infrastructure. Main operating bases are characterized by command and control structures, enduring family support facilities, and strengthened force protection measures. Also called MOB. See also cooperative security location; forward operating site. (CJCS CM-0007-05) main supply route - The route or routes designated within an operational area upon which the bulk of traffic flows in support of military operations. Also called MSR. (ref JP 4-01.5)
  • maintenance - 1. All action, including inspection, testing, servicing, classification as to serviceability, repair, rebuilding, and reclamation, taken to retain materiel in a serviceable condition or to restore it to serviceability. 2. All supply and repair action taken to keep a force in condition to carry out its mission. 3. The routine recurring work required to keep a facility in such condition that it may be continuously used at its original or designed capacity and efficiency for its intended purpose. (ref JP 4-0)
  • major force - A military organization comprised of major combat elements and associated combat support, combat service support, and sustainment increments. (ref JP 5-0)
  • major operation - 1. A series of tactical actions (battles, engagements, strikes) conducted by combat forces of a single or several Services, coordinated in time and place, to achieve strategic or operational objectives in an operational area. 2. For noncombat operations, a reference to the relative size and scope of a military operation. See also operation. (ref JP 3-0)
  • maneuver - 1. A movement to place ships, aircraft, or land forces in a position of advantage over the enemy. 2. A tactical exercise carried out at sea, in the air, on the ground, or on a map in imitation of war. 3. The operation of a ship, aircraft, or vehicle, to cause it to perform desired movements. 4. Employment of forces in the operational area through movement in combination with fires to achieve a position of advantage in respect to the enemy. See also mission; operation. (ref JP 3-0)
  • manpower management - The means of manpower control to ensure the most efficient and economical use of available manpower. (ref JP 1-0)
  • manpower requirements - Human resources needed to accomplish specified work loads of organizations. (ref JP 1-0)
  • As Amended Through 15 February 2016 146 JP 1-02 Marine air command and control system - A system that provides the aviation combat element commander with the means to command, coordinate, and control all air operations within an assigned sector and to coordinate air operations with other Services. Also called MACCS. See also direct air support center; tactical air operations center. (ref JP 3-09.3)
  • Marine Corps special operations forces - Those Active Component Marine Corps forces designated by the Secretary of Defense that are specifically organized, trained, and equipped to conduct and support special operations. Also called MARSOF. (ref JP 3-05)
  • Maritime Administration Ready Reserve Force - The surge sealift assets owned and operated by the United States Department of Transportation/Maritime Administration and Military Sealift Command (in contingency), crewed by civilian mariners. Also called MARAD RRF. See also National Defense Reserve Fleet. (ref JP 4-01.6)
  • maritime domain - The oceans, seas, bays, estuaries, islands, coastal areas, and the airspace above these, including the littorals. (ref JP 3-32)
  • maritime domain awareness - The effective understanding of anything associated with the maritime domain that could impact the security, safety, economy, or environment of a nation. Also called MDA. (ref JP 3-32)
  • maritime forces - Forces that operate on, under, or above the sea to gain or exploit command of the sea, sea control, or sea denial and/or to project power from the sea. (ref JP 3-32)
  • maritime interception operations - Efforts to monitor, query, and board merchant vessels in international waters to enforce sanctions against other nations such as those in support of United Nations Security Council Resolutions and/or prevent the transport of restricted goods. Also called MIO. (ref JP 3-03)
  • maritime power projection - Power projection in and from the maritime environment, including a broad spectrum of offensive military operations to destroy enemy forces or logistic support or to prevent enemy forces from approaching within enemy weaponsí range of friendly forces. (ref JP 3-32)
  • maritime pre-positioning force operation - A rapid deployment and assembly of a Marine expeditionary force in a secure area using a combination of intertheater airlift and forward-deployed maritime pre-positioning ships. Also called MPF operation. See also maritime pre-positioning ships. (ref JP 4-01.6)
  • maritime pre-positioning ships - Civilian-crewed, Military Sealift Command-chartered ships that are usually forward-deployed and loaded with pre-positioned equipment and up to 30 days of supplies to support Marine expeditionary brigades. Also called MPSs. See also Navy cargo handling battalion. (ref JP 3-02.1)
  • As Amended Through 15 February 2016 JP 1-02 147 maritime security operations - Those operations to protect maritime sovereignty and resources and to counter maritime-related terrorism, weapons proliferation, transnational crime, piracy, environmental destruction, and illegal seaborne immigration. Also called MSO. (ref JP 3-32)
  • Maritime Security Program - A program authorized in the Maritime Security Act of 2003 requiring the Secretary of Transportation, in consultation with the Secretary of Defense, to establish a fleet of active, commercially viable, militarily useful, privately-owned vessels to meet national defense and other security requirements. Also called MSP. (ref JP 4-01.2)
  • maritime superiority - That degree of dominance of one force over another that permits the conduct of maritime operations by the former and its related land, maritime, and air forces at a given time and place without prohibitive interference by the opposing force. (ref JP 3-32)
  • maritime terminal - A facility for berthing ships simultaneously at piers, quays, and/or working anchorages. Also called water terminal. (ref JP 4-01.5)
  • marking - To maintain contact on a target from such a position that the marking unit has an immediate offensive capability. (ref JP 3-09.3)
  • marshalling - 1. The process by which units participating in an amphibious or airborne operation group together or assemble when feasible or move to temporary camps in the vicinity of embarkation points, complete preparations for combat, or prepare for loading. 2. The process of assembling, holding, and organizing supplies and/or equipment, especially vehicles of transportation, for onward movement. See also staging area. (ref JP 3-17)
  • marshalling area - A location in the vicinity of a reception terminal or pre-positioned equipment storage site where arriving unit personnel, equipment, materiel, and accompanying supplies are reassembled, returned to the control of the unit commander, and prepared for onward movement. See also marshalling. (ref JP 3-35)
  • mass atrocity response operations - Military activities conducted to prevent or halt mass atrocities. Also called MARO. (ref JP 3-07.3)
  • mass casualty - Any large number of casualties produced in a relatively short period of time, usually as the result of a single incident such as a military aircraft accident, hurricane, flood, earthquake, or armed attack that exceeds local logistic support capabilities. Also called MASCAL. See also casualty. (ref JP4-02)
  • massed fire - 1. The fire of the batteries of two or more ships directed against a single target. 2. Fire from a number of weapons directed at a single point or small area. (ref JP 3-02)
  • As Amended Through 15 February 2016 148 JP 1-02 master - The commander of a United States Naval Ship, a commercial ship, or a government-owned general agency agreement ship operated for the Military Sealift Command by a civilian company to transport Department of Defense cargo. (ref JP 3-02.1)
  • master air attack plan - A plan that contains key information that forms the foundation of the joint air tasking order. Also called MAAP. See also target. (ref JP 3-60)
  • materials handling equipment - Equipment used at air, ground, and sea ports to handle large cargo. Also called MHE. (ref JP 4-01.5)
  • materiel - All items necessary to equip, operate, maintain, and support military activities without distinction as to its application for administrative or combat purposes. See also equipment; personal property. (ref JP 4-0)
  • materiel inventory objective - The quantity of an item required to be on hand and on order on M-day in order to equip, provide a materiel pipeline, and sustain the approved United States force structure and those Allied forces designated for United States materiel support, through the period prescribed for war materiel planning purposes. (ref JP 4-09)
  • materiel planning - A subset of logistic planning consisting of the four-step process of: a. requirements definition. Requirements for significant items are calculated at item-level detail to support sustainability planning and analysis. b. apportionment. Items are apportioned to the combatant commanders based on a global scenario to avoid sourcing of items to multiple theaters. c. sourcing. Sourcing is the matching of available capabilities on a given date against item requirements to support sustainability analysis and the identification of locations to support transportation planning. d. documentation. Sourced item requirements are translated into movement requirements and documented in the Joint Operation Planning and Execution System database for transportation feasibility analysis. (ref JP 4-09)
  • materiel release order - An order issued by an accountable supply system manager directing a non-accountable activity within the same supply distribution complex to release and ship materiel. Also called MRO. (ref JP 4-09)
  • materiel requirements - Those quantities of items of equipment and supplies necessary to equip, provide a materiel pipeline, and sustain a Service, formation, organization, or unit in the fulfillment of its purposes or tasks during a specified period. (ref JP 4-09)
  • maximum ordinate - In artillery and naval gunfire support, the height of the highest point in the trajectory of a projectile above the horizontal plane passing through its origin. Also called vertex height and MAXORD. (ref JP 3-09.3)
  • M-day - Mobilization day; unnamed day on which mobilization of forces begins. (ref JP 4-06)
  • measurement and signature intelligence - Information produced by quantitative and qualitative analysis of physical attributes of targets and events to characterize, locate, and As Amended Through 15 February 2016 JP 1-02 149 identify targets and events, and derived from specialized, technically derived measurements of physical phenomenon intrinsic to an object or event. Also called MASINT. See also intelligence; scientific and technical intelligence. (ref JP 2-0)
  • Measurement and Signature Intelligence Requirements System - A system for the management of theater and national measurement and signature intelligence collection requirements, providing automated tools for users in support of submission, review, and validation of measurement and signature intelligence nominations of requirements to be tasked for national and Department of Defense measurement and signature intelligence collection, production, and exploitation resources. Also called MRS. See also measurement and signature intelligence. (ref JP 2-01)
  • measurement ton - The unit of volumetric measurement of equipment associated with surface-delivered cargo equal to the total cubic feet divided by 40. Also called MTON. (ref JP 4-01.5)
  • measure of effectiveness - A criterion used to assess changes in system behavior, capability, or operational environment that is tied to measuring the attainment of an end state, achievement of an objective, or creation of an effect. Also called MOE. See also combat assessment; mission. (ref JP 3-0)
  • measure of performance - A criterion used to assess friendly actions that is tied to measuring task accomplishment. Also called MOP. (ref JP 3-0)
  • mechanical sweep - In naval mine warfare, any sweep used with the object of physically contacting the mine or its appendages. (ref JP 3-15)
  • media operations center - A facility established by the commander to serve as the focal point for the interface between the military and the media during the conduct of military operations. Also called MOC. (ref JP 3-61)
  • media pool - A limited number of news media who represent a larger number of news media organizations for purposes of news gathering and sharing of material during a specified activity. See also public affairs. (ref JP 3-61)
  • medical civil-military operations - All military health-related activities in support of a joint force commander that establish, enhance, maintain or influence relations between the joint or multinational force and host nation, multinational governmental and nongovernmental civilian organizations and authorities, and the civilian populace in order to facilitate military operations, achieve United States operational objectives, and positively impact the health sector. Also called MCMO. (ref JP 4-02)
  • medical engagement protocols - Directives issued by competent military authority that delineate the circumstances and limitations under which United States medical forces will initiate medical care and support to those individuals that are not Department of As Amended Through 15 February 2016 150 JP 1-02 Defense health care beneficiaries or designated eligible for care in a military medical treatment facility by the Secretary of Defense. (ref JP 4-02)
  • medical intelligence - That category of intelligence resulting from collection, evaluation, analysis, and interpretation of foreign medical, bio-scientific, and environmental information that is of interest to strategic planning and to military medical planning and operations for the conservation of the fighting strength of friendly forces and the formation of assessments of foreign medical capabilities in both military and civilian sectors. Also called MEDINT. See also intelligence. (ref JP 2-01)
  • medical intelligence preparation of the operational environment - A systematic continuing process that analyzes information on medical and disease threats, enemy capabilities, terrain, weather, local medical infrastructure, potential humanitarian and refugee situations, transportation issues, and political, religious and social issues for all types of operations. Also called MIPOE. (ref JP 4-02)
  • medical logistics support - A functional area of logistics support for the joint force surgeonís health service support mission and that includes supplying Class VIII medical supplies (medical material to include medical peculiar repair parts used to sustain the health service support system), optical fabrication, medical equipment maintenance, blood storage and distribution, and medical gases. Also called MEDLOG support. (ref JP 4-02)
  • medical regulating - The actions and coordination necessary to arrange for the movement of patients through the roles of care and to match patients with a medical treatment facility that has the necessary health service support capabilities and available bed space. See also health service support; medical treatment facility. (ref JP 4-02)
  • medical surveillance - The ongoing, systematic collection, analysis, and interpretation of data derived from instances of medical care or medical evaluation, and the reporting of population-based information for characterizing and countering threats to a populationís health, well-being and performance. See also surveillance. (ref JP 4-02)
  • medical treatment facility - A facility established for the purpose of furnishing medical and/or dental care to eligible individuals. Also called MTF. (ref JP 4-02)
  • medium-range ballistic missile - A ballistic missile with a range capability from about 600 to 1,500 nautical miles. Also called MRBM. (ref JP 3-01)
  • mensuration - The process of measurement of a feature or location on the earth to determine an absolute latitude, longitude, and elevation. (ref JP 3-60)
  • message - 1. Any thought or idea expressed briefly in a plain or secret language and prepared in a form suitable for transmission by any means of communication. (ref JP 6-0)
    2. A narrowly focused communication directed at a specific audience to support a specific theme. Also called MSG. (ref JP 3-61)
  • As Amended Through 15 February 2016 JP 1-02 151 meteorological and oceanographic - A term used to convey all environmental factors, from the sub-bottom of the Earthís oceans through maritime, land areas, airspace, ionosphere, and outward into space. Also called METOC. (ref JP 3-59)
  • meteorological and oceanographic data - Measurements or observations of meteorological and oceanographic variables. (ref JP 3-59)
  • meteorological and oceanographic environment - The surroundings that extend from the sub-bottom of the Earthís oceans, through maritime, land areas, airspace, ionosphere, and outward into space, which include conditions, resources, and natural phenomena, in and through which the joint force operates. (ref JP 3-59)
  • meteorological and oceanographic information - Actionable information to include meteorological, climatological, oceanographic, and space environment observations, analyses, prognostic data or products and meteorological and oceanographic effects. (ref JP 3-59)
  • meteorological and oceanographic operations support community - The collective of electronically connected, shore-based meteorological and oceanographic production facilities/centers, theater and/or regional meteorological and oceanographic production activities. Also called MOSC. See also meteorological and oceanographic. (ref JP 3-59)
  • meteorological watch - Monitoring the weather for a route, area, or terminal and advising concerned organizations when hazardous conditions that could affect their operations or pose a hazard to life or property are observed or forecast to occur. Also called METWATCH. (ref JP 3-59)
  • meteorology - The study dealing with the phenomena of the atmosphere including the physics, chemistry, and dynamics extending to the effects of the atmosphere on the Earthís surface and the oceans. (ref JP 3-59)
  • midcourse phase - That portion of the flight of a ballistic missile between the boost phase and the terminal phase. See also boost phase; terminal phase. (ref JP 3-01)
  • migrant - A person who (1) belongs to a normally migratory culture who may cross national boundaries, or (2) has fled his or her native country for economic reasons rather than fear of political or ethnic persecution. (ref JP 3-29)
  • military assistance advisory group - A joint Service group, normally under the military command of a commander of a unified command and representing the Secretary of Defense, which primarily administers the US military assistance planning and programming in the host country. Also called MAAG. (ref JP 3-22)
  • As Amended Through 15 February 2016 152 JP 1-02 Military Assistance Program - That portion of the US security assistance authorized by the Foreign Assistance Act of l961, as amended, which provides defense articles and services to recipients on a nonreimbursable (grant) basis. Also called MAP. (ref JP 3-22)
  • military civic action - Programs and projects managed by United States forces but executed primarily by indigenous military or security forces that contribute to the economic and social development of a host nation civil society thereby enhancing the legitimacy and social standing of the host nation government and its military forces. Also called MCA. (ref JP 3-57)
  • military construction - Any construction, alteration, development, conversion, or extension of any kind carried out with respect to a military installation. Also called MILCON. (ref JP 3-34)
  • military deception - Actions executed to deliberately mislead adversary military, paramilitary, or violent extremist organization decision makers, thereby causing the adversary to take specific actions (or inactions) that will contribute to the accomplishment of the friendly mission. Also called MILDEC. (ref JP 3-13.4)
  • Military Department - One of the departments within the Department of Defense created by the National Security Act of 1947, which are the Department of the Army, the Department of the Navy, and the Department of the Air Force. Also called MILDEP. See also Department of the Air Force; Department of the Army; Department of the Navy. (ref JP 1)
  • military engagement - Routine contact and interaction between individuals or elements of the Armed Forces of the United States and those of another nationís armed forces, or foreign and domestic civilian authorities or agencies to build trust and confidence, share information, coordinate mutual activities, and maintain influence. (ref JP 3-0)
  • military government - The supreme authority the military exercises by force or agreement over the lands, property, and indigenous populations and institutions of domestic, allied, or enemy territory therefore substituting sovereign authority under rule of law for the previously established government. (ref JP 3-57)
  • military health system - A health system that supports the military mission by fostering, protecting, sustaining, and restoring health and providing the direction, resources, health care providers, and other means necessary for promoting the health of the beneficiary population. (ref JP 4-02)
  • military information support operations - Planned operations to convey selected information and indicators to foreign audiences to influence their emotions, motives, objective reasoning, and ultimately the behavior of foreign governments, organizations, groups, and individuals in a manner favorable to the originatorís objectives. Also called MISO. (ref JP 3-13.2)
  • As Amended Through 15 February 2016 JP 1-02 153 Military Intelligence Board - A decision-making forum which formulates Department of Defense intelligence policy and programming priorities. Also called MIB. See also intelligence. (ref JP 2-0)
  • military intervention - The deliberate act of a nation or a group of nations to introduce its military forces into the course of an existing controversy. (ref JP 3-0)
  • military occupation - A condition in which territory is under the effective control of a foreign armed force. See also occupied territory. (ref JP 3-0)
  • Military Postal Service - The command, organization, personnel, and facilities established to provide a means for the transmission of mail to and from the Department of Defense, members of the US Armed Forces, and other authorized agencies and individuals. Also called MPS. (ref JP 1-0)
  • Military Postal Service Agency - The single manager operating agency established to manage the Military Postal Service. Also called MPSA. (ref JP 1-0)
  • military post office - A branch of a designated US-based post office established by US Postal Service authority and operated by one of the Services. Also called MPO. (ref JP 1-0)
  • Military Sealift Command - A major command of the United States Navy reporting to Commander Fleet Forces Command, and the United States Transportation Commandís component command responsible for designated common-user sealift transportation services to deploy, employ, sustain, and redeploy United States forces on a global basis. Also called MSC. See also transportation component command. (ref JP 4-01.2)
  • Military Sealift Command force - Common-user sealift consisting of three subsets: the Naval Fleet Auxiliary Force, common-user ocean transportation, and the special mission support force. See also common-user sealift; Military Sealift Command. (ref JP 4-01.2)
  • military source operations - The collection, from, by and/or via humans, of foreign and military and military-related intelligence. (ref JP 2-01.2)
  • military specification container - A container that meets specific written standards. Also called MILSPEC container. (ref JP 4-09)
  • military standard requisitioning and issue procedure - A uniform procedure established by the Department of Defense for use within the Department of Defense to govern requisition and issue of materiel within standardized priorities. Also called MILSTRIP. (ref JP 4-01)
  • military standard transportation and movement procedures - Uniform and standard transportation data, documentation, and control procedures applicable to all cargo As Amended Through 15 February 2016 154 JP 1-02 movements in the Department of Defense transportation system. Also called MILSTAMP. (ref JP 4-01.5)
  • military technician - A Federal civilian employee providing full-time support to a National Guard, Reserve, or Active Component organization for administration, training, and maintenance of the Selected Reserve. Also called MILTECH. (CJCSM 3150.13) military van (container) - Military-owned, demountable container, conforming to United States and international standards, operated in a centrally controlled fleet for movement of military cargo. Also called MILVAN. (ref JP 4-02)
  • mine - 1. In land mine warfare, an explosive or other material, normally encased, designed to destroy or damage ground vehicles, boats, or aircraft, or designed to wound, kill, or otherwise incapacitate personnel and designed to be detonated by the action of its victim, by the passage of time, or by controlled means. 2. In naval mine warfare, an explosive device laid in the water with the intention of damaging or sinking ships or of deterring shipping from entering an area. See also mine warfare. (ref JP 3-15)
  • mine countermeasures - All methods for preventing or reducing damage or danger from mines. Also called MCM. (ref JP 3-15)
  • minefield - 1. In land warfare, an area of ground containing mines emplaced with or without a pattern. 2. In naval warfare, an area of water containing mines emplaced with or without a pattern. See also mine; mine warfare. (ref JP 3-15)
  • minefield record - A complete written record of all pertinent information concerning a minefield, submitted on a standard form by the officer in charge of the emplacement operations. (ref JP 3-15)
  • minefield report - An oral, electronic, or written communication concerning mining activities (friendly or enemy) submitted in a standard format by the fastest secure means available. (ref JP 3-15)
  • minehunting - Employment of sensor and neutralization systems, whether air, surface, or subsurface, to locate and dispose of individual mines in a known field, or to verify the presence or absence of mines in a given area. See also minesweeping. (ref JP 3-15)
  • minesweeping - The technique of clearing mines using either mechanical sweeping to remove, disturb, or otherwise neutralize the mine; explosive sweeping to cause sympathetic detonations, damage, or displace the mine; or influence sweeping to produce either the acoustic or magnetic influence required to detonate the mine. See also minehunting. (ref JP 3-15)
  • mine warfare - The strategic, operational, and tactical use of mines and mine countermeasures either by emplacing mines to degrade the enemyís capabilities to wage As Amended Through 15 February 2016 JP 1-02 155 land, air, and maritime warfare or by countering of enemy-emplaced mines to permit friendly maneuver or use of selected land or sea areas. Also called MW. (ref JP 3-15)
  • minimize - A condition wherein normal message and telephone traffic is drastically reduced in order that messages connected with an actual or simulated emergency shall not be delayed. (ref JP 6-0)
  • minimum force - Those minimum actions, including the use of armed force, sufficient to bring a situation under control or to defend against hostile act or hostile intent, where the firing of weapons is to be considered as a means of last resort. (ref JP 3-07.3)
  • minimum-risk route - A temporary corridor of defined dimensions recommended for use by high-speed, fixed-wing aircraft that presents the minimum known hazards to lowflying aircraft transiting the combat zone. Also called MRR. (ref JP 3-52)
  • missile defense - Defensive measures designed to destroy attacking enemy missiles, or to nullify or reduce the effectiveness of such attack. (ref JP 3-01)
  • missile engagement zone - In air defense, that airspace of defined dimensions within which the responsibility for engagement of air threats normally rests with surface-to-air missile systems. Also called MEZ. (ref JP 3-01)
  • mission - 1. The task, together with the purpose, that clearly indicates the action to be taken and the reason therefore. (ref JP 3-0)
    2. In common usage, especially when applied to lower military units, a duty assigned to an individual or unit; a task. (ref JP 3-0)
    3. The dispatching of one or more aircraft to accomplish one particular task. (ref JP 3-30)
  • mission assignment - The vehicle used by the Department of Homeland Security/Emergency Preparedness and Response/Federal Emergency Management Agency to support federal operations in a Stafford Act major disaster or emergency declaration that orders immediate, short-term emergency response assistance when an applicable state or local government is overwhelmed by the event and lacks the capability to perform, or contract for, the necessary work. (ref JP 3-28)
  • mission command - The conduct of military operations through decentralized execution based upon mission-type orders. (ref JP 3-31)
  • mission needs statement - A formatted non-system-specific statement containing operational capability needs and written in broad operational terms. Also called MNS. (CJCSI 3180.01) mission-oriented protective posture - A flexible system of protection against chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear contamination in which personnel are required to wear only that protective clothing and equipment appropriate to the threat level, work rate imposed by the mission, temperature, and humidity. Also called MOPP. See also mission-oriented protective posture gear. (ref JP 3-11)
  • As Amended Through 15 February 2016 156 JP 1-02 mission-oriented protective posture gear - Military term for individual protective equipment including suit, boots, gloves, mask with hood, first aid treatments, and decontamination kits issued to military members. Also called MOPP gear. See also decontamination; mission-oriented protective posture. (ref JP 3-11)
  • mission statement - A short sentence or paragraph that describes the organizationís essential task(s), purpose, and action containing the elements of who, what, when, where, and why. See also mission. (ref JP 5-0)
  • mission type order - 1. An order issued to a lower unit that includes the accomplishment of the total mission assigned to the higher headquarters. 2. An order to a unit to perform a mission without specifying how it is to be accomplished. (ref JP 3-50)
  • mobile security force - A highly mobile and dedicated security force with the capability to defeat Level I and II threats in a joint security area. Also called MSF. (ref JP 3-10)
  • mobility - A quality or capability of military forces which permits them to move from place to place while retaining the ability to fulfill their primary mission. (ref JP 3-17)
  • mobility air forces - Air components and Service components that are assigned and/or routinely exercise command authority over mobility operations. Also called MAF. (ref JP 3-17)
  • mobility corridor - Areas that are relatively free of obstacles where a force will be canalized due to terrain restrictions allowing military forces to capitalize on the principles of mass and speed. (ref JP 2-01.3)
  • mobilization - 1. The process of assembling and organizing national resources to support national objectives in time of war or other emergencies. See also industrial mobilization. 2. The process by which the Armed Forces of the United States or part of them are brought to a state of readiness for war or other national emergency, whichincludes activating all or part of the Reserve Component as well as assembling and organizing personnel, supplies, and materiel. Also called MOB. (ref JP 4-05)
  • mobilization base - The total of all resources available, or that can be made available, to meet foreseeable wartime needs. (ref JP 4-05)
  • mobilization site - The designated location where a Reserve Component unit or individual mobilizes or moves after mobilization for further processing, training, and employment. See also mobilization; mobilization station; Reserve Component. (ref JP 4-05)
  • mobilization station - The designated military installation to which a Reserve Component unit or individual is moved for further processing, organizing, equipping, training, and employment and from which the unit or individual may move to an aerial port of As Amended Through 15 February 2016 JP 1-02 157 embarkation or seaport of embarkation. See also mobilization; mobilization site; Reserve Component. (ref JP 4-05)
  • mode (identification, friend or foe) - The number or letter referring to the specific pulse spacing of the signals transmitted by an interrogator or transponder used for radar identification of aircraft. (ref JP 3-01)
  • mode of transport - One of, or a combination of, the following modes used for a movement: a. inland surface transportation (rail, road, and inland waterway); b. sea transport (coastal and ocean); c. air transportation; and d. pipelines. (ref JP 4-09)
  • Modernized Integrated Database - The national level repository for the general military intelligence available to the entire Department of Defense Intelligence Information System community and, through Global Command and Control System integrated imagery and intelligence, to tactical units. Also called MIDB. (ref JP 2-01)
  • modified combined obstacle overlay - A joint intelligence preparation of the operational environment product used to portray the militarily significant aspects of the operational environment, such as obstacles restricting military movement, key geography, and military objectives. Also called MCOO. See also joint intelligence preparation of the operational environment. (ref JP 2-01.3)
  • moored mine - A contact or influence-operated mine of positive buoyancy held below the surface by a mooring attached to a sinker or anchor on the bottom. See also mine. (ref JP 3-15)
  • morale, welfare, and recreation - The merging of multiple unconnected disciplines into programs which improve unit readiness, promote fitness, build unit morale and cohesion, enhance quality of life, and provide recreational, social, and other support services. Also called MWR. (ref JP 1-0)
  • mortuary affairs - Provides for the search for, recovery, identification, preparation, and disposition of human remains of persons for whom the Services are responsible by status and executive order. Also called MA. See also joint mortuary affairs office. (ref JP 4-06)
  • mounting - 1. All preparations made in anticipation of an operation, including assembly in the mounting area, preparation and maintenance within the mounting area, movement to loading points, and subsequent embarkation into ships, craft, or aircraft if applicable. 2. A carriage or stand upon which a weapon is placed. (ref JP 3-02.1)
  • mounting area - A general locality where assigned forces of an amphibious or airborne operation, with their equipment, are assembled, prepared, and loaded in ships and/or aircraft preparatory to an assault. See also embarkation area. (ref JP 3-02.1)
  • As Amended Through 15 February 2016 158 JP 1-02 movement control - The planning, routing, scheduling, and control of personnel and cargo movements over lines of communications; includes maintaining in-transit visibility of forces and material through the deployment and/or redeployment process. See also line of communications; movement control teams; non-unit cargo; non-unit-related personnel. (ref JP 4-01.5)
  • movement control team - An Army team used to decentralize the execution of movement responsibilities on an area basis or at key transportation nodes. Also called MCT. (ref JP 4-09)
  • movement data - Those essential elements of information to schedule lift, obtain transportation assets, manage movement of forces, and report in-transit visibility of movements and associated forces (people, equipment, and supplies). (ref JP 4-09)
  • movement group - Those ships and embarked units that load out and proceed to rendezvous in the objective area. (ref JP 3-02)
  • movement phase - In amphibious operations, the period during which various elements of the amphibious force move from points of embarkation to the objective area. See also amphibious force; amphibious operation. (ref JP 3-02)
  • movement plan - In amphibious operations, the naval plan providing for the movement of the amphibious task force to the objective area. See also amphibious operation; amphibious task force. (ref JP 3-02)
  • movement requirement - A stated movement mode and time-phased need for the transport of units, personnel, and/or materiel from a specified origin to a specified destination. (ref JP 4-09)
  • movement schedule - A timetable developed to monitor or track the movement of a separate entity, whether it is a force requirement, cargo or personnel increment, or lift asset, that reflects the assignment of specific lift resources, shows a flow and workload at each location, and supports plan implementation. (ref JP 4-09)
  • movement table - A table giving detailed instructions or data for a move. (ref JP 4-09)
  • movement to contact - A form of the offense designed to develop the situation and to establish or regain contact. (ref JP 3-50)
  • multinational - Between two or more forces or agencies of two or more nations or coalition partners. See also alliance; coalition. (ref JP 5-0)
  • multinational doctrine - The agreed upon fundamental principles that guide the employment of forces of two or more nations in coordinated action toward a common objective. See also doctrine; joint doctrine. (ref JP 3-16)
  • As Amended Through 15 February 2016 JP 1-02 159 multinational force - A force composed of military elements of nations who have formed an alliance or coalition for some specific purpose. Also called MNF. See also multinational force commander; multinational operations. (ref JP 1)
  • multinational force commander - A general term applied to a commander who exercises command authority over a military force composed of elements from two or more nations. Also called MNFC. See also multinational force. (ref JP 3-16)
  • multinational integrated logistic unit - An organization resulting when two or more nations agree to provide logistics assets to a multinational logistic force under the operational control of a multinational commander for the logistic support of a multinational force. Also called MILU. See also logistic support; multinational. (ref JP 4-08)
  • multinational logistics - Any coordinated logistic activity involving two or more nations supporting a multinational force conducting military operations under the auspices of an alliance or coalition, including those conducted under United Nations mandate. Also called MNL. See also logistics; multinational. (ref JP 4-08)
  • multinational operations - A collective term to describe military actions conducted by forces of two or more nations, usually undertaken within the structure of a coalition or alliance. See also alliance; coalition. (ref JP 3-16)
  • multinational staff - A staff composed of personnel of two or more nations within the structure of a coalition or alliance. See also integrated staff; joint staff. (ref JP 3-16)
  • multipoint refueling system - KC-135 aircraft equipped with external wing-mounted pods to conduct drogue air refueling, while still maintaining boom air refueling capability on the same mission. Also called MPRS. See also air refueling. (ref JP 3-17)
  • multi-Service publication - A publication containing principles, terms, tactics, techniques, and procedures used and approved by the forces of two or more Services to perform a common military function consistent with approved joint doctrine. (CJCSM 5120.01) multispectral imagery - The image of an object obtained simultaneously in a number of discrete spectral bands. Also called MSI. (ref JP 3-14)
  • multispot ship - Those ships certified to have two or more adjacent landing areas. See also spot. (ref JP 3-04)
  • munitions effectiveness assessment - Conducted concurrently and interactively with battle damage assessment, the assessment of the military force applied in terms of the weapon system and munitions effectiveness to determine and recommend any required changes to the methodology, tactics, weapon system, munitions, fusing, and/or weapon delivery parameters to increase force effectiveness. Munitions effectiveness assessment is primarily the responsibility of operations with required inputs and coordination from the As Amended Through 15 February 2016 160 JP 1-02 intelligence community. Also called MEA. See also assessment; battle damage assessment. (ref JP 2-01)
  • mutual support - That support which units render each other against an enemy, because of their assigned tasks, their position relative to each other and to the enemy, and their inherent capabilities. See also close support; direct support; support. (ref JP 3-31)
  • As Amended Through 15 February 2016 N JP 1-02 161 named area of interest - The geospatial area or systems node or link against which information that will satisfy a specific information requirement can be collected, usually to capture indications of adversary courses of action. Also called NAI. See also area of interest. (ref JP 2-01.3)
  • narcoterrorism - Terrorism that is linked to illicit drug trafficking. (ref JP 3-07.4)
  • National Capital Region - A geographic area encompassing the District of Columbia and eleven local jurisdictions in the State of Maryland and the Commonwealth of Virginia. Also called NCR. (ref JP 3-28)
  • National Communications System - The telecommunications system that results from the technical and operational integration of the separate telecommunications systems of the several executive branch departments and agencies having a significant telecommunications capability. Also called NCS. (ref JP 6-0)
  • National Defense Reserve Fleet - 1. Including the Maritime Administration Ready Reserve Force, a fleet composed of ships acquired and maintained by the Maritime Administration for use in mobilization or emergency. 2. Less the Maritime Administration Ready Reserve Force, a fleet composed of the older dry cargo ships, tankers, troop transports, and other assets in Maritime Administrationís custody that are maintained at a relatively low level of readiness. Also called NDRF. See also Maritime Administration Ready Reserve Force. (ref JP 4-01.2)
  • national defense strategy - A document approved by the Secretary of Defense for applying the Armed Forces of the United States in coordination with Department of Defense agencies and other instruments of national power to achieve national security strategy objectives. Also called NDS. (ref JP 1)
  • National Detainee Reporting Center - The national-level center that accounts for all persons who pass through the care, custody, and control of the Department of Defense and that obtains and stores information concerning detainees and their confiscated personal property. Also called NDRC. (ref JP 3-63)
  • National Disaster Medical System - A coordinated partnership between Departments of Homeland Security, Health and Human Services, Defense, and Veterans Affairs established for the purpose of responding to the needs of casualties of a public health emergency. Also called NDMS. (ref JP 3-41)
  • national emergency - A condition declared by the President or the Congress by virtue of powers previously vested in them that authorize certain emergency actions to be undertaken in the national interest. See also mobilization. (ref JP 3-28)
  • As Amended Through 15 February 2016 162 JP 1-02 National Incident Management System - A national crisis response system that provides a consistent, nationwide approach for federal, state, local, and tribal governments; the private sector; and nongovernmental organizations to work effectively and efficiently together to prepare for, respond to, and recover from domestic incidents, regardless of cause, size, or complexity. Also called NIMS. (ref JP 3-41)
  • national intelligence - All intelligence, regardless of the source from which derived, and including that which is gathered within or outside of the United States, that pertains to more than one agency, and involves (1) threats to the United States, its people, property, or interests, (2) the development, proliferation, or use of weapons of mass destruction, or (3) any other matter bearing on US national or homeland security. (ref JP 2-01)
  • national intelligence estimate - A strategic estimate of the capabilities, vulnerabilities, and probable courses of action of foreign nations produced at the national level as a composite of the views of the intelligence community. Also called NIE. (ref JP 2-01)
  • National Military Command System - The priority component of the Global Command and Control System designed to support the President, Secretary of Defense, and Joint Chiefs of Staff in the exercise of their responsibilities. Also called NMCS. (ref JP 6-0)
  • national military strategy - A document approved by the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff for distributing and applying military power to attain national security strategy and national defense strategy objectives. Also called NMS. See also national security strategy; strategy; theater strategy. (ref JP 1)
  • national operations center - The primary national hub for domestic incident management operational coordination and situational awareness. Also called NOC. (ref JP 3-28)
  • national policy - A broad course of action or statements of guidance adopted by the government at the national level in pursuit of national objectives. (ref JP 1)
  • national security - A collective term encompassing both national defense and foreign relations of the United States with the purpose of gaining: a. A military or defense advantage over any foreign nation or group of nations; b. A favorable foreign relations position; or c. A defense posture capable of successfully resisting hostile or destructive action from within or without, overt or covert. See also security. (ref JP 1)
  • National Security Agency/Central Security Service Representative - The senior theater or military command representative of the Director, National Security Agency/Chief, Central Security Service in a specific country or military command headquarters who provides the Director, National Security Agency, with information on command plans requiring cryptologic support. The National Security Agency/Central Security Service representative serves as a special advisor to the combatant commander for cryptologic matters, to include signals intelligence, communications security, and computer security. Also called NCR. See also counterintelligence. (ref JP 2-01.2)
  • As Amended Through 15 February 2016 JP 1-02 163 National Security Council - A governmental body specifically designed to assist the President in integrating all spheres of national security policy. Also called NSC. (ref JP 1)
  • national security interests - The foundation for the development of valid national objectives that define United States goals or purposes. (ref JP 1)
  • national security strategy - A document approved by the President of the United States for developing, applying, and coordinating the instruments of national power to achieve objectives that contribute to national security. Also called NSS. See also national military strategy; strategy; theater strategy. (ref JP 1)
  • national shipping authority - The organization within each Allied government responsible in time of war for the direction of its own merchant shipping. Also called NSA. (ref JP 4- 01.2)
  • national special security event - A designated event that, by virtue of its political, economic, social, or religious significance, may be the target of terrorism or other criminal activity. Also called NSSE. (ref JP 3-28)
  • national stock number - The 13-digit number that identifies a stock item consisting of the 4-digit federal supply classification code plus the 9-digit national item identification number and arranged as follows: 9999-00-999-9999. Also called NSN. (ref JP 4-09)
  • national support element - Any national organization or activity that supports national forces that are a part of a multinational force. See also multinational force; support. (ref JP 1)
  • National System for Geospatial Intelligence - The combination of technology, policies, capabilities, doctrine, activities, people, data, and organizations necessary to produce geospatial intelligence in an integrated, multi-intelligence environment. Also called NSG. (ref JP 2-03)
  • nation assistance - Assistance rendered to a nation by foreign forces within that nationís territory based on agreements mutually concluded between nations. (ref JP 3-0)
  • natural disaster - An emergency situation posing significant danger to life and property that results from a natural cause. See also domestic emergencies. (ref JP 3-29)
  • naval advanced logistic support site - An overseas location used as the primary transshipment point in the theater of operations for logistic support. Also called NALSS. See also logistic support; naval forward logistic site; support; theater of operations. (ref JP 3-35)
  • Naval Air Training and Operating Procedures Standardization manual - Series of general and specific aircraft procedural manuals that govern the operations of naval aircraft. Also called NATOPS manual. (ref JP 3-04)
  • As Amended Through 15 February 2016 164 JP 1-02 naval beach group - A permanently organized naval command within an amphibious force composed of a commander and staff, a beachmaster unit, an amphibious construction battalion, and assault craft units, designed to provide an administrative group from which required naval tactical components may be made available to the attack force commander and to the amphibious landing force commander. Also called NBG. See also shore party. (ref JP 3-02)
  • naval construction force - The combined construction units of the Navy that are part of the operating forces and represent the Navyís capability for advanced base construction. Also called NCF. (ref JP 3-34)
  • naval forward logistic site - An overseas location, with port and airfield facilities nearby, which provides logistic support to naval forces within the theater of operations during major contingency and wartime periods. Also called NFLS. See also logistic support; naval advanced logistic support site; staging. (ref JP 3-35)
  • naval gunfire support - Fire provided by Navy surface gun systems in support of a unit or units tasked with achieving the commanderís objectives. Also called NGFS. See also naval surface fire support. (ref JP 3-09)
  • naval operation - 1. A naval action (or the performance of a naval mission) that may be strategic, operational, tactical, logistic, or training. 2. The process of carrying on or training for naval combat in order to gain the objectives of any battle or campaign. (ref JP 3-32)
  • naval special warfare - A naval warfare specialty that conducts special operations with an emphasis on maritime, coastal, and riverine environments using small, flexible, mobile units operating under, on, and from the sea. Also called NSW. (ref JP 3-05)
  • naval special warfare group - A permanent Navy echelon III major command to which most naval special warfare forces are assigned for some operational and all administrative purposes. Also called NSWG. (ref JP 3-05)
  • naval special warfare task group - A provisional naval special warfare organization that plans, conducts, and supports special operations in support of fleet commanders and joint force special operations component commanders. Also called NSWTG. (ref JP 3-05)
  • naval special warfare task unit - A provisional subordinate unit of a naval special warfare task group. Also called NSWTU. See also naval special warfare task group. (ref JP 3-05)
  • naval surface fire support - Fire provided by Navy surface gun and missile systems in support of a unit or units. Also called NSFS. See also fire support. (ref JP 3-09.3)
  • As Amended Through 15 February 2016 JP 1-02 165 navigation warfare - Deliberate defensive and offensive action to assure and prevent positioning, navigation, and timing information through coordinated employment of space, cyberspace, and electronic warfare operations. Also called NAVWAR. (ref JP-3-14)
  • Navy cargo-handling battalion - A mobile logistic support unit that is organized, trained, and equipped to: a. load and offload Navy and Marine Corps cargo carried in maritime pre-positioning ships and merchant breakbulk or container ships in all environments; b. operate an associated temporary ocean cargo terminal; c. load and off-load Navy and Marine Corps cargo carried in military-controlled aircraft; and d. operate an associated expeditionary air cargo terminal. Also called NCHB. See also maritime prepositioning ships. (ref JP 3-02.1)
  • Navy expeditionary logistics support group - The quick response cargo-handling units of the Navy specialize in open ocean cargo handling. Also called NAVELSG. (ref JP 4-01.6)
  • Navy special operations forces - Those Active and Reserve Component Navy forces designated by the Secretary of Defense that are specifically organized, trained, and equipped to conduct and support special operations. Also called NAVSOF. (ref JP 3-05)
  • Navy support element - The maritime pre-positioning force element that is tasked to conduct the off-load and ship-to-shore movement of maritime pre-positioned equipment and/or supplies. Also called NSE. (ref JP 3-02.1)
  • Navy-unique fleet essential aircraft - Combatant commander-controlled airlift assets deemed essential for providing air transportation in support of naval operationsí transportation requirements. Also called NUFEA. (ref JP 3-17)
  • N-day - Day an active duty unit is notified for deployment or redeployment. need to know - A criterion used in security procedures that requires the custodians of classified information to establish, prior to disclosure, that the intended recipient must have access to the information to perform his or her official duties. (ref JP 2-01.2)
  • negation - In space operations, active and offensive measures to deceive, disrupt, degrade, deny or destroy space capabilities being used to interfere with or attack United States/allied systems. See also space control. (ref JP 3-14)
  • nerve agent - A potentially lethal chemical agent that interferes with the transmission of nerve impulses. (ref JP 3-11)
  • net explosive weight - 1. The actual weight in pounds of explosive mixtures or compounds, including the trinitrotoluene equivalent of energetic material, that is used in determination of explosive limits and explosive quantity data arcs. (ref JP 4-09)
    2. The total weight of all explosives substances (i.e., high explosive weight, propellant weight, and pyrotechnic As Amended Through 15 February 2016 166 JP 1-02 weight) in the ammunition or explosive, expressed in pounds, used for transportation purposes. Also called NEW. (DODM 6055.09) networked munitions. Remotely controlled, interconnected, weapons system designed to provide rapidly emplaced ground-based countermobility and protection capability through scalable application of lethal and nonlethal means. (ref JP 3-15)
  • neutral - In combat and combat support operations, an identity applied to a track whose characteristics, behavior, origin, or nationality indicate that it is neither supporting nor opposing friendly forces. See also suspect; unknown. (ref JP 3-0)
  • neutrality - In international law, the attitude of impartiality during periods of war adopted by third states toward a belligerent and subsequently recognized by the belligerent, which creates rights and duties between the impartial states and the belligerent. (ref JP 3-0)
  • neutralize - 1. As pertains to military operations, to render ineffective or unusable. 2. To render enemy personnel or materiel incapable of interfering with a particular operation. 3. To render safe mines, bombs, missiles, and booby traps. 4. To make harmless anything contaminated with a chemical agent. (ref JP 3-0)
  • night vision device - Any electro-optical device that is used to detect visible and infrared energy and provide a visible image. Also called NVD. See also forward-looking infrared; night vision goggle. (ref JP 3-09.3)
  • night vision goggle - An electro-optical image intensifying device that detects visible and near-infrared energy, intensifies the energy, and provides a visible image for night viewing. Also called NVG. See also night vision device. (ref JP 3-09.3)
  • node - 1. A location in a mobility system where a movement requirement is originated, processed for onward movement, or terminated. (ref JP 3-17)
    2. In communications and computer systems, the physical location that provides terminating, switching, and gateway access services to support information exchange. (ref JP 6-0)
    3. An element of a system that represents a person, place, or physical thing. (ref JP 3-0)
  • no-fire area - An area designated by the appropriate commander into which fires or their effects are prohibited. Also called NFA. See also fires. (ref JP 3-09.3)
  • nonappropriated funds - Funds generated by Department of Defense personnel and their dependents used to augment funds appropriated by the Congress to provide a comprehensive, morale-building welfare, religious, educational, and recreational programs. Also called NAF. (ref JP 1-0)
  • nonbattle injury - A person who becomes a casualty due to circumstances not directly attributable to hostile action or terrorist activity. Also called NBI. (ref JP 4-02)
  • As Amended Through 15 February 2016 JP 1-02 167 noncombatant evacuation operation - An operation whereby noncombatant evacuees are evacuated from a threatened area abroad, which includes areas facing actual or potential danger from natural or manmade disaster, civil unrest, imminent or actual terrorist activities, hostilities, and similar circumstances, that is carried out with the assistance of the Department of Defense. Also called NEO. See also evacuation; noncombatant evacuees; operation; safe haven. (ref JP 3-68)
  • noncombatant evacuation operation tracking system - An automated data processing hardware and software package that has the capability to provide evacuee in-transit visibility to combatant commanders and senior leadership during the conduct of a noncombatant evacuation operation. Also called NTS. (ref JP 3-68)
  • noncombatant evacuees - 1. United States citizens who may be ordered to evacuate by competent authority, and who are civilian employees of all agencies of the United States Government and their dependents, excepting dependents who are residents in the country concerned of their own volition; military personnel of the Armed Forces of the United States specifically designated for evacuation as noncombatants; and dependents of members of the Armed Forces of the United States. 2. United States citizens and nonUnited States citizens who may be authorized or assisted to evacuate by competent authority, and who are civilian employees of United States Government agencies and their dependents who are residents in the country concerned of their own volition, but express the willingness to be evacuated; private United States citizens and their dependents; military personnel of the Armed Forces of the United States and their dependents; and designated personnel, including dependents of persons ordered to evacuate, as prescribed by the Department of State. See also noncombatant evacuation operation. (ref JP 3-68)
  • nonconventional assisted recovery - Personnel recovery conducted by indigenous/surrogate personnel that are trained, supported, and led by special operations forces, unconventional warfare ground and maritime forces, or other government agenciesí personnel that have been specifically trained and directed to establish and operate indigenous or surrogate infrastructures. Also called NAR. (ref JP 3-50)
  • nondestructive electronic warfare - Those electronic warfare actions, not including employment of wartime reserve modes, that deny, disrupt, or deceive rather than damage or destroy. See also electronic warfare. (ref JP 3-13.1)
  • nongovernmental organization - A private, self-governing, not-for-profit organization dedicated to alleviating human suffering; and/or promoting education, health care, economic development, environmental protection, human rights, and conflict resolution; and/or encouraging the establishment of democratic institutions and civil society. Also called NGO. (ref JP 3-08)
  • nonlethal weapon - A weapon that is explicitly designed and primarily employed so as to incapacitate personnel or materiel, while minimizing fatalities, permanent injury to personnel, and undesired damage to property and the environment. Also called NLW. (ref JP 3-28)
  • As Amended Through 15 February 2016 168 JP 1-02 nonpersistent agent - A chemical agent that when released dissipates and/or loses its ability to cause casualties after 10 to 15 minutes. (ref JP 3-11)
  • nonproliferation - Actions to prevent the acquisition of weapons of mass destruction by dissuading or impeding access to, or distribution of, sensitive technologies, material, and expertise. Also called NP. See also counterproliferation. (ref JP 3-40)
  • nonscheduled units - Units of the landing force held in readiness for landing during the initial unloading period, but not included in either scheduled or on-call waves. (ref JP 3-02)
  • non-unit cargo - All equipment and supplies requiring transportation to an operational area, other than those identified as the equipment or accompanying supplies of a specific unit. (ref JP 4-01.5)
  • . non-unit-related personnel - All personnel requiring transportation to or from an operational area, other than those assigned to a specific unit. Also called NRP or NUP. (ref JP 1-0)
  • no-strike list - A list of objects or entities characterized as protected from the effects of military operations under international law and/or rules of engagement. Also called NSL. See also law of armed conflict. (ref JP 3-60)
  • not mission capable, supply - Material condition indicating that systems and equipment are not capable of performing any of their assigned missions because of maintenance work stoppage due to a supply shortage. Also called NMCS. (ref JP 4-09)
  • nuclear incident - An unexpected incident involving a nuclear weapon, facility, or component, but not constituting a nuclear weapon(s) accident, resulting in any of the following: a. an increase in the possibility of explosion or radioactive contamination; b. errors committed in the assembly, testing, loading, or transportation of equipment, and/or the malfunctioning of equipment and materiel which could lead to an unintentional operation of all or part of the weapon arming and/or firing sequence, or which could lead to a substantial change in yield, or increased dud probability; and c. any act of God, unfavorable environment, or condition resulting in damage to the weapon, facility, or component. (ref JP 3-41)
  • nuclear weapon(s) accident - An unexpected incident involving nuclear weapons or radiological nuclear weapon components that results in any of the following; a. accidental or unauthorized launching, firing, or use by United States forces or United States supported allied forces of a nuclear-capable weapon system that could create the risk of an outbreak of war; b. nuclear detonation; c. nonnuclear detonation or burning of a nuclear weapon or radiological nuclear weapon component; d. radioactive contamination; e. seizure, theft, loss, or destruction of a nuclear weapon or radiological nuclear weapon component, including jettisoning; and f. public hazard, actual or implied. (ref JP 3-41)
  • As Amended Through 15 February 2016 JP 1-02 169 nuisance minefield - A minefield laid to delay and disorganize the enemy and to hinder the use of an area or route. See also minefield. (ref JP 3-15)
  • numbered beach - In amphibious operations, a subdivision of a colored beach, designated for the assault landing of a battalion landing team or similarly sized unit, when landed as part of a larger force. (ref JP 3-02)
  • numbered fleet - A major tactical unit of the Navy immediately subordinate to a major fleet command and comprising various task forces, elements, groups, and units for the purpose of prosecuting specific naval operations. See also fleet. (ref JP 3-32)
  • As Amended Through 15 February 2016 170 JP 1-02 Intentionally Blank As Amended Through 15 February 2016 O JP 1-02 171 objective - 1. The clearly defined, decisive, and attainable goal toward which every operation is directed. 2. The specific target of the action taken which is essential to the commanderís plan. See also target. (ref JP 5-0)
  • objective area - A geographical area, defined by competent authority, within which is located an objective to be captured or reached by the military forces. Also called OA. (ref JP 3-06)
  • obstacle - Any natural or man-made obstruction designed or employed to disrupt, fix, turn, or block the movement of an opposing force, and to impose additional losses in personnel, time, and equipment on the opposing force. (ref JP 3-15)
  • obstacle belt - A brigade-level command and control measure, normally given graphically, to show where within an obstacle zone the ground tactical commander plans to limit friendly obstacle employment and focus the defense. See also obstacle. (ref JP 3-15)
  • obstacle clearing - The total elimination or neutralization of obstacles. (ref JP 3-15)
  • obstacle intelligence - Those collection efforts to detect the presence of enemy and natural obstacles, determine their types and dimensions, and provide the necessary information to plan appropriate combined arms breaching, clearance, or bypass operations to negate the impact on the friendly scheme of maneuver. Also called OBSTINT. (ref JP 3-15)
  • obstacle restricted areas - A command and control measure used to limit the type or number of obstacles within an area. See also obstacle. (ref JP 3-15)
  • obstacle zone - A division-level command and control measure, normally done graphically, to designate specific land areas where lower echelons are allowed to employ tactical obstacles. See also obstacle. (ref JP 3-15)
  • occupational and environmental health surveillance - The regular or repeated collection, analysis, archiving, interpretation, and dissemination of occupational and environmental health-related data for monitoring the health of, or potential health hazard impact on, a population and individual personnel, and for intervening in a timely manner to prevent, treat, or control the occurrence of disease or injury when determined necessary. (ref JP 4- 02)
  • occupational and environmental health threats - Threats to the health of military personnel and to military readiness created by exposure to hazardous agents, environmental contamination, or toxic industrial materials. See also health threat. (ref JP 4-02)
  • As Amended Through 15 February 2016 172 JP 1-02 occupied territory - Territory under the authority and effective control of a belligerent armed force and not being administered pursuant to peace terms, treaty, or other agreement, express or implied, with the civil authority of the territory. (ref JP 4-02)
  • oceanography - The study of the sea, embracing and integrating all knowledge pertaining to the sea and its physical boundaries, the chemistry and physics of seawater, and marine biology. (ref JP 3-59)
  • O-day - Off-load day. offensive counterair - Offensive operations to destroy, disrupt, or neutralize enemy aircraft, missiles, launch platforms, and their supporting structures and systems both before and after launch, and as close to their source as possible. Also called OCA. See also counterair; defensive counterair; operation. (ref JP 3-01)
  • offensive counterair attack operations - Offensive action by any part of the joint force in support of the offensive counterair mission against surface targets which contribute to the enemyís air and missile capabilities. Also called OCA attack operations. See also counterair; offensive counterair. (ref JP 3-01)
  • offensive counterintelligence operation - A clandestine counterintelligence activity conducted for military, strategic, Department of Defense, or national counterintelligence and security purposes against a target having suspected or known affiliation with foreign intelligence entities, international terrorism, or other foreign persons or organizations, to counter terrorism, espionage, or other clandestine intelligence activities that threaten the security of the Department or the United States. The two types of offensive counterintelligence operations are double agent operation and controlled source operation. Also called OFCO. (ref JP 2-01.2)
  • offensive cyberspace operations - Cyberspace operations intended to project power by the application of force in or through cyberspace. Also called OCO. (ref JP 3-12)
  • offensive space control - Those operations to prevent an adversaryís hostile use of United States/third-party space capabilities and services or negate (deceive, disrupt, degrade, deny, or destroy) an adversaryís efforts to interfere with or attack United States/allied space systems. Also called OSC. (ref JP 3-14)
  • office - An enduring organization that is formed around a specific function within a joint force commanderís headquarters to coordinate and manage support requirements. (ref JP 3-33)
  • officer in tactical command - In maritime usage, the senior officer present eligible to assume command, or the officer to whom the senior officer has delegated tactical command. Also called OTC. (ref JP 3-32)
  • As Amended Through 15 February 2016 JP 1-02 173 officer of the deck - 1. When underway, the officer designated by the commanding officer to be in charge of the ship, including its safe and proper operation. 2. When in port or at anchor, the officer of the deck is designated by the command duty officer, has similar responsibilities, and may be enlisted. Also called OOD. (ref JP 3-04)
  • official information - Information that is owned by, produced for or by, or is subject to the control of the United States Government. (ref JP 3-61)
  • offset costs - Costs for which funds have been appropriated that may not be incurred as a result of a contingency operation. See also contingency operation. (ref JP 1-06)
  • offshore bulk fuel system - The system used for transferring fuel from points offshore to reception facilities on the beach. Also called OBFS. See also amphibious bulk liquid transfer system; offshore petroleum discharge system. (ref JP 4-01.6)
  • offshore petroleum discharge system - Provides bulk transfer of petroleum directly from an offshore tanker to a beach termination unit located immediately inland from the high watermark. Also called OPDS. See also facility; petroleum, oils, and lubricants; single-anchor leg mooring. (ref JP 4-03)
  • off-the-shelf item - An item that has been developed and produced to military or commercial standards and specifications, is readily available for delivery from an industrial source, and may be procured without change to satisfy a military requirement. (ref JP 4-10)
  • on-call - 1. A term used to signify that a prearranged concentration, air strike, or final protective fire may be called for. 2. Preplanned, identified force or materiel requirements without designated time-phase and destination information. (ref JP 3-01)
  • on-call target - Planned target upon which fires or other actions are determined using deliberate targeting and triggered, when detected or located, using dynamic targeting. See also dynamic targeting; on-call; operational area; planned target; target. (ref JP 3-60)
  • on hand - The quantity of an item that is physically available in a storage location and contained in the accountable property book records of an issuing activity. (ref JP 4-09)
  • on-scene commander - 1. An individual in the immediate vicinity of an isolating event who temporarily assumes command of the incident. 2. The federal officer designated to direct federal crisis and consequence management efforts at the scene of a terrorist or weapons of mass destruction incident. Also called OSC. (ref JP 3-50)
  • on-station time - The time an aircraft can remain on station, which may be determined by endurance or orders. (ref JP 3-50)
  • As Amended Through 15 February 2016 174 JP 1-02 open ocean - Ocean limit defined as greater than 12 nautical miles from shore, as compared with high seas that are over 200 nautical miles from shore. See also contiguous zone. (ref JP 3-32)
  • open-source information - Information that any member of the public could lawfully obtain by request or observation as well as other unclassified information that has limited public distribution or access. (ref JP 2-0)
  • open-source intelligence - Relevant information derived from the systematic collection, processing, and analysis of publicly available information in response to known or anticipated intelligence requirements. Also called OSINT. See also intelligence. (ref JP 2-0)
  • operating stocks - Fuel required to sustain daily operations and ensure fuel availability to support United States military forces worldwide. Also called OS. (ref JP 4-03)
  • operation - 1. A sequence of tactical actions with a common purpose or unifying theme. (ref JP 1)
    2. A military action or the carrying out of a strategic, operational, tactical, service, training, or administrative military mission. (ref JP 3-0)
  • . operational approach - A description of the broad actions the force must take to transform current conditions into those desired at end state. (ref JP 5-0)
  • operational area - An overarching term encompassing more descriptive terms (such as area of responsibility and joint operations area) for geographic areas in which military operations are conducted. Also called OA. See also amphibious objective area; area of operations; area of responsibility; joint operations area; joint special operations area; theater of operations; theater of war. (ref JP 3-0)
  • operational art - The cognitive approach by commanders and staffs - supported by their skill, knowledge, experience, creativity, and judgment - to develop strategies, campaigns, and operations to organize and employ military forces by integrating ends, ways, and means. (ref JP 3-0)
  • operational chain of command - One of the two branches of the chain of command described in Joint Publication 1, Doctrine for the Armed Forces of the United States, through which command is exercised from the President through the Secretary of Defense to the combatant commanders, to whom forces are assigned and allocated via the global force management process. (DODI 8260.03) operational characteristics - Those military characteristics that pertain primarily to the functions to be performed by equipment, either alone or in conjunction with other equipment; e.g., for electronic equipment, operational characteristics include such items as frequency coverage, channeling, type of modulation, and character of emission. (ref JP 5-0)
  • As Amended Through 15 February 2016 JP 1-02 175 operational command structure - The organizational hierarchy through which operational authorities are exercised, as contrasted by the administrative command structure through which administrative leadership is exercised. (DODI 8260.03) operational contract support - The process of planning for and obtaining supplies, services, and construction from commercial sources in support of joint operations. Also called OCS. (ref JP 4-10)
  • operational contract support integration cell - A cell established to coordinate, and integrate operational contract support actions across all primary and special staffs for an operational area. Also called OCSIC. (ref JP 4-10)
  • operational control - The authority to perform those functions of command over subordinate forces involving organizing and employing commands and forces, assigning tasks, designating objectives, and giving authoritative direction necessary to accomplish the mission. Also called OPCON. See also combatant command; combatant command (command authority); tactical control. (ref JP 1)
  • operational control authority - The naval commander responsible within a specified geographical area for the naval control of all merchant shipping under Allied naval control. Also called OCA. (ref JP 3-15)
  • operational decontamination - Decontamination carried out by an individual and/or a unit, restricted to specific parts of operationally essential equipment, materiel and/or working areas, in order to minimize contact and transfer hazards and to sustain operations. See also decontamination; immediate decontamination; thorough decontamination. (ref JP 3-11)
  • operational design - The conception and construction of the framework that underpins a campaign or major operation plan and its subsequent execution. See also campaign; major operation. (ref JP 5-0)
  • operational design element - A key consideration used in operational design. (ref JP 5-0)
  • operational energy - The energy required for training, moving, and sustaining military forces and weapons platforms for military operations. (ref JP 4-0)
  • operational environment - A composite of the conditions, circumstances, and influences that affect the employment of capabilities and bear on the decisions of the commander. Also called OE. (ref JP 3-0)
  • operational exposure guidance - The maximum amount of nuclear/external ionizing radiation that the commander considers a unit may be permitted to receive while performing a particular mission or missions. Also called OEG. See also radiation exposure status. (ref JP 3-11)
  • As Amended Through 15 February 2016 176 JP 1-02 operational intelligence - Intelligence that is required for planning and conducting campaigns and major operations to accomplish strategic objectives within theaters or operational areas. See also intelligence; strategic intelligence; tactical intelligence. (ref JP 2-0)
  • operational level of war - The level of war at which campaigns and major operations are planned, conducted, and sustained to achieve strategic objectives within theaters or other operational areas. See also strategic level of war; tactical level of war. (ref JP 3-0)
  • operational limitation - An action required or prohibited by higher authority, such as a constraint or a restraint, and other restrictions that limit the commanderís freedom of action, such as diplomatic agreements, rules of engagement, political and economic conditions in affected countries, and host nation issues. See also constraint; restraint. (ref JP 5-0)
  • operational necessity - A mission associated with war or peacetime operations in which the consequences of an action justify the risk of loss of aircraft and crew. See also mission. (ref JP 3-04)
  • operational pause - A temporary halt in operations. (ref JP 5-0)
  • operational preparation of the environment - The conduct of activities in likely or potential areas of operations to prepare and shape the operational environment. Also called OPE. (ref JP 3-05)
  • operational reach - The distance and duration across which a joint force can successfully employ military capabilities. (ref JP 3-0)
  • operational readiness - The capability of a unit/formation, ship, weapon system, or equipment to perform the missions or functions for which it is organized or designed. Also called OR. See also combat readiness. (ref JP 1-0)
  • operational reserve - An emergency reserve of men and/or materiel established for the support of a specific operation. (ref JP 5-0)
  • operational support airlift - Airlift movements of high-priority passengers and cargo with time, place, or mission-sensitive requirements. Also called OSA. (ref JP 3-17)
  • operational testing - A continuing process of evaluation that may be applied to either operational personnel or situations to determine their validity or reliability. (ref JP 4-02)
  • operation and maintenance - Maintenance and repair of real property, operation of utilities, and provision of other services such as refuse collection and disposal, entomology, snow removal, and ice alleviation. Also called O&M. (ref JP 3-34)
  • As Amended Through 15 February 2016 JP 1-02 177 operation order - A directive issued by a commander to subordinate commanders for the purpose of effecting the coordinated execution of an operation. Also called OPORD. (ref JP 5-0)
  • operation plan - 1. Any plan for the conduct of military operations prepared in response to actual and potential contingencies. 2. A complete and detailed joint plan containing a full description of the concept of operations, all annexes applicable to the plan, and a time-phased force and deployment data. Also called OPLAN. See also operation order. (ref JP 5-0)
  • operations center - The facility or location on an installation, base, or facility used by the commander to command, control, and coordinate all operational activities. Also called OC. See also base defense operations center. (ref JP 3-07.2)
  • operations research - The analytical study of military problems undertaken to provide responsible commanders and staff agencies with a scientific basis for decision on action to improve military operations. Also called operational research; operations analysis. (ref JP 3-31)
  • operations security - A capability that identifies and controls critical information, indicators of friendly force actions attendant to military operations, and incorporates countermeasures to reduce the risk of an adversary exploiting vulnerabilities. Also called OPSEC. See also operations security indicators; operations security measures; operations security planning guidance; operations security vulnerability. (ref JP 3- 13.3)
  • operations security assessment - An evaluative process to determine the likelihood that critical information can be protected from the adversaryís intelligence. (ref JP 3-13.3)
  • operations security countermeasures - Methods and means to gain and maintain essential secrecy about critical information. (ref JP 3-13.3)
  • operations security indicators - Friendly detectable actions and open-source information that can be interpreted or pieced together by an adversary to derive critical information. (ref JP 3-13.3)
  • operations security planning guidance - Guidance that defines the critical information requiring protection from the adversary and outlines provisional measures to ensure secrecy. (ref JP 3-13.3)
  • operations security survey - A collection effort by a team of subject matter experts to reproduce the intelligence image projected by a specific operation or function simulating hostile intelligence processes. (ref JP 3-13.3)
  • As Amended Through 15 February 2016 178 JP 1-02 operations security vulnerability - A condition in which friendly actions provide operations security indicators that may be obtained and accurately evaluated by an adversary in time to provide a basis for effective adversary decision making. (ref JP 3-13.3)
  • operations support element - An element that is responsible for all administrative, operations support and services support functions within the counterintelligence and human intelligence staff element of a joint force intelligence directorate. Also called OSE. (ref JP 2-01.2)
  • operations to restore order - Operations intended to halt violence and support, reinstate, or establish civil authorities so that indigenous police forces can effectively enforce the law and restore civil authority. See also operation; peace operations. (ref JP 3-07.3)
  • opportune lift - That portion of lift capability available for use after planned requirements have been met. (ref JP 4-02)
  • ordered departure - 1. A procedure by which the number of United States Government personnel, their dependents, or both are reduced at a foreign service post. 2. Mandatory departure of some or all categories of personnel and dependents to designated safe havens as directed by the Department of State, with the implementation of the theater evacuation plan. (ref JP 3-68)
  • order of battle - The identification, strength, command structure, and disposition of the personnel, units, and equipment of any military force. Also called OB; OOB. (ref JP 2-01.3)
  • ordnance - Explosives, chemicals, pyrotechnics, and similar stores, e.g., bombs, guns and ammunition, flares, smoke, or napalm. (ref JP 3-15)
  • ordnance handling - Applies to those individuals who engage in the breakout, lifting, or repositioning of ordnance or explosive devices in order to facilitate storage or stowage, assembly or disassembly, loading or downloading, or transporting. (ref JP 3-04)
  • organic - Assigned to and forming an essential part of a military organization as listed in its table of organization for the Army, Air Force, and Marine Corps, and are assigned to the operating forces for the Navy. (ref JP 1)
  • Organizational and Force Structure Construct - The standardized precepts for the digitization of hierarchical enterprise force structure data for Department of Defensewide integration and use. Also called OFSC. (DODI 8260.03) organization for combat - In amphibious operations, task organization of landing force units for combat, involving combinations of command, ground and aviation combat, combat support, and combat service support units for accomplishment of missions ashore. See also amphibious operation; task organization. (ref JP 3-02)
  • As Amended Through 15 February 2016 JP 1-02 179 organization for embarkation - In amphibious operations, an organization consisting of temporary landing force task organizations established by the commander, landing force and a temporary organization of Navy forces established by the commander, amphibious task force for the purpose of simplifying planning and facilitating the execution of embarkation. See also amphibious operation; embarkation; landing force; task organization. (ref JP 3-02)
  • organization for landing - In amphibious operations, the specific tactical grouping of the landing force for the assault. (ref JP 3-02)
  • Organized Crime and Drug Enforcement Task Force - The network of regional task forces that coordinates federal law enforcement efforts to combat the national and international organizations that cultivate, process, and distribute illicit drugs. Also called OCDETF. (ref JP 3-07.4)
  • originating medical treatment facility - A medical facility that initially transfers a patient to another medical facility. (ref JP 4-02)
  • originator - The command by whose authority a message is sent, which includes the responsibility for the functions of the drafter and the releasing officer. (ref JP 2-01)
  • oscillating mine - A mine, hydrostatically controlled, which maintains a pre-set depth below the surface of the water independently of the rise and fall of the tide. See also mine. (ref JP 3-15)
  • other detainee - Person in the custody of the US Armed Forces who has not been classified as an enemy prisoner of war (article 4, Geneva Convention of 1949 Relative to the Treatment of Prisoners of War (GPW)), retained personnel (article 33, GPW), or civilian internee (article 78, Geneva Convention). Also called OD. See also civilian internee; custody; detainee; prisoner of war; retained personnel. (ref JP 1-0)
  • outer transport area - In amphibious operations, an area inside the antisubmarine screen to which assault transports proceed initially after arrival in the objective area. See also inner transport area; transport area. (ref JP 3-02)
  • outsized cargo - A single item that exceeds 1,000 inches long by 117 inches wide by 105 inches high in any one dimension. See also oversized cargo. (ref JP 4-01.6)
  • overhead persistent infrared - Those systems originally developed to detect and track foreign intercontinental ballistic missile systems. Also called OPIR. (ref JP 3-14)
  • overpressure - The pressure resulting from the blast wave of an explosion referred to as ďpositiveĒ when it exceeds atmospheric pressure and ďnegativeĒ during the passage of the wave when resulting pressures are less than atmospheric pressure. (ref JP 3-11)
  • As Amended Through 15 February 2016 180 JP 1-02 Overseas Environmental Baseline Guidance Document - A set of objective criteria and management practices developed by the Department of Defense to protect human health and the environment. Also called OEBGD. (ref JP 3-34)
  • oversized cargo - 1. Large items of specific equipment such as a barge, side loadable warping tug, causeway section, powered, or causeway section, nonpowered that require transport by sea. 2. Air cargo exceeding the usable dimension of a 463L pallet loaded to the design height of 96 inches, but equal to or less than 1,000 inches in length, 117 inches in width, and 105 inches in height. See also outsized cargo. (ref JP 3-17)
  • over-the-horizon amphibious operation - An operational initiative launched from beyond visual and radar range of the shoreline. (ref JP 3-02)
  • overt - Activities that are openly acknowledged by or are readily attributable to the United States Government, including those designated to acquire information through authorized and open means without concealment. Overt information may be collected by observation, elicitation, or from knowledgeable human sources. (ref JP 2-01.2)
  • overt operation - An operation conducted openly, without concealment. See also clandestine operation; covert operation. (ref JP 2-01.2)
  • As Amended Through 15 February 2016 P JP 1-02 181 packup kit - Service-provided maintenance gear sufficient for a short-term deployment, including spare parts and consumables most commonly needed by the deployed helicopter detachment. Supplies are sufficient for a short-term deployment but do not include all material needed for every maintenance task. Also called PUK. (ref JP 3-04)
  • parallel chains of command - In amphibious operations, a parallel system of command, responding to the interrelationship of participating forces, wherein corresponding commanders are established at each subordinate level of all components to facilitate coordinated planning for, and execution of, the amphibious operation. (ref JP 3-02)
  • paramilitary forces - Forces or groups distinct from the regular armed forces of any country, but resembling them in organization, equipment, training, or mission. (ref JP 3-24)
  • partial mobilization - Expansion of the active Armed Forces resulting from action by Congress (up to full mobilization) or by the President (not more than 1,000,000 for not more than 24 consecutive months) to mobilize Ready Reserve Component units, individual reservists, and the resources needed for their support to meet the requirements of a war or other national emergency involving an external threat to the national security. (ref JP 4-05)
  • partner nation - A nation that the United States works with in a specific situation or operation. Also called PN. (ref JP 1)
  • passage of lines - An operation in which a force moves forward or rearward through another forceís combat positions with the intention of moving into or out of contact with the enemy. (ref JP 3-18)
  • passive air defense - All measures, other than active air defense, taken to minimize the effectiveness of hostile air and missile threats against friendly forces and assets. See also air defense. (ref JP 3-01)
  • passive defense - Measures taken to reduce the probability of and to minimize the effects of damage caused by hostile action without the intention of taking the initiative. See also active defense. (ref JP 3-60)
  • passive mine - 1. A mine whose anticountermining device has been operated preventing the firing mechanism from being actuated. 2. A mine which does not emit a signal to detect the presence of a target. (ref JP 3-15)
  • patient movement - The act or process of moving a sick, injured, wounded, or other person to obtain medical and/or dental care or treatment. Functions include medical regulating, patient evacuation, and en route medical care. See also patient movement items; patient movement requirements center. (ref JP 4-02)
  • As Amended Through 15 February 2016 182 JP 1-02 patient movement items - The medical equipment and supplies required to support patients during aeromedical evacuation, which is part of a standardized list of approved safe-tofly equipment. Also called PMIs. (ref JP 4-02)
  • patient movement policy - Command decision establishing the maximum number of days that patients may be held within the command for treatment. See also evacuation. (ref JP 4-02)
  • patient movement requirements center - 1. A joint activity that coordinates patient movement by functionally merging of joint medical regulating processes, Servicesí medical regulating processes, and patient movement evacuation requirements planning (transport to bed plan). 2. Term used to represent any theater, joint or the Global Patient Movement Requirements Center function. Also called PMRC. (ref JP 4-02)
  • Patriot - A point and limited area defense surface-to-air missile system capable of intercepting aircraft and theater missiles, including short-, medium-, and intermediaterange ballistic missiles in the terminal phase. (ref JP 3-01)
  • peace building - Stability actions, predominately diplomatic and economic, that strengthen and rebuild governmental infrastructure and institutions in order to avoid a relapse into conflict. Also called PB. See also peace enforcement; peacekeeping; peacemaking; peace operations. (ref JP 3-07.3)
  • peace enforcement - Application of military force, or the threat of its use, normally pursuant to international authorization, to compel compliance with resolutions or sanctions designed to maintain or restore peace and order. See also peace building; peacekeeping; peacemaking; peace operations. (ref JP 3-07.3)
  • peacekeeping - Military operations undertaken with the consent of all major parties to a dispute, designed to monitor and facilitate implementation of an agreement (cease fire, truce, or other such agreement) and support diplomatic efforts to reach a long-term political settlement. See also peace building; peace enforcement; peacemaking; peace operations. (ref JP 3-07.3)
  • peacemaking - The process of diplomacy, mediation, negotiation, or other forms of peaceful settlements that arranges an end to a dispute and resolves issues that led to it. See also peace building; peace enforcement; peacekeeping; peace operations. (ref JP 3-07.3)
  • peace operations - A broad term that encompasses multiagency and multinational crisis response and limited contingency operations involving all instruments of national power with military missions to contain conflict, redress the peace, and shape the environment to support reconciliation and rebuilding and facilitate the transition to legitimate governance. Also called PO. See also peace building; peace enforcement; peacekeeping; and peacemaking. (ref JP 3-07.3)
  • As Amended Through 15 February 2016 JP 1-02 183 performance work statement - A statement of work for performance based acquisitions that describe the results in clear, specific, and objective terms with measurable outcomes. Also called PWS. (ref JP 4-10)
  • period - The time it takes for a satellite to complete one orbit around the earth. (ref JP 3-14)
  • permissive environment - Operational environment in which host country military and law enforcement agencies have control as well as the intent and capability to assist operations that a unit intends to conduct. (ref JP 3-0)
  • persistent agent - A chemical agent that, when released, remains able to cause casualties for more than 24 hours to several days or weeks. (ref JP 3-11)
  • personal effects - All privately owned moveable, personal property of an individual. Also called PE. See also mortuary affairs; personal property. (ref JP 4-06)
  • personal locator beacon - An emergency device carried by individuals, to assist locating during personnel recovery. Also called PLB. See also emergency locator beacon. (ref JP 3-50)
  • personal property - Property of any kind or any interest therein, except real property, records of the United States Government, and naval vessels of the following categories: surface combatants, support ships, and submarines. (ref JP 4-06)
  • personal protective equipment - The protective clothing and equipment provided to shield or isolate a person from the chemical, physical, and thermal hazards that can be encountered at a hazardous materials incident. Also called PPE. See also individual protective equipment. (ref JP 3-11)
  • personal staff - Aides and staff officers handling special matters over which the commander wishes to exercise close personal control. (ref JP 3-33)
  • person authorized to direct disposition of human remains - A person, usually primary next of kin, who is authorized to direct disposition of human remains. Also called PADD. See also mortuary affairs. (ref JP 4-06)
  • person eligible to receive effects - The person authorized by law to receive the personal effects of a deceased military member. Receipt of personal effects does not constitute ownership. Also called PERE. See also mortuary affairs; personal effects. (ref JP 4-06)
  • personnel - Those individuals required in either a military or civilian capacity to accomplish the assigned mission. (ref JP 1-0)
  • personnel accountability - The process of identifying, capturing, and recording the personal identification information of an individual usually through the use of a database. (ref JP 1-0)
  • As Amended Through 15 February 2016 184 JP 1-02 personnel effects inventory officer - An officer appointed to establish clear chain of custody for all personal effects of an individual from the time they establish control of the effects until they release the effect to mortuary affairs personnel. Also called PEIO. (ref JP 4-06)
  • personnel increment number - A seven-character, alphanumeric field that uniquely describes a non-unit-related personnel entry (line) in a Joint Operation Planning and Execution System time-phased force and deployment data. Also called PIN. (ref JP 5-0)
  • personnel recovery - The sum of military, diplomatic, and civil efforts to prepare for and execute the recovery and reintegration of isolated personnel. Also called PR. See also combat search and rescue; evasion; personnel; recovery; search and rescue. (ref JP 3-50)
  • personnel recovery coordination cell - The primary joint force component organization responsible for coordinating and controlling component personnel recovery missions. Also called PRCC. (ref JP 3-50)
  • personnel recovery reference product - A reference document for personnel recovery containing specific information on a particular country or region of interest. Also called PRRP. (ref JP 3-50)
  • personnel security investigation - An inquiry into the activities of an individual, designed to develop pertinent information pertaining to trustworthiness and suitability for a position of trust as related to loyalty, character, emotional stability, and reliability. Also called PSI. (ref JP 2-01)
  • personnel services support - Service-provided sustainment activities that support a Service member during both joint exercises and joint operations. Also called PSS. (ref JP 1-0)
  • petroleum, oils, and lubricants - A broad term that includes all petroleum and associated products used by the Armed Forces. Also called POL. (ref JP 4-01.6)
  • phase - In joint operation planning, a definitive stage of an operation or campaign during which a large portion of the forces and capabilities are involved in similar or mutually supporting activities for a common purpose. (ref JP 5-0)
  • phase line - A line utilized for control and coordination of military operations, usually an easily identified feature in the operational area. Also called PL. (ref JP 3-09)
  • phony minefield - An area free of live mines used to simulate a minefield, or section of a minefield, with the object of deceiving the enemy. See also minefield. (ref JP 3-15)
  • physical characteristics - Those military characteristics of equipment that are primarily physical in nature. (ref JP 3-60)
  • As Amended Through 15 February 2016 JP 1-02 185 physical damage assessment - The estimate of the quantitative extent of physical damage to a target resulting from the application of military force. See also battle damage assessment. (ref JP 3-60)
  • physical security - 1. That part of security concerned with physical measures designed to safeguard personnel; to prevent unauthorized access to equipment, installations, material, and documents; and to safeguard them against espionage, sabotage, damage, and theft. (ref JP 3-0)
    2. In communications security, the component that results from all physical measures necessary to safeguard classified equipment, material, and documents from access thereto or observation thereof by unauthorized persons. See also communications security; security. (ref JP 6-0)
  • placement - An individualís proximity to information of intelligence interest. (ref JP 2-01.2)
  • plan for landing - In amphibious operations, a collective term referring to all individually prepared naval and landing force documents which, taken together, present in detail all instructions for execution of the ship-to-shore movement. (ref JP 3-02)
  • plan identification number - 1. A command-unique four-digit number followed by a suffix indicating the Joint Strategic Capabilities Plan year for which the plan is written. 2. A five-digit number representing the command-unique four-digit identifier, followed by a one-character, alphabetic suffix indicating the operation plan option, or a one-digit number numeric value indicating the Joint Strategic Capabilities Plan year for which the plan is written. Also called PID. (ref JP 5-0)
  • planned target - Target that is known to exist in the operational environment, upon which actions are planned using deliberate targeting, creating effects which support commanderís objectives. There are two subcategories of planned targets: scheduled and on-call. See also on-call target; operational area; scheduled target; target. (ref JP 3-60)
  • planning and direction - In intelligence usage, the determination of intelligence requirements, development of appropriate intelligence architecture, preparation of a collection plan, and issuance of orders and requests to information collection agencies. See also intelligence process. (ref JP 2-01)
  • planning factor - A multiplier used in planning to estimate the amount and type of effort involved in a contemplated operation. (ref JP 5-0)
  • planning factors database - Databases created and maintained by the Services for the purpose of identifying all geospatial information and services requirements for emerging and existing forces and systems. Also called PFDB. See also geospatial information and services. (ref JP 2-03)
  • As Amended Through 15 February 2016 186 JP 1-02 planning order - A planning directive that provides essential planning guidance and directs the initiation of execution planning before the directing authority approves a military course of action. Also called PLANORD. See also execution planning. (ref JP 5-0)
  • planning phase - In amphibious operations, the phase normally denoted by the period extending from the issuance of the initiating directive up to the embarkation phase. See also amphibious operation. (ref JP 3-02)
  • planning team - A functional element within a joint force commanderís headquarters established to solve problems related to a specific task or requirement, and which dissolves upon completion of the assigned task. (ref JP 3-33)
  • point defense - The defense or protection of special vital elements and installations; e.g., command and control facilities or air bases. (ref JP 3-52)
  • pointee-talkee - A language aid containing selected phrases in English opposite a translation in a foreign language used by pointing to appropriate phrases. See also evasion aid. (ref JP 3-50)
  • point of employment - In distribution operations, a physical location designated by the commander at the tactical level where force employment, emplacement, or commodity consumption occurs. (ref JP 4-09)
  • point of need - In distribution operations, a physical location within a desired operational area designated by the geographic combatant commander or subordinate commander as a receiving point for forces or materiel, for subsequent use or consumption. (ref JP 4-09)
  • point of origin - In distribution operations, the beginning point of a deployment, redeployment, or movement where forces or materiel are located. (ref JP 4-09)
  • polar orbit - A satellite orbit that passes over the North and South Poles on each orbit, has an angle of inclination relative to the equator of 90 degrees, and eventually passes over all points on the earth. (ref JP 3-14)
  • population at risk - The strength in personnel of a given force structure in terms of which casualty rates are stated. Also called PAR. (ref JP 4-02)
  • port complex - One or more port areas in which activities are geographically linked either because these areas are dependent on a common inland transport system or because they constitute a common initial destination for convoys. (ref JP 4-01.5)
  • port of debarkation - The geographic point at which cargo or personnel are discharged. Also called POD. See also port of embarkation. (ref JP 4-0)
  • port of embarkation - The geographic point in a routing scheme from which cargo or personnel depart. Also called POE. See also port of debarkation. (ref JP 4-01.2)
  • As Amended Through 15 February 2016 JP 1-02 187 port operations group - A task-organized unit, located at the seaport of embarkation and/or debarkation that assists and provides support in the loading and/or unloading and staging of personnel, supplies, and equipment from shipping. Also called POG. See also landing force support party; task organization. (ref JP 3-35)
  • port security - The safeguarding of vessels, harbors, ports, waterfront facilities, and cargo from internal threats such as destruction, loss, or injury from sabotage or other subversive acts; accidents; thefts; or other causes of similar nature. See also physical security; security. (ref JP 3-10)
  • port support activity - A tailorable support organization composed of mobilization station assets that ensures the equipment of the deploying units is ready to load. Also called PSA. See also support. (ref JP 3-35)
  • positive control - A method of airspace control that relies on positive identification, tracking, and direction of aircraft within an airspace, conducted with electronic means by an agency having the authority and responsibility therein. (ref JP 3-52)
  • positive identification - An identification derived from observation and analysis of target characteristics including visual recognition, electronic support systems, non-cooperative target recognition techniques, identification friend or foe systems, or other physics-based identification techniques. (ref JP 3-01)
  • post-launch abort - Deliberate action taken post-separation to cause a precision munition to miss its target. Also called PLA. (ref JP 3-09.3)
  • precipitation static - Charged precipitation particles that strike antennas and gradually charge the antenna, which ultimately discharges across the insulator, causing a burst of static. Also called P-STATIC. (ref JP 3-13.1)
  • precise time and time interval - A reference value of time and time interval (frequency). Also called PTTI. (ref JP 3-59)
  • precision-guided munition - A guided weapon intended to destroy a point target and minimize collateral damage. Also called PGM, smart weapon, smart munition. (ref JP 3-03)
  • prelanding operations - Operations conducted by the amphibious force upon its arrival in the amphibious objective area or operational area and prior to H-hour and/or L-hour. (ref JP 3-02)
  • preparation of the environment - An umbrella term for operations and activities conducted by selectively trained special operations forces to develop an environment for potential future special operations. Also called PE. (ref JP 3-05)
  • As Amended Through 15 February 2016 188 JP 1-02 prepare to deploy order - An order issued by competent authority to move forces or prepare forces for movement (e.g., increase deployability posture of units). Also called PTDO. (ref JP 5-0)
  • preplanned air support - Air support in accordance with a program, planned in advance of operations. (ref JP 3-09.3)
  • pre-position - To place military units, equipment, or supplies at or near the point of planned use or at a designated location to reduce reaction time, and to ensure timely support of a specific force during initial phases of an operation. (ref JP 4-0)
  • pre-positioned war reserve stock - The assets that are designated to satisfy the prepositioned war reserve materiel requirement. Also called PWRS. (ref JP 4-03)
  • presail - The time prior to a ship getting under way used to prepare for at-sea events. (ref JP 3-04)
  • Presidential Reserve Call-up - Provision of a public law (Title 10, United States Code, Section 12304) that provides the President a means to activate, without a declaration of national emergency, not more than 200,000 members of the Selected Reserve and the Individual Ready Reserve (of whom not more than 30,000 may be members of the Individual Ready Reserve), for not more than 365 days to meet the requirements of any operational mission, other than for disaster relief or to suppress insurrection. Also called PRC. See also Individual Ready Reserve; mobilization; Selected Reserve. (ref JP 4-05)
  • pressure mine - 1. In land mine warfare, a mine whose fuse responds to the direct pressure of a target. 2. In naval mine warfare, a mine whose circuit responds to the hydrodynamic pressure field of a target. See also mine. (ref JP 3-15)
  • prevention - In space usage, measures to preclude an adversaryís hostile use of United States or third-party space systems and services. See also space control. (ref JP 3-14)
  • prevention of mutual interference - In submarine operations, procedures established to prevent submerged collisions between friendly submarines, between submarines and friendly surface ship towed bodies and arrays, and between submarines and any other hazards to submerged navigation. Also called PMI. (ref JP 3-32)
  • preventive maintenance - The care and servicing by personnel for the purpose of maintaining equipment and facilities in satisfactory operating condition by providing for systematic inspection, detection, and correction of incipient failures either before they occur or before they develop into major defects. (ref JP 4-02)
  • preventive medicine - The anticipation, communication, prediction, identification, prevention, education, risk assessment, and control of communicable diseases, illnesses and exposure to endemic, occupational, and environmental threats. Also called PVNTMED. (ref JP 4-02)
  • As Amended Through 15 February 2016 JP 1-02 189 primary agency - The federal department or agency assigned primary responsibility for managing and coordinating a specific emergency support function in the National Response Framework. (ref JP 3-28)
  • primary control officer - In amphibious operations, the officer embarked in a primary control ship assigned to control the movement of landing craft, amphibious vehicles, and landing ships to and from a colored beach. Also called PCO. (ref JP 3-02)
  • primary control ship - In amphibious operations, a ship of the task force designated to provide support for the primary control officer and a combat information center control team for a colored beach. Also called PCS. (ref JP 3-02)
  • primary flight control - The controlling agency on air-capable ships that is responsible for air traffic control of aircraft within 5 nautical miles of the ship. On most Coast Guard cutters, primary flight control duties are performed by a combat information center, and the term ďPRIFLYĒ is not used. Also called PRIFLY. (ref JP 3-04)
  • primary review authority - The organization, within the lead agent's chain of command, that is assigned by the lead agent to perform the actions and coordination necessary to develop and maintain the assigned joint publication under the cognizance of the lead agent. Also called PRA. See also joint publication; lead agent. (CJCSM 5120.01) prime contract - A contract or contractual action entered into by the United States Government for the purpose of obtaining supplies, materials, equipment, or services of any kind. (ref JP 4-10)
  • prime vendor - A contracting process that provides commercial products to regionally grouped military and federal customers from commercial distributors using electronic commerce. Also called PV. See also distribution system. (ref JP 4-09)
  • principal federal official - The federal official designated by the Secretary of Homeland Security to act as his/her representative locally to oversee, coordinate, and execute the Secretaryís incident management responsibilities under Homeland Security Presidential Directive 5. Also called PFO. (ref JP 3-41)
  • principal officer - The officer in charge of a diplomatic mission, consular office, or other Foreign Service post, such as a United States liaison office. (ref JP 3-08)
  • priority designator - A two-digit issue and priority code placed in military standard requisitioning and issue procedure requisitions to provide a means of assigning relative rankings to competing demands placed on the Department of Defense supply system. (ref JP 4-01)
  • priority intelligence requirement - An intelligence requirement, stated as a priority for intelligence support, that the commander and staff need to understand the adversary or As Amended Through 15 February 2016 190 JP 1-02 other aspects of the operational environment. Also called PIR. See also information requirements; intelligence; intelligence process; intelligence requirement. (ref JP 2-01)
  • prisoner of war - A detained person (as defined in Articles 4 and 5 of the Geneva Convention Relative to the Treatment of Prisoners of War of August 12, 1949) who, while engaged in combat under orders of his or her government, is captured by the armed forces of the enemy. Also called POW or PW. (ref JP 3-50)
  • private sector - An umbrella term that may be applied to any or all of the nonpublic or commercial individuals and businesses, specified nonprofit organizations, most of academia and other scholastic institutions, and selected nongovernmental organizations. (ref JP 3-57)
  • privity of contract - The legal relationship that exists between two contracting parties. (ref JP 4-10)
  • probability of damage - The probability that damage will occur to a target expressed as a percentage or as a decimal. Also called PD. (ref JP 3-60)
  • procedural control - A method of airspace control which relies on a combination of previously agreed and promulgated orders and procedures. (ref JP 3-52)
  • procedural identification - An identification based on observation and analysis of target behaviors including location and trajectory, as well as compliance with airspace control measures. (ref JP 3-01)
  • procedures - Standard, detailed steps that prescribe how to perform specific tasks. See also tactics; techniques. (CJCSM 5120.01) procedure word - A word or phrase limited to radio telephone procedure used to facilitate communication by conveying information in a condensed standard form. Also called proword. (ref JP 3-09.3)
  • processing - A system of operations designed to convert raw data into useful information. (ref JP 2-0)
  • processing and exploitation - In intelligence usage, the conversion of collected information into forms suitable to the production of intelligence. See also intelligence process. (ref JP 2-01)
  • process owner - The head of a Department of Defense component assigned a responsibility by the Secretary of Defense when process improvement involves more than one Service or Department of Defense component. (ref JP 4-0)
  • procurement lead time - The interval in time between the initiation of procurement action and receipt of the products or services purchased as the result of such actions. (ref JP 4-10)
  • As Amended Through 15 February 2016 JP 1-02 191 procuring contracting officer - A contracting officer who initiates and signs the contract. Also called PCO. See also administrative contracting officer; contracting officer. (ref JP 4-10)
  • production base - The total national industrial production capacity available for the manufacture of items to meet materiel requirements. (ref JP 4-05)
  • production logistics - That part of logistics concerning research, design, development, manufacture, and acceptance of materiel. In consequence, production logistics includes: standardization and interoperability, contracting, quality assurance, initial provisioning, transportability, reliability and defect analysis, safety standards, specifications and production processes, trials and testing (including provision of necessary facilities), equipment documentation, configuration control, and modifications. production requirement - An intelligence requirement that cannot be met by current analytical products resulting in tasking to produce a new product that can meet this intelligence requirement. Also called PR. (ref JP 2-0)
  • proof - To verify that a breached lane is free of live mines by passing a mine roller or other mine-resistant vehicle through as the lead vehicle. (ref JP 3-15)
  • property - 1. Anything that may be owned. 2. As used in the military establishment, this term is usually confined to tangible property, including real estate and materiel. For special purposes and as used in certain statutes, this term may exclude such items as the public domain, certain lands, certain categories of naval vessels, and records of the Federal Government. protected emblems - The red cross, red crescent, and other symbols that designate that persons, places, or equipment so marked have a protected status under the law of war. (ref JP 3-60)
  • protected frequencies - Friendly, generally time-oriented, frequencies used for a particular operation, identified and protected to prevent them from being inadvertently jammed by friendly forces while active electronic warfare operations are directed against hostile forces. See also electronic warfare. (ref JP 3-13.1)
  • protected persons/places - Persons (such as enemy prisoners of war) and places (such as hospitals) that enjoy special protections under the law of war. They may or may not be marked with protected emblems. (ref JP 1-04)
  • protection - 1. Preservation of the effectiveness and survivability of mission-related military and nonmilitary personnel, equipment, facilities, information, and infrastructure deployed or located within or outside the boundaries of a given operational area. (ref JP 3- 0)
    2. In space usage, active and passive defensive measures to ensure that United States and friendly space systems perform as designed by seeking to overcome an adversaryís As Amended Through 15 February 2016 192 JP 1-02 attempts to negate them and to minimize damage if negation is attempted. See also mission-oriented protective posture; space control. (ref JP 3-14)
  • protection of shipping - The use of proportionate force, when necessary for the protection of US flag vessels and aircraft, US citizens (whether embarked in US or foreign vessels), and their property against unlawful violence. (ref JP 3-0)
  • protective clothing - Clothing especially designed, fabricated, or treated to protect personnel against hazards. (ref JP 3-11)
  • protective minefield - 1. In land mine warfare, a minefield employed to assist a unit in its local, close-in protection. 2. In naval mine warfare, a minefield emplaced in friendly territorial waters to protect ports, harbors, anchorages, coasts, and coastal routes. See also minefield. (ref JP 3-15)
  • provincial reconstruction team - A civil-military team designed to improve stability in a given area by helping build the legitimacy and effectiveness of a host nation local or provincial government in providing security to its citizens and delivering essential government services. Also called PRT. (ref JP 3-57)
  • public - In public affairs, a segment of the population with common attributes to which a military force can tailor its communication. See also external audience; internal audience. (ref JP 3-61)
  • public affairs - Communication activities with external and internal audiences. Also called PA. See also command information; public information. (ref JP 3-61)
  • public affairs assessment - An analysis of the news media and public environments to evaluate the degree of understanding about strategic and operational objectives and military activities and to identify levels of public support. See also assessment; public affairs. (ref JP 3-61)
  • public affairs guidance - Constraints and restraints established by proper authority regarding public communication activities. Also called PAG. See also public affairs. (ref JP 3-61)
  • public diplomacy - 1. Those overt international public information activities of the United States Government designed to promote United States foreign policy objectives by seeking to understand, inform, and influence foreign audiences and opinion makers, and by broadening the dialogue between American citizens and institutions and their counterparts abroad. 2. In peace building, civilian agency efforts to promote an understanding of the reconstruction efforts, rule of law, and civic responsibility through public affairs and international public diplomacy operations. (ref JP 3-07.3)
  • As Amended Through 15 February 2016 JP 1-02 193 public information - Within public affairs, information of a military nature, the dissemination of which is consistent with security and approved for public release. (ref JP 3-61)
  • public key infrastructure - An enterprise-wide service that supports digital signatures and other public key-based security mechanisms for Department of Defense functional enterprise programs, including generation, production, distribution, control, and accounting of public key certificates. Also called PKI. (ref JP 2-03)
  • As Amended Through 15 February 2016 194 JP 1-02 Intentionally Blank As Amended Through 15 February 2016 Q JP 1-02 195 Q-route - A system of preplanned shipping lanes in mined or potentially mined waters used to minimize the area the mine countermeasures commander has to keep clear of mines in order to provide safe passage for friendly shipping. (ref JP 3-15)
  • quadruple container - A 57.5 inches x 96 inches x 96 inches container box with a metal frame, pallet base, and International Organization for Standardization corner fittings; four of these boxes can be lashed together to form a 20-foot American National Standards Institute or International Organization for Standardization intermodal container. Also called QUADCON. (ref JP 4-09)
  • qualifying entity - A non-governmental organization to which the Department of Defense may provide assistance for special events by virtue of statute, regulation, policy, or other approval by the Secretary of Defense or his or her authorized designee. (DODD 3025.18) As Amended Through 15 February 2016 196 JP 1-02 Intentionally Blank As Amended Through 15 February 2016 R JP 1-02 197 radiation dose - The total amount of ionizing radiation absorbed by material or tissues. See also exposure dose. (ref JP 3-11)
  • radiation dose rate - Measurement of radiation dose per unit of time. (ref JP 3-11)
  • radiation exposure status - Criteria to assist the commander in measuring unit exposure to radiation based on total past cumulative dose, normally expressed in centigray. Also called RES. (ref JP 3-11)
  • radio frequency countermeasures - Any device or technique employing radio frequency materials or technology that is intended to impair the effectiveness of enemy activity, particularly with respect to precision guided weapons and sensor systems. Also called RF CM. (ref JP 3-13.1)
  • radiological dispersal device - An improvised assembly or process, other than a nuclear explosive device, designed to disseminate radioactive material in order to cause destruction, damage, or injury. Also called RDD. (ref JP 3-11)
  • radiological exposure device - A radioactive source placed to cause injury or death. Also called RED. (ref JP 3-11)
  • raid - An operation to temporarily seize an area in order to secure information, confuse an adversary, capture personnel or equipment, or to destroy a capability culminating with a planned withdrawal. (ref JP 3-0)
  • railhead - A point on a railway where loads are transferred between trains and other means of transport. (ref JP 4-09)
  • Rangers - Rapidly deployable airborne light infantry organized and trained to conduct highly complex joint direct action operations in coordination with or in support of other special operations units of all Services. (ref JP 3-05)
  • rapid global mobility - The timely movement, positioning, and sustainment of military forces and capabilities across the range of military operations. See also mobility. (ref JP 3-17)
  • rationalization - Any action that increases the effectiveness of allied forces through more efficient or effective use of defense resources committed to the alliance. (ref JP 3-16)
  • R-day - Redeployment day. reachback - The process of obtaining products, services, and applications, or forces, or equipment, or material from organizations that are not forward deployed. (ref JP 3-30)
  • As Amended Through 15 February 2016 198 JP 1-02 readiness - The ability of military forces to fight and meet the demands of assigned missions. See also national military strategy. (ref JP 1)
  • Ready Reserve - The Selected Reserve and Individual Ready Reserve liable for active duty as prescribed by law (Title 10, United States Code, Sections 10142, 12301, and 12302). See also active duty; Individual Ready Reserve; Selected Reserve. (ref JP 4-05)
  • ready-to-load date - The date when a unit will be ready to move from the origin, i.e., mobilization station. Also called RLD. (ref JP 5-0)
  • Realistic Military Training - Department of Defense training conducted off federal property utilizing private or non-federal public property and infrastructure. (DODI 1322.28) real property - Lands, buildings, structures, utilities systems, improvements, and appurtenances, thereto that includes equipment attached to and made part of buildings and structures, but not movable equipment. (ref JP 3-34)
  • reattack recommendation - An assessment, derived from the results of battle damage assessment and munitions effectiveness assessment, providing the commander systematic advice on reattack of a target. Also called RR. See also assessment; battle damage assessment; munitions effectiveness assessment; target. (ref JP 3-60)
  • receiving ship - The ship in a replenishment unit that receives the rig(s). (ref JP 4-03)
  • reception - 1. All ground arrangements connected with the delivery and disposition of air or sea drops. 2. Arrangements to welcome and provide secure quarters or transportation for defectors, escapees, evaders, or incoming agents. 3. The process of receiving, offloading, marshalling, accounting for, and transporting of personnel, equipment, and materiel from the strategic and/or intratheater deployment phase to a sea, air, or surface transportation point of debarkation to the marshalling area. (ref JP 3-35)
  • recognition - 1. The determination by any means of the individuality of persons, or of objects such as aircraft, ships, or tanks, or of phenomena such as communicationselectronics patterns. 2. In ground combat operations, the determination that an object is similar within a category of something already known. (ref JP 3-01)
  • recognition signal - Any prearranged signal by which individuals or units may identify each other. (ref JP 3-50)
  • reconnaissance - A mission undertaken to obtain, by visual observation or other detection methods, information about the activities and resources of an enemy or adversary, or to secure data concerning the meteorological, hydrographic, or geographic characteristics of a particular area. Also called RECON. (ref JP 2-0)
  • recovery - 1. In air (aviation) operations, that phase of a mission that involves the return of an aircraft to a land base or platform afloat. (ref JP 3-52)
    2. The retrieval of a mine from As Amended Through 15 February 2016 JP 1-02 199 the location where emplaced. (ref JP 3-15)
    3. In personnel recovery, actions taken to physically gain custody of isolated personnel and return them to friendly control. (ref JP 3- 50)
    4. Actions taken to extricate damaged or disabled equipment for return to friendly control or repair at another location. See also evader; evasion. (ref JP 3-34)
  • recovery and reconstitution - 1. Those actions taken by one nation prior to, during, and following an attack by an enemy nation to minimize the effects of the attack, rehabilitate the national economy, provide for the welfare of the populace, and maximize the combat potential of remaining forces and supporting activities. 2. Those actions taken by a military force during or after operational employment to restore its combat capability to full operational readiness. See also recovery. (ref JP 3-35)
  • recovery mechanism - An indigenous or surrogate infrastructure that is specifically developed, trained, and directed by United States forces to contact, authenticate, support, move, and exfiltrate designated isolated personnel from uncertain or hostile areas back to friendly control. Also called RM. (ref JP 3-50)
  • recovery operations - Operations conducted to search for, locate, identify, recover, and return isolated personnel, human remains, sensitive equipment, or items critical to national security. (ref JP 3-50)
  • recovery site - In personnel recovery, an area from which isolated personnel can be recovered. See also escapee; evader; evasion. (ref JP 3-50)
  • recovery team - In personnel recovery, designated United States or United States-directed forces, that are specifically trained to operate in conjunction with indigenous or surrogate forces, and are tasked to contact, authenticate, support, move, and exfiltrate isolated personnel. Also called RT. (ref JP 3-50)
  • recovery vehicle - In personnel recovery, the vehicle on which isolated personnel are boarded and transported from the recovery site. (ref JP 3-50)
  • redeployment - The transfer or rotation of forces and materiel to support another joint force commanderís operational requirements, or to return personnel, equipment, and materiel to the home and/or demobilization stations for reintegration and/or out-processing. See also deployment. (ref JP 3-35)
  • red team - An organizational element comprised of trained and educated members that provide an independent capability to fully explore alternatives in plans and operations in the context of the operational environment and from the perspective of adversaries and others. (ref JP 2-0)
  • reduced operating status - Military Sealift Command ships withdrawn from full operating status because of decreased operational requirements. Also called ROS. See also Military Sealift Command. (ref JP 4-01.2)
  • As Amended Through 15 February 2016 200 JP 1-02 reduction - The creation of lanes through a minefield or obstacle to allow passage of the attacking ground force. (ref JP 3-15)
  • refraction - The process by which the direction of a wave is changed when moving into shallow water at an angle to the bathymetric contours. (ref JP 4-01.6)
  • refugee - A person who, owing to a well-founded fear of being persecuted for reasons of race, religion, nationality, membership of a particular social group, or political opinion, is outside the country of his or her nationality and is unable or, owing to such fear, is unwilling to avail himself or herself of the protection of that country. See also dislocated civilian; displaced person; evacuee; stateless person. (ref JP 3-29)
  • regimental landing team - A task organization for landing composed of an infantry regiment reinforced by those elements that are required for initiation of its combat function ashore. (ref JP 3-02)
  • regional air defense commander - Commander, subordinate to the area air defense commander, who is responsible for air and missile defenses in the assigned regionand exercises authorities as delegated by the area air defense commander. Also called RADC. (ref JP 3-01)
  • regional response coordination center - A standing facility that is activated to coordinate regional response efforts, until a joint field office is established and/or the principal federal official, federal or coordinating officer can assume their National Response Framework coordination responsibilities. Also called RRCC. (ref JP 3-28)
  • regional satellite communications support center - United States Strategic Command operational element responsible for providing the operational communications planners with a point of contact for accessing and managing satellite communications resources. Also called RSSC. (ref JP 3-14)
  • regional security officer - A security officer responsible to the chief of mission (ambassador), for security functions of all United States embassies and consulates in a given country or group of adjacent countries. Also called RSO. (ref JP 3-10)
  • rehabilitative care - Therapy that provides evaluations and treatment programs using exercises, massage, or electrical therapeutic treatment to restore, reinforce, or enhance motor performance and restores patients to functional health allowing for their return to duty or discharge from the Service. Also called restorative care. See also patient movement policy; theater. (ref JP 4-02)
  • rehearsal phase - In amphibious operations, the period during which the prospective operation is practiced. See also amphibious operation. (ref JP 3-02)
  • As Amended Through 15 February 2016 JP 1-02 201 reinforcing obstacles - Those obstacles specifically constructed, emplaced, or detonated through military effort and designed to strengthen existing terrain to disrupt, fix, turn, or block enemy movement. See also obstacle. (ref JP 3-15)
  • reintegrate - In personnel recovery, the task of providing medical care and psychological decompression to allow the conduct of appropriate debriefings to ultimately return recovered personnel back to duty and their family. (ref JP 3-50)
  • release altitude - Altitude of an aircraft above the ground at the time of ordnance release. (ref JP 3-09.3)
  • relief in place - An operation in which, by direction of higher authority, all or part of a unit is replaced in an area by the incoming unit and the responsibilities of the replaced elements for the mission and the assigned zone of operations are transferred to the incoming unit. (ref JP 3-07.3)
  • religious advisement - The practice of informing the commander on the impact of religion on joint operations to include, but not limited to: worship, rituals, customs, and practices of US military personnel, international forces, and the indigenous population; as well as the impact of military operations on the religious and humanitarian dynamics in the operational area. (ref JP 1-05)
  • religious affairs - The combination of religious support and religious advisement. (ref JP 1-05)
  • religious support - Chaplain-facilitated free exercise of religion through worship, religious and pastoral counseling services, ceremonial honors for the fallen, crisis intervention, and advice to the commander on ethical and moral issues, and morale as affected by religion. Also called RS. See also combatant command chaplain; command chaplain; religious support team. (ref JP 1-05)
  • religious support team - A team, comprised of at least one chaplain and one enlisted support person, that works together in designing, implementing, and executing the command religious program. Also called RST. See also combatant command chaplain; command chaplain; religious support. (ref JP 1-05)
  • remain-behind equipment - Unit equipment left by deploying forces at their bases when they deploy. (ref JP 4-05)
  • render safe procedures - The portion of the explosive ordnance disposal procedures involving the application of special explosive ordnance disposal methods and tools to provide for the interruption of functions or separation of essential components of unexploded explosive ordnance to prevent an unacceptable detonation. (ref JP 3-15.1)
  • As Amended Through 15 February 2016 202 JP 1-02 rendezvous area - In an amphibious operation, the area in which the landing craft and amphibious vehicles rendezvous to form waves after being loaded, and prior to movement to the line of departure. (ref JP 3-02)
  • repairable item - An item that can be reconditioned or economically repaired for reuse when it becomes unserviceable. (ref JP 4-09)
  • repair cycle - The stages through which a repairable item passes from the time of its removal or replacement until it is reinstalled or placed in stock in a serviceable condition. (ref JP 4- 09)
  • repatriation - 1. The procedure whereby American citizens and their families are officially processed back into the United States subsequent to an evacuation. See also evacuation. (ref JP 3-68)
    2. The release and return of enemy prisoners of war to their own country in accordance with the 1949 Geneva Convention Relative to the Treatment of Prisoners of War. (ref JP 1-0)
  • replacement in kind - The provision of material and services for a logistic exchange of materials and services of equal value between the governments of eligible countries. Also called RIK. (ref JP 1-06)
  • reportable incident - Any suspected or alleged violation of Department of Defense policy or of other related orders, policies, procedures or applicable law, for which there is credible information. (ref JP 3-63)
  • request for assistance - A request based on mission requirements and expressed in terms of desired outcome, formally asking the Department of Defense to provide assistance to a local, state, tribal, or other federal agency. Also called RFA. (ref JP 3-28)
  • request for information - 1. Any specific time-sensitive ad hoc requirement for intelligence information or products to support an ongoing crisis or operation not necessarily related to standing requirements or scheduled intelligence production. 2. A term used by the National Security Agency/Central Security Service to state ad hoc signals intelligence requirements. Also called RFI. See also intelligence. (ref JP 2-0)
  • required delivery date - The date that a force must arrive at the destination and complete unloading. Also called RDD. (ref JP 5-0)
  • requirements determination - All activities necessary to develop, consolidate, coordinate, validate, approve, and prioritize joint force contract support requirements. (ref JP 4-10)
  • requirements development - The process of defining actual contract support requirements and capturing these requirements in acquisition ready contract support requirements packages. (ref JP 4-10)
  • As Amended Through 15 February 2016 JP 1-02 203 requirements management system - A system for the management of theater and national imagery collection requirements that provides automated tools for users in support of submission, review, and validation of imagery nominations as requirements to be tasked on national or Department of Defense imagery collection, production, and exploitation resources. Also called RMS. See also imagery. (ref JP 2-01)
  • requiring activity - A military or other designated supported organization that identifies and receives contracted support during military operations. See also supported unit. (ref JP 4-10)
  • rescue combat air patrol - An aircraft patrol provided over that portion of an objective area in which recovery operations are being conducted for the purpose of intercepting and destroying hostile aircraft. Also called RESCAP. See also combat air patrol. (ref JP 3-50)
  • rescue coordination center - A unit, recognized by International Civil Aviation Organization, International Maritime Organization, or other cognizant international body, responsible for promoting efficient organization of search and rescue services and coordinating the conduct of search and rescue operations within a search and rescue region. Also called RCC. (ref JP 3-50)
  • reserve - 1. Portion of a body of troops that is kept to the rear, or withheld from action at the beginning of an engagement, in order to be available for a decisive movement. 2. Members of the uniformed Services who are not in active service but who are subject to call to active duty. 3. Portion of an appropriation or contract authorization held or set aside for future operations or contingencies and, in respect to which, administrative authorization to incur commitments or obligations has been withheld. See also operational reserve. (ref JP 4-05)
  • Reserve Component - The Armed Forces of the United States Reserve Component consists of the Army National Guard of the United States, the Army Reserve, the Navy Reserve, the Marine Corps Reserve, the Air National Guard of the United States, the Air Force Reserve, and the Coast Guard Reserve. Also called RC. See also component; reserve. (ref JP 4-05)
  • reserved obstacles - Those demolition obstacles that are deemed critical to the plan for which the authority to detonate is reserved by the designating commander. See also obstacle. (ref JP 3-15)
  • reset - A set of actions to restore equipment to a desired level of combat capability commensurate with a unitís future mission. (ref JP 4-0)
  • resettled person - A refugee or an internally displaced person wishing to return somewhere other than his or her previous home or land within the country or area of original displacement. (ref JP 3-29)
  • As Amended Through 15 February 2016 204 JP 1-02 residual forces - Undeployed United States forces that have an immediate combat potential for continued military operations, and that have been deliberately withheld from utilization. (ref JP 4-09)
  • residual radiation - Nuclear radiation caused by fallout, artificial dispersion of radioactive material, or irradiation that results from a nuclear explosion and persists longer than one minute after burst. See also contamination; initial radiation. (ref JP 3-11)
  • resistance movement - An organized effort by some portion of the civil population of a country to resist the legally established government or an occupying power and to disrupt civil order and stability. (ref JP 3-05)
  • resource management - A financial management function that provides advice and guidance to the commander to develop command resource requirements. Also called RM. See also financial management. (ref JP 1-06)
  • resources - The forces, materiel, and other assets or capabilities apportioned or allocated to the commander of a unified or specified command. (ref JP 1)
  • rest and recuperation - The withdrawal of individuals from combat or duty in a combat area for short periods of rest and recuperation. Also called R&R. (ref JP 1-0)
  • restraint - In the context of joint operation planning, a requirement placed on the command by a higher command that prohibits an action, thus restricting freedom of action. See also constraint; operational limitation. (ref JP 5-0)
  • restricted area - 1. An area (land, sea, or air) in which there are special restrictive measures employed to prevent or minimize interference between friendly forces. 2. An area under military jurisdiction in which special security measures are employed to prevent unauthorized entry. See also restricted areas (air). (ref JP 3-34)
  • restricted areas (air) - Designated areas established by appropriate authority over which flight of aircraft is restricted. See also restricted area. (ref JP 3-52)
  • restricted items list - A document listing those logistic goods and services for which nations must coordinate any contracting activity with a commanderís centralized contracting organization. (ref JP 4-08)
  • restricted operations zone - Airspace reserved for specific activities in which the operations of one or more airspace users is restricted. Also called ROZ. (ref JP 3-52)
  • restricted reporting - Reporting option that allows sexual assault victims to confidentially disclose the assault to specified individual and receive medical treatment without triggering an official investigation. (ref JP 1-0)
  • As Amended Through 15 February 2016 JP 1-02 205 restricted target - A valid target that has specific restrictions placed on the actions authorized against it due to operational considerations. See also target. (ref JP 3-60)
  • restricted target list - A list of restricted targets nominated by elements of the joint force and approved by the joint force commander or directed by higher authorities. Also called RTL. See also restricted target; target. (ref JP 3-60)
  • restrictive fire area - An area in which specific restrictions are imposed and into which fires that exceed those restrictions will not be delivered without coordination with the establishing headquarters. Also called RFA. See also fires. (ref JP 3-09)
  • restrictive fire line - A line established between converging friendly surface forces that prohibits fires or their effects across that line. Also called RFL. See also fires. (ref JP 3-09)
  • resupply - The act of replenishing stocks in order to maintain required levels of supply. (ref JP 4-09)
  • resuscitative care - Advanced emergency medical treatment required to prevent immediate loss of life or limb and to attain stabilization to ensure the patient could tolerate evacuation. (ref JP 4-02)
  • retained personnel - Detainees who fall into one of the following categories: a. Designated enemy medical personnel and medical staff administrators who are exclusively engaged in either the search for, collection, transport, or treatment of the wounded or sick, or the prevention of disease; b. Staff of National Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies and that of other volunteer aid societies, duly recognized and authorized by their governments to assist medical service personnel of their own armed forces, provided they are exclusively engaged in the search for, or the collection, transport or treatment of wounded or sick, or in the prevention of disease, and provided that the staff of such societies are subject to military laws and regulations; c. Chaplains attached to enemy armed forces. Also called RP. See also personnel. (ref JP 3-63)
  • Retired Reserve - All reserve members who receive retirement pay on the basis of their active duty and/or reserve service; those members who are otherwise eligible for retirement pay but have not reached age 60 and who have not elected discharge and are not voluntary members of the Ready Reserve or Standby Reserve. See also active duty; Ready Reserve; Standby Reserve. (ref JP 4-05)
  • retrograde - The process for the movement of non-unit equipment and materiel from a forward location to a reset (replenishment, repair, or recapitalization) program or to another directed area of operations to replenish unit stocks, or to satisfy stock requirements. (ref JP 4-09)
  • As Amended Through 15 February 2016 206 JP 1-02 returned to military control - The status of a person whose casualty status of ďduty status - whereabouts unknownĒ or ďmissingĒ has been changed due to the personís return or recovery by US military authority. Also called RMC. returnee - A displaced person who has returned voluntarily to his or her former place of residence. (ref JP 3-29)
  • return to base - An order to proceed to the point indicated by the displayed information or by verbal communication. Also called RTB. (ref JP 3-01)
  • revolving fund account - An account authorized by specific provisions of law to finance a continuing cycle of business-type operations, and which are authorized to incur obligations and expenditures that generate receipts. (ref JP 1-06)
  • riot control agent - Any chemical, not listed in a schedule of the Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production, Stockpiling and Use of Chemical Weapons and on their Destruction that can produce rapidly in humans sensory irritation or disabling physical effects that disappear within a short time following termination of exposure. Also called RCA. See also chemical warfare. (ref JP 3-11)
  • rising mine - In naval mine warfare, a mine having positive buoyancy which is released from a sinker by a ship influence or by a timing device. (ref JP 3-15)
  • risk - Probability and severity of loss linked to hazards. See also hazard; risk management. (ref JP 5-0)
  • risk assessment - The identification and assessment of hazards (first two steps of risk management process). Also called RA. (ref JP 3-07.2)
  • risk management - The process of identifying, assessing, and controlling risks arising from operational factors and making decisions that balance risk cost with mission benefits. Also called RM. See also risk. (ref JP 3-0)
  • riverine operations - Operations conducted by forces organized to cope with and exploit the unique characteristics of a riverine area, to locate and destroy hostile forces, and/or to achieve or maintain control of the riverine area. (ref JP 3-32)
  • role specialist nation - A nation that has agreed to assume responsibility for providing a particular class of supply or service for all or part of the multinational force. Also called RSN. See also lead nation; multinational force. (ref JP 4-08)
  • roll-on/roll-off discharge facility - A platform made up of causeway sections that provide a means of embarking and disembarking vehicles from a roll-on and roll-off ship at sea to lighterage. Also called RRDF. See also facility; lighterage. (ref JP 4-01.6)
  • As Amended Through 15 February 2016 JP 1-02 207 rough terrain container handler - A piece of materials handling equipment used to pick up and move containers. Also called RTCH. (ref JP 4-01.6)
  • rules of engagement - Directives issued by competent military authority that delineate the circumstances and limitations under which United States forces will initiate and/or continue combat engagement with other forces encountered. Also called ROE. See also law of war. (ref JP 1-04)
  • ruse - In military deception, a trick of war designed to deceive the adversary, usually involving the deliberate exposure of false information to the adversaryís intelligence collection system. (ref JP 3-13.4)
  • As Amended Through 15 February 2016 208 JP 1-02 Intentionally Blank As Amended Through 15 February 2016 S JP 1-02 209 sabotage - An act or acts with intent to injure, interfere with, or obstruct the national defense of a country by willfully injuring or destroying, or attempting to injure or destroy, any national defense or war materiel, premises, or utilities, to include human and natural resources. (ref JP 2-01.2)
  • safe haven - 1. Designated area(s) to which noncombatant evacuees of the United States Governmentís responsibility and commercial vehicles and materiel may be evacuated during a domestic or other valid emergency. (ref JP 3-68)
    2. A protected body of water or the well deck of an amphibious ship used by small craft operating offshore for refuge from storms or heavy seas. (ref JP 4-01.6)
  • safe house - An innocent-appearing house or premises established by an organization for the purpose of conducting clandestine or covert activity in relative security. (ref JP 3-07.2)
  • safing - As applied to weapons and ammunition, the changing from a state of readiness for initiation to a safe condition. Also called de-arming. (ref JP 3-09.3)
  • salvage - 1. Property that has some value in excess of its basic material content but is in such condition that it has no reasonable prospect of use for any purpose as a unit and its repair or rehabilitation for use as a unit is clearly impractical. 2. The saving or rescuing of condemned, discarded, or abandoned property, and of materials contained therein for reuse, refabrication, or scrapping. (ref JP 4-0)
  • sanction enforcement - Operations that employ coercive measures to control the movement of certain types of designated items into or out of a nation or specified area. (ref JP 3-0)
  • scheduled target - Planned target upon which fires or other actions are scheduled for prosecution at a specified time. See also planned target; target. (ref JP 3-60)
  • schedule of fire - Groups or series of fires that are fired in a definite sequence according to a definite program. (ref JP 3-09)
  • scheme of fires - The detailed, logical sequence of targets and fire support events to find and engage targets to support the commanderís objectives. (ref JP 3-09)
  • scheme of maneuver - The central expression of the commanderís concept for operations that governs the design of supporting plans or annexes of how arrayed forces will accomplish the mission. (ref JP 5-0)
  • scientific and technical intelligence - The product resulting from the collection, evaluation, analysis, and interpretation of foreign scientific and technical information that covers: a. foreign developments in basic and applied research and in applied engineering techniques; and b. scientific and technical characteristics, capabilities, and limitations of all foreign military systems, weapons, weapon systems, and materiel; the research and development As Amended Through 15 February 2016 210 JP 1-02 related thereto; and the production methods employed for their manufacture. Also called S&TI. See also intelligence; technical intelligence. (ref JP 2-01)
  • screening - In intelligence, the evaluation of an individual or a group of individuals to determine their potential to answer collection requirements or to identify individuals who match a predetermined source profile coupled with the process of identifying and assessing the areas of knowledge, cooperation, and possible approach techniques for an individual who has information of intelligence value. (ref JP 2-01.2)
  • sea areas - Areas in the amphibious objective area designated for the stationing of amphibious task force ships. See also amphibious objective area; fire support area; inner transport area; sea echelon area. (ref JP 3-02)
  • sea barge - A type of barge-ship that can carry up to 38 loaded barges and also carry tugs, stacked causeway sections, various watercraft, or heavy-lift equipment to better support joint logistics over-the-shore operations. (ref JP 4-01.2)
  • seabasing - The deployment, assembly, command, projection, reconstitution, sustainment, and re-employment of joint power from the sea without reliance on land bases within the operational area. See also amphibious operation. (ref JP 3-02)
  • sea control operations - The employment of forces to destroy enemy naval forces, suppress enemy sea commerce, protect vital sea lanes, and establish local military superiority in vital sea areas. See also land control operations. (ref JP 3-32)
  • sea echelon - A portion of the amphibious warfare ships or other ships that withdraws from or remains out of the transport area during an amphibious landing and operates in designated areas to seaward in an on-call or unscheduled status. (ref JP 3-02)
  • sea echelon area - In amphibious operations, an area to seaward of a transport area from which ships are phased into the transport area, and to which ships withdraw from the transport area. (ref JP 3-02)
  • sea echelon plan - In amphibious operations, the distribution plan for amphibious shipping in the transport area to minimize losses due to enemy attack by weapons of mass destruction and to reduce the area to be swept of mines. See also amphibious operation. (ref JP 3-02)
  • SEAL delivery vehicle team - United States Navy forces organized, trained, and equipped to conduct special operations with SEAL delivery vehicles, dry deck shelters, and other submersible platforms. (ref JP 3-05)
  • sealift enhancement features - Special equipment and modifications that adapt merchanttype dry cargo ships and tankers to specific military missions. Also called SEFs. See also Military Sealift Command; Ready Reserve. (ref JP 4-01.2)
  • As Amended Through 15 February 2016 JP 1-02 211 SEAL team - United States Navy forces organized, trained, and equipped to conduct special operations with an emphasis on maritime, coastal, and riverine environments. (ref JP 3-05)
  • seaport - A land facility designated for reception of personnel or materiel moved by sea, and that serves as an authorized port of entrance into or departure from the country in which located. See also port of debarkation; port of embarkation. (ref JP 4-01.2)
  • search - A systematic reconnaissance of a defined area, so that all parts of the area have passed within visibility. (ref JP 3-50)
  • search and rescue - The use of aircraft, surface craft, submarines, and specialized rescue teams and equipment to search for and rescue distressed persons on land or at sea in a permissive environment. Also called SAR. See also combat search and rescue; isolated personnel; joint personnel recovery center; personnel recovery coordination cell. (ref JP 3-50)
  • search and rescue numerical encryption grid - A predesignated ten-letter word without repeated letters used exclusively by recovery forces or isolated personnel to encrypt numerical data such as position, time, and/or headings in a covert manner. Also called SARNEG. (ref JP 3-50)
  • search and rescue point - A predesignated specific location, relative to which isolated personnel provide their position to recovery forces. Also called SARDOT. (ref JP 3-50)
  • search and rescue region - An area of defined dimensions, recognized by the International Civil Aviation Organization, International Maritime Organization, or other cognizant international body, and associated with a rescue coordination center within which search and rescue services are provided. (ref JP 3-50)
  • sea state - A scale that categorizes the force of progressively higher seas by wave height. (ref JP 4-01.6)
  • secondary loads - Unit equipment, supplies, and major end items that are transported in the beds of organic vehicles. (ref JP 3-02.1)
  • secret - Security classification that shall be applied to information, the unauthorized disclosure of which reasonably could be expected to cause serious damage to the national security that the original classification authority is able to identify or describe. (EO 13526) SECRET Internet Protocol Router Network - The worldwide SECRET-level packet switch network that uses high-speed internet protocol routers and high-capacity Defense Information Systems Network circuitry. Also called SIPRNET. See also Defense Information Systems Network. (ref JP 6-0)
  • As Amended Through 15 February 2016 212 JP 1-02 section - 1. As applied to ships or naval aircraft, a tactical subdivision of a division. 2. A subdivision of an office, installation, territory, works, or organization; especially a major subdivision of a staff. 3. A tactical unit of the Army and Marine Corps smaller than a platoon and larger than a squad. 4. An area in a warehouse extending from one wall to the next; usually the largest subdivision of one floor. (ref JP 3-33)
  • sector air defense commander - Commander subordinate to an area/regional air defense commander, who is responsible for air and missile defenses in the assigned sector and exercises authorities delegated by the area/regional air defense commander. Also called SADC. (ref JP 3-01)
  • security - 1. Measures taken by a military unit, activity, or installation to protect itself against all acts designed to, or which may, impair its effectiveness. (ref JP 3-10)
    2. A condition that results from the establishment and maintenance of protective measures that ensure a state of inviolability from hostile acts or influences. (ref JP 3-10)
    3. With respect to classified matter, the condition that prevents unauthorized persons from having access to official information that is safeguarded in the interests of national security. See also national security. (ref JP 2-0)
  • security assistance - Group of programs authorized by the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, as amended, and the Arms Export Control Act of 1976, as amended, or other related statutes by which the United States provides defense articles, military training, and other defense-related services by grant, loan, credit, or cash sales in furtherance of national policies and objectives. Security assistance is an element of security cooperation funded and authorized by Department of State to be administered by Department of Defense/Defense Security Cooperation Agency. Also called SA. See also security cooperation. (ref JP 3-22)
  • security classification - A category to which national security information and material is assigned to denote the degree of damage that unauthorized disclosure would cause to national defense or foreign relations of the United States and to denote the degree of protection required. There are three such categories: top secret, secret, and confidential. See also classification; security. (EO 13526) security clearance - An administrative determination by competent authority that an individual is eligible for access to classified information. (ref JP 1-0)
  • security cooperation - All Department of Defense interactions with foreign defense establishments to build defense relationships that promote specific US security interests, develop allied and friendly military capabilities for self-defense and multinational operations, and provide US forces with peacetime and contingency access to a host nation. Also called SC. See also security assistance. (ref JP 3-22)
  • security cooperation organization - All Department of Defense elements located in a foreign country with assigned responsibilities for carrying out security assistance/cooperation management functions. It includes military assistance As Amended Through 15 February 2016 JP 1-02 213 advisory groups, military missions and groups, offices of defense and military cooperation, liaison groups, and defense attachť personnel designated to perform security assistance/cooperation functions. Also called SCO. (ref JP 3-22)
  • security countermeasures - Those protective activities required to prevent espionage, sabotage, theft, or unauthorized use of classified or controlled information, systems, or material of the Department of Defense. See also counterintelligence. (ref JP 2-01.2)
  • security force assistance - The Department of Defense activities that contribute to unified action by the US Government to support the development of the capacity and capability of foreign security forces and their supporting institutions. Also called SFA. (ref JP 3-22)
  • security forces - Duly constituted military, paramilitary, police, and constabulary forces of a state. (ref JP 3-22)
  • security review - The process of reviewing information and products prior to public release to ensure the material will not jeopardize ongoing or future operations. See also security. (ref JP 3-61)
  • security sector reform - A comprehensive set of programs and activities undertaken to improve the way a host nation provides safety, security, and justice. Also called SSR. (ref JP 3-07)
  • security service - Entity or component of a foreign government charged with responsibility for counterespionage or internal security functions. (ref JP 2-01.2)
  • sedition - Willfully advocating or teaching the duty or necessity of overthrowing the US government or any political subdivision by force or violence. See also counterintelligence. (ref JP 2-01.2)
  • segregation - In detainee operations, the removal of a detainee from other detainees and their environment for legitimate purposes unrelated to interrogation, such as when necessary for the movement, health, safety, and/or security of the detainee, the detention facility, or its personnel. (ref JP 3-63)
  • seize - To employ combat forces to occupy physically and to control a designated area. (ref JP 3-18)
  • seizures - In counterdrug operations, includes drugs and conveyances seized by law enforcement authorities and drug-related assets confiscated based on evidence that they have been derived from or used in illegal narcotics activities. See also counterdrug operations; law enforcement agency. (ref JP 3-07.4)
  • Selected Reserve - Those units and individuals within the Ready Reserve designated by their respective Services and approved by the Joint Chiefs of Staff as so essential to initial As Amended Through 15 February 2016 214 JP 1-02 wartime missions that they have priority over all other reserves. See also Ready Reserve. (ref JP 4-05)
  • selective identification feature - A capability that, when added to the basic identification friend or foe system, provides the means to transmit, receive, and display selected coded replies. (ref JP 3-52)
  • selective loading - The arrangement and stowage of equipment and supplies aboard ship in a manner designed to facilitate issues to units. (ref JP 3-02.1)
  • selective mobilization - Expansion of the active Armed Forces resulting from action by Congress or the President to mobilize Reserve Component units, Individual Ready Reservists, and the resources needed for their support to meet the requirements of a domestic emergency that is not the result of an enemy attack. (ref JP 4-05)
  • selective off-loading - The capability to access and off-load vehicles, supplies, and equipment without having to conduct a major reconfiguration or total off-load; influenced by the number and types of ships allocated, and the space made available for the embarkation of the landing force. (ref JP 3-02.1)
  • selective unloading - In an amphibious operation, the controlled unloading from amphibious warfare ships, and movement ashore, of specific items of cargo at the request of the landing force commander. (ref JP 3-02)
  • senior airfield authority - An individual designated by the joint force commander to be responsible for the control, operation, and maintenance of an airfield to include the runways, associated taxiways, parking ramps, land, and facilities whose proximity directly affects airfield operations. Also called SAA. (ref JP 3-17)
  • senior contracting official - The staff official designated by a Service head of contracting activity to execute theater support contracting authority for a specific command and/or operational area. Also called SCO. (ref JP 4-10)
  • senior meteorological and oceanographic officer - Meteorological and oceanographic officer responsible for assisting the combatant commander and staff in developing and executing operational meteorological and oceanographic service concepts in support of a designated joint force. Also called SMO. See also meteorological and oceanographic. (ref JP 3-59)
  • sensitive - An agency, installation, person, position, document, material, or activity requiring special protection from disclosure that could cause embarrassment, compromise, or threat to the security of the sponsoring power. (ref JP 2-01)
  • sensitive compartmented information - All information and materials bearing special community controls indicating restricted handling within present and future community intelligence collection programs and their end products for which community systems of As Amended Through 15 February 2016 JP 1-02 215 compartmentation have been or will be formally established. (These controls are over and above the provisions of DOD 5200.1-R, Information Security Program Regulation.) Also called SCI. (ref JP 2-01)
  • sensitive compartmented information facility - An accredited area, room, group of rooms, or installation where sensitive compartmented information may be stored, used, discussed, and/or electronically processed, where procedural and physical measures prevent the free access of persons unless they have been formally indoctrinated for the particular sensitive compartmented information authorized for use or storage within the sensitive compartmented information facility. Also called SCIF. See also sensitive compartmented information. (ref JP 2-01)
  • sensitive site - A geographically limited area that contains, but is not limited to, adversary information systems, war crimes sites, critical government facilities, and areas suspected of containing high value targets. (ref JP 3-31)
  • sequel - The subsequent major operation or phase based on the possible outcomes (success, stalemate, or defeat) of the current major operation or phase. See also branch. (ref JP 5-0)
  • serial - 1. An element or a group of elements within a series that is given a numerical or alphabetical designation for convenience in planning, scheduling, and control. 2. A group of people, vehicles, equipment, or supplies and is used in airborne, air assault, amphibious operations, and convoys. (ref JP 3-02)
  • serial assignment table - A table that is used in amphibious operations and shows the serial number, the title of the unit, the approximate number of personnel; the material, vehicles, or equipment in the serial; the number and type of landing craft and/or amphibious vehicles required to boat the serial; and the ship on which the serial is embarked. (ref JP 3- 02)
  • Service - A branch of the Armed Forces of the United States, established by act of Congress, which are: the Army, Marine Corps, Navy, Air Force, and Coast Guard. (ref JP 1)
  • Service-common - Equipment, material, supplies, and services including base operating support adopted by a Service to support its own forces and those assigned to the combatant commands; items and services defined as Service-common by one Service are not necessarily Service-common for all other Services. See also special operationspeculiar. (ref JP 3-05)
  • Service component command - A command consisting of the Service component commander and all those Service forces, such as individuals, units, detachments, organizations, and installations under that command, including the support forces that have been assigned to a combatant command or further assigned to a subordinate unified command or joint task force. See also component; functional component command. (ref JP 1)
  • As Amended Through 15 February 2016 216 JP 1-02 Service-organic transportation assets - Transportation assets that are assigned to a Military Department for functions of the Secretaries of the Military Departments set forth in Title 10, United States Code, Sections 3013(b), 5013(b), and 8013(b). (ref JP 4-01)
  • Service-unique container - Any 20- or 40-foot International Organization for Standardization container procured or leased by a Service to meet Service-unique requirements. See also common-use container; component-owned container. (ref JP 4-09)
  • sexual assault forensic examination kit - The medical and forensic examination kit used to ensure controlled procedures and safekeeping of any bodily specimens in a sexual assault case. Also called SAFE kit. (ref JP 1-0)
  • sexual assault prevention and response program - A Department of Defense program for the Military Departments and Department of Defense components that establishes sexual assault prevention and response policies to be implemented worldwide. Also called SAPR program. (ref JP 1-0)
  • sexual assault response coordinator - The single point of contact at an installation or within a geographic area who overseas sexual assault awareness, prevention, and response. Also called SARC. (ref JP 1-0)
  • shelter - An International Organization for Standardization container outfitted with live- or work-in capability. (ref JP 4-09)
  • shielding - 1. Material of suitable thickness and physical characteristics used to protect personnel from radiation during the manufacture, handling, and transportation of fissionable and radioactive materials. 2. Obstructions that tend to protect personnel or materials from the effects of a nuclear explosion. (ref JP 3-11)
  • ship-to-shore movement - That portion of the action phase of an amphibious operation that includes the deployment of the landing force from ships to designated landing areas. (ref JP 3-02)
  • shore fire control party - A specially trained unit for control of naval gunfire in support of troops ashore. Also called SFCP. (ref JP 3-09)
  • shore party - A task organization of the landing force, formed for the purpose of facilitating the landing and movement off the beaches of troops, equipment, and supplies; for the evacuation from the beaches of casualties and enemy prisoners of war; and for facilitating the beaching, retraction, and salvaging of landing ships and craft. Also called beach group. See also beachmaster unit; beach party; naval beach group. (ref JP 3-02)
  • shortfall - The lack of forces, equipment, personnel, materiel, or capability, reflected as the difference between the resources identified as a plan requirement and those apportioned As Amended Through 15 February 2016 JP 1-02 217 to a combatant commander for planning, that would adversely affect the commandís ability to accomplish its mission. (ref JP 5-0)
  • short-range air defense engagement zone - In air defense, that airspace of defined dimensions within which the responsibility for engagement of air threats normally rests with short-range air defense weapons and may be established within a low- or highaltitude missile engagement zone. Also called SHORADEZ. (ref JP 3-01)
  • short-range ballistic missile - A land-based ballistic missile with a range capability up to about 600 nautical miles. Also called SRBM. (ref JP 3-01)
  • short takeoff and landing - The ability of an aircraft to clear a 50-foot (15 meters) obstacle within 1,500 feet (450 meters) of commencing takeoff or in landing, to stop within 1,500 feet (450 meters) after passing over a 50-foot (15 meters) obstacle. Also called STOL. (ref JP 3-04)
  • short title - A short, identifying combination of letters, and/or numbers assigned to a document or device for purposes of brevity and/or security. (ref JP 2-01)
  • show of force - An operation designed to demonstrate US resolve that involves increased visibility of US deployed forces in an attempt to defuse a specific situation that, if allowed to continue, may be detrimental to US interests or national objectives. (ref JP 3-0)
  • signal operating instructions - A series of orders issued for technical control and coordination of the signal communication activities of a command. In Marine Corps usage, these instructions are designated communication operation instructions. Also called SOI. (ref JP 6-0)
  • signals intelligence - 1. A category of intelligence comprising either individually or in combination all communications intelligence, electronic intelligence, and foreign instrumentation signals intelligence, however transmitted. 2. Intelligence derived from communications, electronic, and foreign instrumentation signals. Also called SIGINT. See also communications intelligence; electronic intelligence; foreign instrumentation signals intelligence; intelligence. (ref JP 2-0)
  • signals intelligence operational control - The authoritative direction of signals intelligence activities, including tasking and allocation of effort, and the authoritative prescription of those uniform techniques and standards by which signals intelligence information is collected, processed, and reported. (ref JP 2-01)
  • signals intelligence operational tasking authority - A military commanderís authority to operationally direct and levy signals intelligence requirements on designated signals intelligence resources; includes authority to deploy and redeploy all or part of the signals intelligence resources for which signals intelligence operational tasking authority has been delegated. Also called SOTA. (ref JP 2-01)
  • As Amended Through 15 February 2016 218 JP 1-02 significant wave height - The average height of the third of waves observed during a given period of time. See also surf zone. (ref JP 4-01.6)
  • simultaneous engagement - The concurrent engagement of hostile targets by combination of interceptor aircraft and surface-to-air missiles. (ref JP 3-01)
  • single-anchor leg mooring - A mooring facility dedicated to the offshore petroleum discharge system, which permits a tanker to remain on station and pump in much higher sea states than is possible with a spread moor. Also called SALM. See also offshore petroleum discharge system. (ref JP 4-01.6)
  • single manager - A Military Department or agency designated by the Secretary of Defense to be responsible for management of specified commodities or common service activities on a Department of Defense-wide basis. (ref JP 4-01)
  • single manager for transportation - The United States Transportation Command is the Department of Defense single manager for transportation, other than Service-organic or theater-assigned transportation assets. See also Service-organic transportation assets; theater-assigned transportation assets (ref JP 4-01)
  • single port manager - The transportation component, designated by the Department of Defense through the United States Transportation Command, responsible for management of all common-user aerial and seaports worldwide. Also called SPM. See also transportation component command. (ref JP 4-01.5)
  • single-service manager - A Service component commander who is assigned the responsibility and delegated the authority to coordinate and/or perform specified personnel support or personnel service support functions in the theater of operations. See also component. (ref JP 1-0)
  • site exploitation - A series of activities to recognize, collect, process, preserve, and analyze information, personnel, and/or materiel found during the conduct of operations. Also called SE. (ref JP 3-31)
  • situation report - A report giving the situation in the area of a reporting unit or formation. Also called SITREP. (ref JP 3-50)
  • situation template - A depiction of assumed adversary dispositions, based on that adversaryís preferred method of operations and the impact of the operational environment if the adversary should adopt a particular course of action. See also adversary template; course of action. (ref JP 2-01.3)
  • sociocultural analysis - The analysis of adversaries and other relevant actors that integrates concepts, knowledge, and understanding of societies, populations, and other groups of people, including their activities, relationships, and perspectives across time and space at varying scales. Also called SCA. (ref JP 2-0)
  • As Amended Through 15 February 2016 JP 1-02 219 sociocultural factors - The social, cultural, and behavioral factors characterizing the relationships and activities of the population of a specific region or operational environment. (ref JP 2-01.3)
  • solatium - Monetary compensation given in areas where it is culturally appropriate to alleviate grief, suffering, and anxiety resulting from injuries, death, and property loss with a monetary payment. (ref JP 1-06)
  • sortie - In air operations, an operational flight by one aircraft. (ref JP 3-30)
  • sortie allotment message - The means by which the joint force commander allots excess sorties to meet requirements of subordinate commanders that are expressed in their air employment and/or allocation plan. Also called SORTIEALOT. (ref JP 3-30)
  • source - 1. A person, thing, or activity from which information is obtained. 2. In clandestine activities, a person (agent), normally a foreign national, in the employ of an intelligence activity for intelligence purposes. 3. In interrogation activities, any person who furnishes information, either with or without the knowledge that the information is being used for intelligence purposes. See also agent; collection agency. (ref JP 2-01)
  • source management - The process of registering and monitoring the use of sources involved in counterintelligence and human intelligence operations to protect the security of the operations and avoid conflicts among operational elements. (ref JP 2-01.2)
  • source registry - A source record/catalogue of leads and sources acquired by collectors and centralized for management, coordination and deconfliction of source operations. (ref JP 2-01.2)
  • space asset - Equipment that is an individual part of a space system, which is or can be placed in space or directly supports space activity terrestrially. (ref JP 3-14)
  • space assignment - An assignment to the individual Military Departments/Services by the appropriate transportation operating agency of movement capability, which completely or partially satisfies the stated requirements of the Military Departments/Services for the operating month and that has been accepted by them without the necessity for referral to the Joint Transportation Board for allocation. (ref JP 4-01)
  • space capability - 1. The ability of a space asset to accomplish a mission. 2. The ability of a terrestrial-based asset to accomplish a mission in or through space. See also space asset. (ref JP 3-14)
  • space control - Operations to ensure freedom of action in space for the United States and its allies and, when directed, deny an adversary freedom of action in space. See also combat service support; combat support; negation; space systems. (ref JP 3-14)
  • As Amended Through 15 February 2016 220 JP 1-02 space coordinating authority - A commander or individual assigned responsibility for planning, integrating, and coordinating space operations support in the operational area. Also called SCA. (ref JP 3-14)
  • space environment - The environment corresponding to the space domain, where electromagnetic radiation, charged particles, and electric and magnetic fields are the dominant physical influences, and that encompasses the earthís ionosphere and magnetosphere, interplanetary space, and the solar atmosphere. (ref JP 3-59)
  • space force application - Combat operations in, through, and from space to influence the course and outcome of conflict by holding terrestrial targets at risk. See also ballistic missile; force protection. (ref JP 3-14)
  • space force enhancement - Combat support operations and force-multiplying capabilities delivered from space systems to improve the effectiveness of military forces as well as support other intelligence, civil, and commercial users. See also combat support . (ref JP 3-14)
  • space forces - The space and terrestrial systems, equipment, facilities, organizations, and personnel necessary to access, use and, if directed, control space for national security. See also national security; space systems. (ref JP 3-14)
  • space power - The total strength of a nationís capabilities to conduct and influence activities to, in, through, and from space to achieve its objectives. (ref JP 3-14)
  • space situational awareness - Cognizance of the requisite current and predictive knowledge of the space environment and the operational environment upon which space operations depend. (ref JP 3-14)
  • space superiority - The degree of dominance in space of one force over any others that permits the conduct of its operations at a given time and place without prohibitive interference from space-based threats. (ref JP 3-14)
  • space support - Launching and deploying space vehicles, maintaining and sustaining spacecraft on-orbit, rendezvous and proximity operations, disposing of (including deorbiting and recovering) space capabilities, and reconstitution of space forces, if required. See also combat service support. (ref JP 3-14)
  • space surveillance - The observation of space and of the activities occurring in space. See also space control. (ref JP 3-14)
  • space systems - All of the devices and organizations forming the space network. (ref JP 3-14)
  • space weather - The conditions and phenomena in space and specifically in the near-Earth environment that may affect space assets or space operations. See also space asset. As Amended Through 15 February 2016 JP 1-02 221 (ref JP 3-59)
  • special access program - A sensitive acquisition, intelligence, or operations and support program, that imposes need-to-know and access controls beyond those normally provided for access to confidential, secret, or top secret information. Also called SAP. (ref JP 3-05)
  • special cargo - Cargo that requires special handling or protection, such as pyrotechnics, detonators, watches, and precision instruments. (ref JP 4-01.5)
  • special event - An international or domestic event, contest, activity, or meeting, which by its very nature, or by specific statutory or regulatory authority, may warrant security, safety, and/or other logistical support or assistance from the Department of Defense. (DODD 3025.18) special forces - United States Army forces organized, trained, and equipped to conduct special operations with an emphasis on unconventional warfare capabilities. Also called SF. (ref JP 3-05)
  • special forces group - The largest Army combat element for special operations consisting of command and control, special forces battalions, and a support battalion capable of long duration missions. Also called SFG. (ref JP 3-05)
  • specialization - An arrangement within an alliance wherein a member or group of members most suited by virtue of technical skills, location, or other qualifications assume(s) greater responsibility for a specific task or significant portion thereof for one or more other members. (ref JP 3-16)
  • special mission unit - A generic term to represent an organization composed of operations and support personnel that is task-organized to perform highly classified activities. Also called SMU. (ref JP 3-05)
  • special operations - Operations requiring unique modes of employment, tactical techniques, equipment and training often conducted in hostile, denied, or politically sensitive environments and characterized by one or more of the following: time sensitive, clandestine, low visibility, conducted with and/or through indigenous forces, requiring regional expertise, and/or a high degree of risk. (ref JP 3-05)
  • special operations command and control element - A special operations element that is the focal point for the synchronization of special operations forces activities with conventional forces activities. Also called SOCCE. See also command and control; joint force special operations component commander; special operations; special operations forces. (ref JP 3-05)
  • special operations forces - Those Active and Reserve Component forces of the Services designated by the Secretary of Defense and specifically organized, trained, and equipped As Amended Through 15 February 2016 222 JP 1-02 to conduct and support special operations. Also called SOF. See also Air Force special operations forces; Army special operations forces; Navy special operations forces. (ref JP 3-05)
  • special operations joint task force - A modular, tailorable, and scalable special operations task force designed to provide integrated, fully-capable, and enabled joint special operations forces to geographic combatant commanders and joint force commanders. Also called SOJTF. (ref JP 3-05)
  • special operations liaison element - A special operations liaison team provided by the joint force special operations component commander to coordinate, deconflict, and synchronize special operations air, surface, and subsurface operations with conventional air operations. Also called SOLE. See also joint force air component commander; joint force special operations component commander; special operations. (ref JP 3-05)
  • special operations-peculiar - Equipment, material, supplies, and services required for special operations missions for which there is no Service-common requirement. See also Service-common; special operations. (ref JP 3-05)
  • special operations task force - A scalable unit, normally of battalion size, in charge of the special operations element, organized around the nucleus of special operations forces and support elements. Also called SOTF. (ref JP 3-05)
  • special operations weather team - A task organized team of Air Force personnel organized, trained, and equipped to collect critical environmental information from data sparse areas. Also called SOWT. (ref JP 3-05)
  • special operations wing - An Air Force special operations wing. Also called SOW. (ref JP 3-05)
  • special reconnaissance - Reconnaissance and surveillance actions conducted as a special operation in hostile, denied, or diplomatically and/or politically sensitive environments to collect or verify information of strategic or operational significance, employing military capabilities not normally found in conventional forces. Also called SR. (ref JP 3-05)
  • special tactics team - An Air Force task-organized element of special tactics that may include combat control, pararescue, tactical air control party, and special operations weather personnel. Also called STT. See also combat search and rescue; special operations; special operations forces; terminal attack control. (ref JP 3-05)
  • specified combatant command - A command, normally composed of forces from a single Military Department, that has a broad, continuing mission, normally functional, and is established and so designated by the President through the Secretary of Defense with the advice and assistance of the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. (ref JP 1)
  • As Amended Through 15 February 2016 JP 1-02 223 specified task - In the context of joint operation planning, a task that is specifically assigned to an organization by its higher headquarters. See also essential task; implied task. (ref JP 5-0)
  • split-mission oriented protective posture - The concept of maintaining heightened protective posture only in those areas (or zones) that are contaminated, allowing personnel in uncontaminated areas to continue to operate in a reduced posture. Also called split-MOPP. (ref JP 3-11)
  • spoke - The portion of the hub and spoke distribution system that refers to transportation mode operators responsible for scheduled delivery to a customer of the ďhubĒ. See also distribution; distribution system; hub; hub and spoke distribution. (ref JP 4-09)
  • spot - 1. To determine by observation, deviations of ordnance from the target for the purpose of supplying necessary information for the adjustment of fire. 2. To place in a proper location. 3. An approved shipboard helicopter landing site. See also ordnance. (ref JP 3-04)
  • spot net - Radio communication net used by a spotter in calling fire. (ref JP 3-09.3)
  • spot report - A concise narrative report of essential information covering events or conditions that may have an immediate and significant effect on current planning and operations that is afforded the most expeditious means of transmission consistent with requisite security. Also called SPOTREP. (Note: In reconnaissance and surveillance usage, spot report is not to be used.) (ref JP 3-09.3)
  • spotter - 1. An observer stationed for the purpose of observing and reporting results of naval gunfire to the firing agency and who also may be employed in designating targets. (ref JP 3-09)
    2. In intelligence, an agent or illegal assigned to locate and assess individuals in positions of value to an intelligence service. (ref JP 2-01.2)
  • spotting - Parking aircraft in an approved shipboard landing site. (ref JP 3-04)
  • spreader bar - A device specially designed to permit the lifting and handling of containers or vehicles and breakbulk cargo. (ref JP 4-01.6)
  • squadron - 1. An organization consisting of two or more divisions of ships, or two or more divisions (Navy) or flights of aircraft. 2. The basic administrative aviation unit of the Army, Navy, Marine Corps, and Air Force. 3. Battalion-sized ground or aviation units. (ref JP 3-32)
  • stability operations - An overarching term encompassing various military missions, tasks, and activities conducted outside the United States in coordination with other instruments of national power to maintain or reestablish a safe and secure environment, provide essential governmental services, emergency infrastructure reconstruction, and humanitarian relief. (ref JP 3-0)
  • As Amended Through 15 February 2016 224 JP 1-02 stabilized patient - A patient whose airway is secured, hemorrhage is controlled, shock treated, and fractures are immobilized. (ref JP 4-02)
  • stable patient - A patient for whom no inflight medical intervention is expected but the potential for medical intervention exists. (ref JP 4-02)
  • staff judge advocate - A judge advocate so designated in the Army, Air Force, or Marine Corps, and the principal legal advisor of a Navy, Coast Guard, or joint force command who is a judge advocate. Also called SJA. (ref JP 1-04)
  • staging - Assembling, holding, and organizing arriving personnel, equipment, and sustaining materiel in preparation for onward movement. See also staging area. (ref JP 3-35)
  • staging area - 1. Amphibious or airborne - A general locality between the mounting area and the objective of an amphibious or airborne expedition, through which the expedition or parts thereof pass after mounting, for refueling, regrouping of ships, and/or exercise, inspection, and redistribution of troops. 2. Other movements - A general locality established for the concentration of troop units and transient personnel between movements over the lines of communications. Also called SA. See also airborne; marshalling; staging. (ref JP 3-35)
  • staging base - 1. An advanced naval base for the anchoring, fueling, and refitting of transports and cargo ships as well as replenishment of mobile service squadrons. (ref JP 4- 01.2)
    2. A landing and takeoff area with minimum servicing, supply, and shelter provided for the temporary occupancy of military aircraft during the course of movement from one location to another. (ref JP 3-18)
  • stakeholder - In public affairs, an individual or group that is directly impacted by military operations, actions, and/or outcomes, and whose interests positively or negatively motivate them toward action. (ref JP 3-61)
  • standardization - The process by which the Department of Defense achieves the closest practicable cooperation among the Services and Department of Defense agencies for the most efficient use of research, development, and production resources, and agrees to adopt on the broadest possible basis the use of: a. common or compatible operational, administrative, and logistic procedures; b. common or compatible technical procedures and criteria; c. common, compatible, or interchangeable supplies, components, weapons, or equipment; and d. common or compatible tactical doctrine with corresponding organizational compatibility. (ref JP 4-02)
  • standard operating procedure - A set of instructions applicable to those features of operations that lend themselves to a definite or standardized procedure without loss of effectiveness. Also called SOP; standing operating procedure. (ref JP 3-31)
  • As Amended Through 15 February 2016 JP 1-02 225 standard use Army aircraft flight route - Route established below the coordination level to facilitate the movement of Army aviation assets; it is normally located in the corps through brigade rear areas of operation and does not require approval by the airspace control authority. Also called SAAFR. (ref JP 3-52)
  • Standby Reserve - Those units and members of the Reserve Component (other than those in the Ready Reserve or Retired Reserve) who are liable for active duty only, as provided in Title 10, United States Code, Sections 10151, 12301, and 12306. See also active duty; Ready Reserve; Reserve Component; Retired Reserve. (ref JP 4-05)
  • standing joint force headquarters - A staff organization operating under a flag or general officer providing a combatant commander with a full-time, trained joint command and control element integrated into the combatant commanderís staff whose focus is on contingency and crisis action planning. Also called SJFHQ. (ref JP 3-0)
  • standing rules for the use of force - Preapproved directives to guide United States forces on the use of force during various operations. Also called SRUF. (ref JP 3-28)
  • stateless person - A person who is not considered as a national by any state under the operation of its law. See also dislocated civilian; displaced person; evacuee; refugee. (ref JP 3-29)
  • station time - In air transport operations, the time at which crews, passengers, and cargo are to be on board and ready for the flight. (ref JP 3-17)
  • status-of-forces agreement - A bilateral or multilateral agreement that defines the legal position of a visiting military force deployed in the territory of a friendly state. Also called SOFA. (ref JP 3-16)
  • sterilizer - In mine warfare, a device included in mines to render the mine permanently inoperative on expiration of a pre-determined time after laying. (ref JP 3-15)
  • stockage objective - The maximum quantities of materiel to be maintained on hand to sustain current operations, which will consist of the sum of stocks represented by the operating level and the safety level. (ref JP 4-08)
  • Stock Number - See national stock number. stockpile to target sequence - 1. The order of events involved in removing a nuclear weapon from storage and assembling, testing, transporting, and delivering it on the target. 2. A document that defines the logistic and employment concepts and related physical environments involved in the delivery of a nuclear weapon from the stockpile to the target. It may also define the logistic flow involved in moving nuclear weapons to and from the stockpile for quality assurance testing, modification and retrofit, and the recycling of limited life components. As Amended Through 15 February 2016 226 JP 1-02 stop-loss - Presidential authority under Title 10, United States Code, Section 12305, to suspend laws relating to promotion, retirement, or separation of any member of the Armed Forces determined essential to the national security of the United States, to include reservists if serving on active duty under Title 10, United States Code authorities for Presidential Reserve Call-up, partial mobilization, or full mobilization. See also mobilization; partial mobilization; Presidential Reserve Call-up. (ref JP 4-05)
  • stowage - The placement of cargo into a hold, compartment, or on a deck of a ship in such a way as to prevent damage from load shifts while the ship is underway. (ref JP 3-02.1)
  • stowage factor - The number that expresses the space, in cubic feet, occupied by a long ton of any commodity as prepared for shipment, including all crating or packaging. (ref JP 4-01.2)
  • stowage plan - A completed stowage diagram showing what materiel has been loaded and its stowage location in each hold, between-deck compartment, or other space in a ship, including deck space. (ref JP 4-01.5)
  • strategic communication - Focused United States Government efforts to understand and engage key audiences to create, strengthen, or preserve conditions favorable for the advancement of United States Government interests, policies, and objectives through the use of coordinated programs, plans, themes, messages, and products synchronized with the actions of all instruments of national power. Also called SC. (ref JP 5-0)
  • strategic concept - The course of action accepted as the result of the estimate of the strategic situation which is a statement of what is to be done in broad terms. (ref JP 5-0)
  • strategic debriefing - Debriefing activity conducted to collect information or to verify previously collected information in response to national or theater level collection priorities. (ref JP 2-01.2)
  • strategic direction - The processes and products by which the President, Secretary of Defense, and Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff provide strategic guidance to the Joint Staff, combatant commands, Services, and combat support agencies. (ref JP 5-0)
  • strategic estimate - The broad range of strategic factors that influence the commanderís understanding of its operational environment and its determination of missions, objectives, and courses of action. See also estimate; national intelligence estimate. (ref JP 5-0)
  • strategic intelligence - Intelligence required for the formation of policy and military plans at national and international levels. Strategic intelligence and tactical intelligence differ primarily in level of application, but may also vary in terms of scope and detail. See also intelligence; operational intelligence; tactical intelligence. (ref JP 2-01.2)
  • As Amended Through 15 February 2016 JP 1-02 227 strategic level of war - The level of war at which a nation, often as a member of a group of nations, determines national or multinational (alliance or coalition) strategic security objectives and guidance, then develops and uses national resources to achieve those objectives. See also operational level of war; tactical level of war. (ref JP 3-0)
  • strategic mobility - The capability to deploy and sustain military forces worldwide in support of national strategy. (ref JP 4-01)
  • strategic plan - A plan for the overall conduct of a war. (ref JP 5-0)
  • strategic sealift - The afloat pre-positioning and ocean movement of military materiel in support of United States and multinational forces. (ref JP 4-01.5)
  • strategic sealift forces - Sealift forces composed of ships, cargo handling and delivery systems, and the necessary operating personnel. See also force. (ref JP 4-01.6)
  • strategic sealift shipping - Common-user ships of the Military Sealift Command force, including pre-positioned ships after their pre-positioning mission has been completed and they have been returned to the operational control of the Military Sealift Command. See also Military Sealift Command; Military Sealift Command force. (ref JP 4-01.2)
  • strategy - A prudent idea or set of ideas for employing the instruments of national power in a synchronized and integrated fashion to achieve theater, national, and/or multinational objectives. (ref JP 3-0)
  • strike - An attack to damage or destroy an objective or a capability. (ref JP 3-0)
  • strike coordination and reconnaissance - A mission flown for the purpose of detecting targets and coordinating or performing attack or reconnaissance on those targets. Also called SCAR. (ref JP 3-03)
  • stuffing - Packing of cargo into a container. See also unstuffing. (ref JP 4-09)
  • submarine operating authority - The naval commander exercising operational control of submarines. Also called SUBOPAUTH. (ref JP 3-32)
  • subordinate campaign plan - A combatant command prepared plan that satisfies the requirements under a Department of Defense campaign plan, which, depending upon the circumstances, transitions to a supported or supporting plan in execution. (ref JP 5-0)
  • subordinate command - A command consisting of the commander and all those individuals, units, detachments, organizations, or installations that have been placed under the command by the authority establishing the subordinate command. (ref JP 1)
  • subordinate unified command - A command established by commanders of unified commands, when so authorized by the Secretary of Defense through the Chairman of the As Amended Through 15 February 2016 228 JP 1-02 Joint Chiefs of Staff, to conduct operations on a continuing basis in accordance with the criteria set forth for unified commands. See also area command; functional component command; operational control; subordinate command; unified command. (ref JP 1)
  • subsidiary landing - In an amphibious operation, a landing usually made outside the designated landing area, the purpose of which is to support the main landing. (ref JP 3-02)
  • subversion - Actions designed to undermine the military, economic, psychological, or political strength or morale of a governing authority. See also unconventional warfare. (ref JP 3-24)
  • sun-synchronous orbit - An orbit in which the satelliteís orbital plane is at a fixed orientation to the sun, i.e., the orbit precesses about the earth at the same rate that the earth orbits the sun. (ref JP 3-14)
  • supercargo - Personnel that accompany cargo on board a ship for the purpose of accomplishing en route maintenance and security. (ref JP 4-01.5)
  • supplies - In logistics, all materiel and items used in the equipment, support, and maintenance of military forces. See also component; equipment. (ref JP 4-0)
  • supply - The procurement, distribution, maintenance while in storage, and salvage of supplies, including the determination of kind and quantity of supplies. a. producer phase-That phase of military supply that extends from determination of procurement schedules to acceptance of finished supplies by the Services. b. consumer phase-That phase of military supply that extends from receipt of finished supplies by the Services through issue for use or consumption. (ref JP 4-0)
  • supply chain - The linked activities associated with providing materiel from a raw materiel stage to an end user as a finished product. See also supply; supply chain management. (ref JP 4-09)
  • supply chain management - A cross-functional approach to procuring, producing, and delivering products and services to customers. See also supply; supply chain. (ref JP 4-09)
  • supply support activity - Activities assigned a Department of Defense activity address code and that have a supply support mission. Also called SSA. (ref JP 4-09)
  • support - 1. The action of a force that aids, protects, complements, or sustains another force in accordance with a directive requiring such action. 2. A unit that helps another unit in battle. 3. An element of a command that assists, protects, or supplies other forces in combat. See also close support; direct support; general support; inter-Service support; mutual support. (ref JP 1)
  • As Amended Through 15 February 2016 JP 1-02 229 supported commander - 1. The commander having primary responsibility for all aspects of a task assigned by the Joint Strategic Capabilities Plan or other joint operation planning authority. 2. In the context of joint operation planning, the commander who prepares operation plans or operation orders in response to requirements of the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. 3. In the context of a support command relationship, the commander who receives assistance from another commanderís force or capabilities, and who is responsible for ensuring that the supporting commander understands the assistance required. See also support; supporting commander. (ref JP 3-0)
  • supported unit - As related to contracted support, a supported unit is the organization that is the recipient, but not necessarily the requester of, contractor-provided support. See also requiring activity. (ref JP 4-10)
  • supporting arms - Weapons and weapons systems of all types employed to support forces by indirect or direct fire. (ref JP 3-02)
  • supporting arms coordination center - A single location on board an amphibious warfare command ship in which all communication facilities incident to the coordination of fire support of the artillery, air, and naval gunfire are centralized. Also called SACC. See also fire support coordination center. (ref JP 3-09.3)
  • supporting commander - 1. A commander who provides augmentation forces or other support to a supported commander or who develops a supporting plan. 2. In the context of a support command relationship, the commander who aids, protects, complements, or sustains another commanderís force, and who is responsible for providing the assistance required by the supported commander. See also support; supported commander. (ref JP 3-0)
  • supporting fire - Fire delivered by supporting units to assist or protect a unit in combat. (ref JP 3-09)
  • supporting operations - In amphibious operations, those operations conducted by forces other than those conducted by the amphibious force. See also amphibious force; amphibious operation. (ref JP 3-02)
  • supporting plan - An operation plan prepared by a supporting commander, a subordinate commander, or an agency to satisfy the requests or requirements of the supported commanderís plan. See also supported commander; supporting commander. (ref JP 5-0)
  • suppression - Temporary or transient degradation by an opposing force of the performance of a weapons system below the level needed to fulfill its mission objectives. (ref JP 3-01)
  • suppression of enemy air defenses - Activity that neutralizes, destroys, or temporarily degrades surface-based enemy air defenses by destructive and/or disruptive means. Also called SEAD. See also electromagnetic spectrum; electronic warfare. (ref JP 3-01)
  • As Amended Through 15 February 2016 230 JP 1-02 surface action group - A temporary or standing organization of combatant ships, other than carriers, tailored for a specific tactical mission. Also called SAG. See group; mission. (ref JP 3-32)
  • surface combatant - A ship constructed and armed for combat use with the capability to conduct operations in multiple maritime roles against air, surface and subsurface threats, and land targets. (ref JP 3-32)
  • surface-to-air missile site - A plot of ground prepared in such a manner that it will readily accept the hardware used in surface-to-air missile system. (ref JP 3-01)
  • surface warfare - That portion of maritime warfare in which operations are conducted to destroy or neutralize enemy naval surface forces and merchant vessels. Also called SUW. (ref JP 3-32)
  • surf line - The point offshore where waves and swells are affected by the underwater surface and become breakers. (ref JP 4-01.6)
  • surf zone - The area of water from the surf line to the beach. See also surf line. (ref JP 4-01.6)
  • surveillance - The systematic observation of aerospace, surface, or subsurface areas, places, persons, or things, by visual, aural, electronic, photographic, or other means. (ref JP 3-0)
  • survivability - All aspects of protecting personnel, weapons, and supplies while simultaneously deceiving the enemy. (ref JP 3-34)
  • survival, evasion, resistance, and escape - Actions performed by isolated personnel designed to ensure their health, mobility, safety, and honor in anticipation of or preparation for their return to friendly control. Also called SERE. (ref JP 3-50)
  • suspect - 1. In counterdrug operations, a track of interest where correlating information actually ties the track of interest to alleged illegal drug operations. See also counterdrug operations; track of interest. 2. An identity applied to a track that is potentially hostile because of its characteristics, behavior, origin, or nationality. See also assumed friend; neutral; unknown. (ref JP 3-07.4)
  • sustainment - The provision of logistics and personnel services required to maintain and prolong operations until successful mission accomplishment. (ref JP 3-0)
  • sustainment, restoration, and modernization - The fuels asset sustainment program within Defense Logistics Agency Energy that provides a long-term process to costeffectively sustain, restore, and modernize fuel facilities. Also called SRM. (ref JP 4-03)
  • synchronization - 1. The arrangement of military actions in time, space, and purpose to produce maximum relative combat power at a decisive place and time. 2. In the As Amended Through 15 February 2016 JP 1-02 231 intelligence context, application of intelligence sources and methods in concert with the operation plan to answer intelligence requirements in time to influence the decisions they support. (ref JP 2-0)
  • synthesis - In intelligence usage, the examining and combining of processed information with other information and intelligence for final interpretation. (ref JP 2-0)
  • system - A functionally, physically, and/or behaviorally related group of regularly interacting or interdependent elements; that group of elements forming a unified whole. (ref JP 3-0)
  • systems support contract - A prearranged contract awarded by a Service acquisition program management office that provides technical support, maintenance and, in some cases, repair parts for selected military weapon and support systems. See also external support contract; theater support contract. (ref JP 4-10)
  • As Amended Through 15 February 2016 232 JP 1-02 Intentionally Blank As Amended Through 15 February 2016 T JP 1-02 233 table of allowance - An equipment allowance document that prescribes basic allowances of organizational equipment, and provides the control to develop, revise, or change equipment authorization inventory data. Also called TOA. (ref JP 4-09)
  • TABOO frequencies - Any friendly frequency of such importance that it must never be deliberately jammed or interfered with by friendly forces including international distress, safety, and controller frequencies. See also electronic warfare. (ref JP 3-13.1)
  • tactical air command center - The principal US Marine Corps air command and control agency from which air operations and air defense warning functions are directed. Also called Marine TACC. (ref JP 3-09.3)
  • tactical air control center - The principal air operations installation (ship-based) from which all aircraft and air warning functions of tactical air operations are controlled. Also called Navy TACC. (ref JP 3-09.3)
  • tactical air control party - A subordinate operational component of a tactical air control system designed to provide air liaison to land forces and for the control of aircraft. Also called TACP. (ref JP 3-09.3)
  • tactical air coordinator (airborne) - An officer who coordinates, from an aircraft, the actions of other aircraft engaged in air support of ground or sea forces. Also called TAC(A). See also forward observer. (ref JP 3-09.3)
  • tactical air direction center - An air operations installation under the overall control of the Navy tactical air control center or the Marine Corps tactical air command center, from which aircraft and air warning service functions of tactical air operations in support of amphibious operations are directed. Also called TADC. (ref JP 3-09.3)
  • tactical air officer - The officer under the amphibious task force commander who, until control is passed ashore, coordinates planning of all phases of air participation of the amphibious operation and air operations of supporting forces en route to and in the objective area. Also called TAO. (ref JP 3-02)
  • tactical air operations center - The principal air control agency of the United States Marine Corps air command and control system responsible for airspace control and management. Also called TAOC. (ref JP 3-09.3)
  • tactical assembly area - An area that is generally out of the reach of light artillery and the location where units make final preparations (pre-combat checks and inspections) and rest, prior to moving to the line of departure. See also line of departure. (ref JP 3-35)
  • tactical combat casualty care - A set of trauma management guidelines customized for use on the battlefield that maintains a sharp focus on the most common causes of preventable As Amended Through 15 February 2016 234 JP 1-02 deaths on the battlefield: external hemorrhage; tension pneumothorax; and airway obstruction. (ref JP 4-02)
  • tactical combat force - A rapidly deployable, air-ground mobile combat unit, with appropriate combat support and combat service support assets assigned to and capable of defeating Level III threats including combined arms. Also called TCF. (ref JP 3-10)
  • tactical control - The authority over forces that is limited to the detailed direction and control of movements or maneuvers within the operational area necessary to accomplish missions or tasks assigned. Also called TACON. See also combatant command; combatant command (command authority); operational control. (ref JP 1)
  • tactical data link - A Joint Staff-approved, standardized communication link suitable for transmission of digital information, which interfaces two or more command and control or weapons systems via a single or multiple network architecture and multiple communication media for exchange of tactical information. Also called TDL. (ref JP 6-0)
  • tactical exploitation of national capabilities - Congressionally mandated program to improve the combat effectiveness of the Services through more effective military use of national programs. Also called TENCAP. (ref JP 2-01)
  • tactical intelligence - Intelligence required for the planning and conduct of tactical operations. See also intelligence. (ref JP 2-01.2)
  • tactical level of war - The level of war at which battles and engagements are planned and executed to achieve military objectives assigned to tactical units or task forces. See also operational level of war; strategic level of war. (ref JP 3-0)
  • tactical-logistical group - Representatives designated by troop commanders to assist Navy control officers aboard control ships in the ship-to-shore movement of troops, equipment, and supplies. Also called TACLOG group. (ref JP 3-02)
  • tactical minefield - A minefield that is employed to directly attack enemy maneuver as part of a formation obstacle plan and is laid to delay, channel, or break up an enemy advance, giving the defending element a positional advantage over the attacker. (ref JP 3-15)
  • tactical obstacles - Those obstacles employed to disrupt enemy formations, to turn them into a desired area, to fix them in position under direct and indirect fires, and to block enemy penetrations. (ref JP 3-15)
  • tactical questioning - The field-expedient initial questioning for information of immediate tactical value of a captured or detained person at or near the point of capture and before the individual is placed in a detention facility. Also called TQ. (ref JP 3-63)
  • tactical recovery of aircraft and personnel - A Marine Corps mission performed by an assigned and briefed aircrew for the specific purpose of the recovery of personnel, As Amended Through 15 February 2016 JP 1-02 235 equipment, and/or aircraft when the tactical situation precludes search and rescue assets from responding and when survivors and their location have been confirmed. Also called TRAP. (ref JP 3-50)
  • tactical reserve - A part of a force held under the control of the commander as a maneuvering force to influence future action. (ref JP 3-02)
  • tactics - The employment and ordered arrangement of forces in relation to each other. See also procedures; techniques. (CJCSM 5120.01) target - 1. An entity or object that performs a function for the adversary considered for possible engagement or other action. 2. In intelligence usage, a country, area, installation, agency, or person against which intelligence operations are directed. 3. An area designated and numbered for future firing. 4. In gunfire support usage, an impact burst that hits the target. See also objective area. (ref JP 3-60)
  • target acquisition - The detection, identification, and location of a target in sufficient detail to permit the effective employment of weapons. Also called TA. See also target analysis. (ref JP 3-60)
  • target analysis - An examination of potential targets to determine military importance, priority of attack, and weapons required to obtain a desired level of damage or casualties. See also target acquisition. (ref JP 3-60)
  • target area of interest - The geographical area where high-value targets can be acquired and engaged by friendly forces. Also called TAI. See also area of interest; high-value target; target. (ref JP 2-01.3)
  • target audience - An individual or group selected for influence. Also called TA. (ref JP 3-13)
  • target complex - A geographically integrated series of target concentrations. See also target. (ref JP 3-60)
  • target component - A set of targets within a target system performing a similar function. See also target. (ref JP 3-60)
  • target development - The systematic examination of potential target systems - and their components, individual targets, and even elements of targets - to determine the necessary type and duration of the action that must be exerted on each target to create an effect that is consistent with the commanderís specific objectives. (ref JP 3-60)
  • targeteer - An individual who has completed formal targeting training in an established Service or joint school and participates in the joint targeting cycle in their current duties. (ref JP 3-60)
  • As Amended Through 15 February 2016 236 JP 1-02 target folder - A folder, hardcopy or electronic, containing target intelligence and related materials prepared for planning and executing action against a specific target. See also target. (ref JP 3-60)
  • target information center - The agency or activity responsible for collecting, displaying, evaluating, and disseminating information pertaining to potential targets. Also called TIC. See also target. (ref JP 3-02)
  • targeting - The process of selecting and prioritizing targets and matching the appropriate response to them, considering operational requirements and capabilities. See also joint targeting coordination board; target. (ref JP 3-0)
  • target intelligence - Intelligence that portrays and locates the components of a target or target complex and indicates its vulnerability and relative importance. See also target; target complex. (ref JP 3-60)
  • target location error - The difference between the coordinates generated for a target and the actual location of the target. Also called TLE. (ref JP 3-09.3)
  • target materials - Graphic, textual, tabular, digital, video, or other presentations of target intelligence, primarily designed to support operations against designated targets by one or more weapon(s) systems. See also Air Target Materials Program. (ref JP 3-60)
  • target nomination list - A prioritized list of targets drawn from the joint target list and nominated by component commanders, appropriate agencies, or the joint force commanderís staff for inclusion on the joint integrated prioritized target list. Also called TNL. See also candidate target list; joint integrated prioritized target list; target. (ref JP 3-60)
  • target of opportunity - 1. A target identified too late, or not selected for action in time, to be included in deliberate targeting that, when detected or located, meets criteria specific to achieving objectives and is processed using dynamic targeting. 2. A target visible to a surface or air sensor or observer, which is within range of available weapons and against which fire has not been scheduled or requested. See also dynamic targeting; target; unplanned target; unanticipated target. (ref JP 3-60)
  • target reference point - A predetermined point of reference, normally a permanent structure or terrain feature that can be used when describing a target location. Also called TRP. (ref JP 3-09.3)
  • target system - 1. All the targets situated in a particular geographic area and functionally related. 2. A group of targets that are so related that their destruction will produce some particular effect desired by the attacker. See also target; target complex. (ref JP 3-60)
  • As Amended Through 15 February 2016 JP 1-02 237 target system analysis - An all-source examination of potential target systems to determine relevance to stated objectives, military importance, and priority of attack. Also called TSA. (ref JP 3-60)
  • target system assessment - The broad assessment of the overall impact and effectiveness of the full spectrum of military force applied against the operation of an enemy target system, significant subdivisions of the system, or total combat effectiveness relative to the operational objectives established. See also target system. (ref JP 3-60)
  • target system component - A set of targets belonging to one or more groups of industries and basic utilities required to produce component parts of an end product, or one type of a series of interrelated commodities. (ref JP 3-60)
  • task - A clearly defined action or activity specifically assigned to an individual or organization that must be done as it is imposed by an appropriate authority. (ref JP 1)
  • task component - A subdivision of a fleet, task force, task group, or task unit, organized by the respective commander or by higher authority for the accomplishment of specific tasks. (ref JP 3-32)
  • task element - A component of a naval task unit organized by the commander of a task unit or higher authority. (ref JP 3-32)
  • task force - A component of a fleet organized by the commander of a task fleet or higher authority for the accomplishment of a specific task or tasks. Also called TF. (ref JP 3-32)
  • task force counterintelligence coordinating authority - An individual that affects the overall coordination of counterintelligence activities (in a joint force intelligence directorate counterintelligence and human intelligence staff element, joint task force configuration), with other supporting counterintelligence organizations, and supporting agencies to ensure full counterintelligence coverage of the task force operational area. Also called TFCICA. See also counterintelligence; counterintelligence activities; joint task force. (ref JP 2-01.2)
  • task group - A component of a naval task force organized by the commander of a task force or higher authority. Also called TG. (ref JP 3-32)
  • tasking order - A method used to task and to disseminate to components, subordinate units, and command and control agencies projected targets and specific missions as well as general and specific instructions for accomplishment of the mission. Also called TASKORD. See also mission; target. (ref JP 3-05.1)
  • task order - Order for services placed against an established contract. See also civil augmentation program. (ref JP 4-10)
  • As Amended Through 15 February 2016 238 JP 1-02 task organization - An organization that assigns to responsible commanders the means with which to accomplish their assigned tasks in any planned action. (ref JP 3-33)
  • task unit - A component of a naval task group organized by the commander of a task group or higher authority. (ref JP 3-32)
  • tear line - A physical line on an intelligence message or document separating categories of information that have been approved for foreign disclosure and release. (ref JP 2-0)
  • technical analysis - In imagery interpretation, the precise description of details appearing on imagery. (ref JP 2-03)
  • technical assistance - The providing of advice, assistance, and training pertaining to the installation, operation, and maintenance of equipment. (ref JP 3-22)
  • technical escort - An individual technically qualified and properly equipped to accompany designated material requiring a high degree of safety or security during shipment. (ref JP 3- 15.1)
  • technical evaluation - The study and investigations by a developing agency to determine the technical suitability of material, equipment, or a system for use in the Services. (ref JP 3-15.1)
  • technical intelligence - Intelligence derived from the collection, processing, analysis, and exploitation of data and information pertaining to foreign equipment and materiel for the purposes of preventing technological surprise, assessing foreign scientific and technical capabilities, and developing countermeasures designed to neutralize an adversaryís technological advantages. Also called TECHINT. See also exploitation; intelligence. (ref JP 2-0)
  • technical nuclear forensics - The collection, analysis and evaluation of pre-detonation (intact) and post-detonation (exploded) radiological or nuclear materials, devices, and debris, as well as the immediate effects created by a nuclear detonation. (ref JP 3-41)
  • technical review authority - The organization tasked to provide specialized technical or administrative expertise to the lead agent, primary review authority, Joint Staff doctrine sponsor, or coordinating review authority for joint publications. Also called TRA. See also coordinating review authority; joint publication; primary review authority. (CJCSM 5120.01) technical surveillance countermeasures - Techniques and measures to detect and neutralize a wide variety of hostile penetration technologies that are used to obtain unauthorized access to classified and sensitive information. Technical penetrations include the employment of optical, electro-optical, electromagnetic, fluidic, and acoustic means as the sensor and transmission medium, or the use of various types of stimulation or modification to equipment or building components for the direct or indirect As Amended Through 15 February 2016 JP 1-02 239 transmission of information meant to be protected. Also called TSCM. See also counterintelligence. (ref JP 2-01.2)
  • techniques - Non-prescriptive ways or methods used to perform missions, functions, or tasks. See also procedures; tactics. (CJCSM 5120.01) telecommunications - Any transmission, emission, or reception of signs, signals, writings, images, sounds, or information of any nature by wire, radio, visual, or other electromagnetic systems. (ref JP 6-0)
  • telemedicine - Rapid access to shared and remote medical expertise by means of telecommunications and information technologies to deliver health services and exchange health information for the purpose of improving patient care. (ref JP 4-02)
  • tempest - An unclassified term referring to technical investigations for compromising emanations from electrically operated information processing equipment; these investigations are conducted in support of emanations and emissions security. See also counterintelligence. (ref JP 2-01.2)
  • temporary interment - A site for the purpose of: a. the interment of the remains if the circumstances permit; or b. the reburial of remains exhumed from an emergency interment. See also mortuary affairs. (ref JP 4-06)
  • terminal - A facility designed to transfer cargo from one means of conveyance to another. See also facility. (ref JP 4-01.6)
  • terminal attack control - The authority to control the maneuver of and grant weapons release clearance to attacking aircraft. See also joint terminal attack controller. (ref JP 3-09.3)
  • terminal control - 1. A type of air control with the authority to direct aircraft to maneuver into a position to deliver ordnance, passengers, or cargo to a specific location or target. 2. Any electronic, mechanical, or visual control given to aircraft to facilitate target acquisition and resolution. See also terminal guidance. (ref JP 3-09.3)
  • terminal guidance - 1. The guidance applied to a guided missile between midcourse guidance and arrival in the vicinity of the target. 2. Electronic, mechanical, visual, or other assistance given an aircraft pilot to facilitate arrival at, operation within or over, landing upon, or departure from an air landing or airdrop facility. See also terminal control. (ref JP 3-03)
  • terminal guidance operations - Actions using electronic, mechanical, voice, or visual communications that provide approaching aircraft and/or weapons additional information regarding a specific target location. Also called TGO. (ref JP 3-09)
  • As Amended Through 15 February 2016 240 JP 1-02 terminal operations - The reception, processing, and staging of passengers; the receipt, transit, storage, and marshalling of cargo; the loading and unloading of modes of transport conveyances; and the manifesting and forwarding of cargo and passengers to destination. See also operation; terminal. (ref JP 4-01.5)
  • terminal phase - That portion of the flight of a ballistic missile that begins when the warhead or payload reenters the atmosphere and ends when the warhead or payload detonates, releases its submunitions, or impacts. See also boost phase; midcourse phase. (ref JP 3-01)
  • termination criteria - The specified standards approved by the President and/or the Secretary of Defense that must be met before a joint operation can be concluded. (ref JP 3-0)
  • terms of reference - 1. A mutual agreement under which a command, element, or unit exercises authority or undertakes specific missions or tasks relative to another command, element, or unit. 2. The directive providing the legitimacy and authority to undertake a mission, task, or endeavor. Also called TORs. (ref JP 3-0)
  • terrain analysis - The collection, analysis, evaluation, and interpretation of geographic information on the natural and man-made features of the terrain, combined with other relevant factors, to predict the effect of the terrain on military operations. (ref JP 2-03)
  • terrain avoidance system - A system that provides the pilot or navigator of an aircraft with a situation display of the ground or obstacles so that the pilot can maneuver the aircraft to avoid the obstruction. (ref JP 3-50)
  • terrain flight - Flight close to the Earthís surface during which airspeed, height, and/or altitude are adapted to the contours and cover of the ground in order to avoid enemy detection and fire. Also called contour flight; low-level flight; nap-of-the-earth flight. (ref JP 3-09.3)
  • terrain intelligence - Intelligence on the military significance of natural and man-made characteristics of an area. (ref JP 3-15)
  • terrestrial environment - The Earthís land area, including its man-made and natural surface and sub-surface features, and its interfaces and interactions with the atmosphere and the oceans. (ref JP 3-59)
  • territorial airspace - Airspace above land territory and internal, archipelagic, and territorial waters. (ref JP 1)
  • territorial waters - A belt of ocean space adjacent to and measured from the coastal states baseline to a maximum width of 12 nautical miles. (ref JP 1)
  • As Amended Through 15 February 2016 JP 1-02 241 terrorism - The unlawful use of violence or threat of violence, often motivated by religious, political, or other ideological beliefs, to instill fear and coerce governments or societies in pursuit of goals that are usually political. See also antiterrorism; combating terrorism; counterterrorism; force protection condition. (ref JP 3-07.2)
  • terrorist threat level - A Department of Defense intelligence threat assessment of the level of terrorist threat faced by United States personnel and interests in a foreign country; the levels are expressed as LOW, MODERATE, SIGNIFICANT, and HIGH. (ref JP 3-07.2)
  • theater - The geographical area for which a commander of a geographic combatant command has been assigned responsibility. (ref JP 1)
  • theater antisubmarine warfare commander - A Navy commander assigned to develop plans and direct assigned and attached assets for the conduct of antisubmarine warfare within an operational area. Also called TASWC. (ref JP 3-32)
  • theater-assigned transportation assets - Transportation assets that are assigned under the combatant command (command authority) of a geographic combatant commander. See also combatant command (command authority); single manager for transportation. (ref JP 4-01)
  • theater detainee reporting center - The field operating agency of the National Detainee Reporting Center responsible for maintaining information on all detainees and their personal property within a theater of operations or assigned area of operations. Also called TDRC. (ref JP 3-63)
  • theater distribution - The flow of personnel, equipment, and materiel within theater to meet the geographic combatant commanderís missions. See also distribution; theater; theater distribution system. (ref JP 4-09)
  • theater distribution system - A distribution system comprised of four independent and mutually supported networks within theater to meet the geographic combatant commanderís requirements: the physical network; the financial network; the information network; and the communications network. See also distribution; distribution plan; distribution system; theater; theater distribution. (ref JP 4-01)
  • theater event system - Architecture for reporting ballistic missile events, composed of three independent processing and reporting elements: the joint tactical ground stations, tactical detection and reporting, and the space-based infrared system mission control station. Also called TES. (ref JP 3-14)
  • theater hospitalization capability - Essential care and health service support capabilities to either return the patient to duty and/or stabilization to ensure the patient can tolerate evacuation to a definitive care facility outside the theater, which is known as Role 3 in North Atlantic Treaty Organization doctrine. (ref JP 4-02)
  • As Amended Through 15 February 2016 242 JP 1-02 theater of operations - An operational area defined by the geographic combatant commander for the conduct or support of specific military operations. Also called TO. See also theater of war. (ref JP 3-0)
  • theater of war - Defined by the President, Secretary of Defense, or the geographic combatant commander as the area of air, land, and water that is, or may become, directly involved in the conduct of major operations and campaigns involving combat. See also area of responsibility; theater of operations. (ref JP 3-0)
  • theater patient movement requirements center - The activity responsible for intratheater patient movement management (medical regulating and aeromedical evacuation scheduling), the development of theater-level patient movement plans and schedules, the monitoring and execution in concert with the Global Patient Movement Requirements Center. Also called TPMRC. (ref JP 4-02)
  • theater special operations command - A subordinate unified command established by a combatant commander to plan, coordinate, conduct, and support joint special operations. Also called TSOC. See also special operations. (ref JP 3-05)
  • theater strategy - An overarching construct outlining a combatant commanderís vision for integrating and synchronizing military activities and operations with the other instruments of national power in order to achieve national strategic objectives. See also national military strategy; national security strategy; strategy. (ref JP 3-0)
  • theater support contract - A type of contingency contract awarded by contracting officers in the operational area serving under the direct contracting authority of the Service component or designated joint head of contracting activity for the designated contingency operation. See also external support contract; systems support contract. (ref JP 4-10)
  • thermal crossover - The natural phenomenon that normally occurs twice daily when temperature conditions are such that there is a loss of contrast between two adjacent objects on infrared imagery. (ref JP 3-09.3)
  • thermal radiation - 1. The heat and light produced by a nuclear explosion. 2. Electromagnetic radiations emitted from a heat or light source as a consequence of its temperature. (ref JP 3-41)
  • thorough decontamination - Decontamination carried out by a unit to reduce contamination on personnel, equipment, materiel, and/or working areas equal to natural background or to the lowest possible levels, to permit the partial or total removal of individual protective equipment and to maintain operations with minimum degradation. See also immediate decontamination; operational decontamination. (ref JP 3-11)
  • As Amended Through 15 February 2016 JP 1-02 243 threat analysis - In antiterrorism, a continual process of compiling and examining all available information concerning potential terrorist activities by terrorist groups which could target a facility. See also antiterrorism. (ref JP 3-07.2)
  • threat assessment - In antiterrorism, examining the capabilities, intentions, and activities, past and present, of terrorist organizations as well as the security environment within which friendly forces operate to determine the level of threat. Also called TA. (ref JP 3-07.2)
  • threat warning - The urgent communication and acknowledgement of time-critical information essential for the preservation of life and/or vital resources. (ref JP 2-01)
  • throughput - 1. In transportation, the average quantity of cargo and passengers that can pass through a port on a daily basis from arrival at the port to loading onto a ship or plane, or from the discharge from a ship or plane to the exit (clearance) from the port complex. (ref JP 4-01.5)
    2. In patient movement and care, the maximum number of patients (stable or stabilized) by category, that can be received at the airport, staged, transported, and received at the proper hospital within any 24-hour period. (ref JP 4-02)
  • throughput capacity - The estimated capacity of a port or an anchorage to clear cargo and/or passengers in 24 hours usually expressed in tons for cargo, but may be expressed in any agreed upon unit of measurement. See also clearance capacity. (ref JP 4-01.5)
  • time-definite delivery - The consistent delivery of requested logistic support at a time and destination specified by the receiving activity. See also logistic support. Also called TDD. (ref JP 4-09)
  • time of flight - In artillery, mortar, and naval gunfire support, the time in seconds from the instant a weapon is fired, launched, or released from the delivery vehicle or weapons system to the instant it strikes or detonates. Also called TOF. (ref JP 3-09)
  • time on target - The actual time at which munitions impact the target. Also called TOT. (ref JP 3-09.3)
  • time-phased force and deployment data - The time-phased force data, non-unit cargo and personnel data, and movement data for the operation plan or operation order or ongoing rotation of forces. Also called TPFDD. See also time-phased force and deployment list. (ref JP 5-0)
  • time-phased force and deployment list - Appendix 1 to Annex A of the operation plan, which identifies types and/or actual units required to support the operation plan and indicates origin and ports of debarkation or ocean area. Also called TPFDL. See also Joint Operation Planning and Execution System; time-phased force and deployment data. (ref JP 4-05)
  • As Amended Through 15 February 2016 244 JP 1-02 times - The Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff coordinates the proposed dates and times with the commanders of the appropriate unified and specified commands, as well as any recommended changes to when specified operations are to occur (C-, D-, M-days end at 2400 hours Universal Time [Zulu time] and are assumed to be 24 hours long for planning). (ref JP 5-0)
  • time-sensitive target - A joint force commander validated target or set of targets requiring immediate response because it is a highly lucrative, fleeting target of opportunity or it poses (or will soon pose) a danger to friendly forces. Also called TST. (ref JP 3-60)
  • time to target - The number of minutes and seconds to elapse before aircraft ordnance impacts on target. Also called TTT. (ref JP 3-09.3)
  • tophandler - A device specially designed to permit the lifting and handling of containers from the top with rough terrain container handlers. See also container. (ref JP 4-01.6)
  • topographic map - A map that presents the vertical position of features in measurable form as well as their horizontal positions. (ref JP 2-03)
  • top secret - Security classification that shall be applied to information, the unauthorized disclosure of which reasonably could be expected to cause exceptionally grave damage to the national security that the original classification authority is able to identify or describe. (EO 13526) torture - As defined by Title 18, US Code, Section 2340, it is any act committed by a person acting under color of law specifically intended to inflict severe physical or mental pain or suffering (other than pain or suffering incidental to lawful sanctions) upon another person within his custody or physical control. ďSevere mental pain or sufferingĒ means the prolonged mental harm caused by or resulting from: (a) the intentional infliction or threatened infliction of severe physical pain or suffering; (b) the administration or application, or threatened administration or application, of mind-altering substances or other procedures calculated to disrupt profoundly the senses or personality; (c) the threat of imminent death; or (d) the threat that another person will imminently be subjected to death, severe physical pain or suffering, or the administration or application of mindaltering substances or other procedures calculated to disrupt profoundly the senses or personality. (ref JP 2-01.2)
  • total mobilization - Expansion of the active Armed Forces resulting from action by Congress and the President to organize and/or generate additional units or personnel beyond the existing force structure, and the resources needed for their support, to meet the total requirements of a war or other national emergency involving an external threat to the national security. (ref JP 4-05)
  • toxic industrial biological - Any biological material manufactured, used, transported, or stored by industrial, medical, or commercial processes which could pose an infectious or toxic threat. Also called TIB. (ref JP 3-11)
  • As Amended Through 15 February 2016 JP 1-02 245 toxic industrial chemical - A chemical developed or manufactured for use in industrial operations or research by industry, government, or academia that poses a hazard. Also called TIC. (ref JP 3-11)
  • toxic industrial material - A generic term for toxic, chemical, biological, or radioactive substances in solid, liquid, aerosolized, or gaseous form that may be used, or stored for use, for industrial, commercial, medical, military, or domestic purposes. Also called TIM. (ref JP 3-11)
  • toxic industrial radiological - Any radiological material manufactured, used, transported, or stored by industrial, medical, or commercial processes. Also called TIR. (ref JP 3-11)
  • track - 1. A series of related contacts displayed on a data display console or other display device. 2. To display or record the successive positions of a moving object. 3. To lock onto a point of radiation and obtain guidance therefrom. 4. To keep a gun properly aimed, or to point continuously a target-locating instrument at a moving target. 5. The actual path of an aircraft above or a ship on the surface of the Earth. 6. One of the two endless belts on which a full-track or half-track vehicle runs. 7. A metal part forming a path for a moving object such as the track around the inside of a vehicle for moving a mounted machine gun. (ref JP 3-01)
  • track correlation - Correlating track information for identification purposes using all available data. (ref JP 3-01)
  • tracking - Precise and continuous position-finding of targets by radar, optical, or other means. (ref JP 3-07.4)
  • track management - Defined set of procedures whereby the commander ensures accurate friendly and enemy unit and/or platform locations, and a dissemination procedure for filtering, combining, and passing that information to higher, adjacent, and subordinate commanders. (ref JP 3-01)
  • track of interest - In counterdrug operations, contacts that meet the initial identification criteria applicable in the area where the contacts are detected. Also called TOI. See also suspect. (ref JP 3-07.4)
  • tradecraft - Specialized methods and equipment used in the organization and activity of intelligence organizations, especially techniques and methods for handling communications with agents. Operational practices and skills used in the performance of intelligence related duties. (ref JP 2-01.2)
  • traffic management - The direction, control, and supervision of all functions incident to the procurement and use of freight and passenger transportation services. (ref JP 4-09)
  • As Amended Through 15 February 2016 246 JP 1-02 training aid - Any item developed or procured with the primary intent that it shall assist in training and the process of learning. (ref JP 1-06)
  • training and readiness oversight - The authority that combatant commanders may exercise over assigned Reserve Component forces when not on active duty or when on active duty for training. Also called TRO. See also combatant commander. (ref JP 1)
  • transient forces - Forces that pass or stage through, or base temporarily within, the operational area of another command but are not under its operational control. See also force. (ref JP 1)
  • transit zone - The path taken by either airborne or seaborne smugglers. See also arrival zone. (ref JP 3-07.4)
  • transmission security - The component of communications security that results from all measures designed to protect communications from interception and exploitation by means other than cryptanalysis. Also called TRANSEC. See also communications security. (ref JP 6-0)
  • transnational threat - Any activity, individual, or group not tied to a particular country or region that operates across international boundaries and threatens United States national security or interests. (ref JP 3-26)
  • transport area - In amphibious operations, an area assigned to a transport organization for the purpose of debarking troops and equipment. See also inner transport area; outer transport area. (ref JP 3-02)
  • transportation closure - The actual arrival date of a specified movement requirement at port of debarkation. (ref JP 3-35)
  • transportation component command - A major command of its parent Service under United States Transportation Command, which includes Air Force Air Mobility Command, Navy Military Sealift Command, and Army Military Surface Deployment and Distribution Command. Also called TCC. (ref JP 4-01.6)
  • transportation feasibility - A determination that the capability exists to move forces, equipment, and supplies from the point of origin to the final destination within the time required. See also operation plan. (ref JP 4-09)
  • transportation feasible - A determination made by the supported commander that a draft operation plan can be supported with the apportioned transportation assets. (ref JP 5-0)
  • transportation priorities - Indicators assigned to eligible traffic that establish its movement precedence. (ref JP 4-09)
  • As Amended Through 15 February 2016 JP 1-02 247 transportation system - All the land, water, and air routes and transportation assets engaged in the movement of United States forces and their supplies during military operations, involving both mature and immature theaters and at the strategic, operational, and tactical levels of war. (ref JP 4-01)
  • transport group - An element that directly deploys and supports the landing of the landing force, and is functionally designated as a transport group in the amphibious task force organization. (ref JP 3-02)
  • transshipment point - A location where material is transferred between vehicles. (ref JP 4-01.5)
  • troop space cargo - Cargo such as sea or barracks bags, bedding rolls or hammocks, locker trunks, and office equipment, normally stowed in an accessible place, as well as normal hand-carried combat equipment and weapons to be carried ashore by the assault troops. (ref JP 3-02.1)
  • turnaround - The length of time between arriving at a point and being ready to depart from that point. (ref JP 4-01.5)
  • turning movement - A variation of the envelopment in which the attacking force passes around or over the enemyís principal defensive positions to secure objectives deep in the enemyís rear to force the enemy to abandon his position or divert major forces to meet the threat. (ref JP 3-06)
  • two-person rule - A system designed to prohibit access by an individual to nuclear weapons and certain designated components by requiring the presence at all times of at least two authorized persons, each capable of detecting incorrect or unauthorized procedures with respect to the task to be performed. As Amended Through 15 February 2016 248 JP 1-02 Intentionally Blank As Amended Through 15 February 2016 U JP 1-02 249 unanticipated target - A target of opportunity that was unknown or not expected to exist in the operational environment. See also operational area; target; target of opportunity. (ref JP 3-60)
  • unauthorized commitment - An agreement that is not binding solely because the United States Government representative who made it lacked the authority to enter into that agreement on behalf of the United States Government. (ref JP 4-10)
  • uncertain environment - Operational environment in which host government forces, whether opposed to or receptive to operations that a unit intends to conduct, do not have totally effective control of the territory and population in the intended operational area. (ref JP 3-0)
  • unconventional assisted recovery - Nonconventional assisted recovery conducted by special operations forces. Also called UAR. See also evader; recovery. (ref JP 3-50)
  • unconventional assisted recovery coordination cell - A compartmented special operations forces cell, established to coordinate, synchronize, and deconflict nonconventional assisted recovery operations within the operational area assigned to the joint force commander. Also called UARCC. See also joint operations center; joint personnel recovery center; special operations forces; unconventional assisted recovery. (ref JP 3- 50)
  • unconventional warfare - Activities conducted to enable a resistance movement or insurgency to coerce, disrupt, or overthrow a government or occupying power by operating through or with an underground, auxiliary, and guerrilla force in a denied area. Also called UW. (ref JP 3-05.1)
  • undersea warfare - Military operations conducted to establish and maintain control of the undersea portion of the maritime domain. Also called USW. See also antisubmarine warfare; mine warfare. (ref JP 3-32)
  • underwater demolition - The destruction or neutralization of underwater obstacles that is normally accomplished by underwater demolition teams. (ref JP 3-34)
  • underwater demolition team - A group of officers and enlisted specially trained and equipped to accomplish the destruction or neutralization of underwater obstacles and associated tasks. Also called UDT. (ref JP 3-34)
  • unexploded explosive ordnance - Explosive ordnance which has been primed, fused, armed or otherwise prepared for action, and which has been fired, dropped, launched, projected, or placed in such a manner as to constitute a hazard to operations, installations, personnel, or material and remains unexploded either by malfunction or design or for any other cause. Also called UXO. See also explosive ordnance. (ref JP 3-15)
  • As Amended Through 15 February 2016 250 JP 1-02 unified action - The synchronization, coordination, and/or integration of the activities of governmental and nongovernmental entities with military operations to achieve unity of effort. (ref JP 1)
  • unified combatant command - See unified command. (ref JP 1)
  • unified command - A command with a broad continuing mission under a single commander and composed of significant assigned components of two or more Military Departments that is established and so designated by the President, through the Secretary of Defense with the advice and assistance of the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. Also called unified combatant command. See also combatant command; subordinate unified command. (ref JP 1)
  • Unified Command Plan - The document, approved by the President, that sets forth basic guidance to all unified combatant commanders; establishes their missions, responsibilities, and force structure; delineates the general geographical area of responsibility for geographic combatant commanders; and specifies functional responsibilities for functional combatant commanders. Also called UCP. See also combatant command; combatant commander. (ref JP 1)
  • uniformed services - The Army, Navy, Air Force, Marine Corps, Coast Guard, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, and Public Health Services. See also Military Department; Service. (ref JP 1-0)
  • unit - 1. Any military element whose structure is prescribed by competent authority. 2. An organization title of a subdivision of a group in a task force. 3. A standard or basic quantity into which an item of supply is divided, issued, or used. Also called unit of issue. 4. With regard to Reserve Component of the Armed Forces, a selected reserve unit organized, equipped, and trained for mobilization to serve on active duty as a unit or to augment or be augmented by another unit. (ref JP 3-33)
  • unit aircraft - Those aircraft provided an aircraft unit for the performance of a flying mission. (ref JP 3-17)
  • United States - Includes the land area, internal waters, territorial sea, and airspace of the United States, including a. United States territories; and b. Other areas over which the United States Government has complete jurisdiction and control or has exclusive authority or defense responsibility. (ref JP 1)
  • United States Armed Forces - Used to denote collectively the Army, Marine Corps, Navy, Air Force, and Coast Guard. See also Armed Forces of the United States. (ref JP 1)
  • United States-controlled shipping - Shipping under United States flag and selected ships under foreign flag considered to be under effective United States control. See also effective United States-controlled ships. (ref JP 4-01.2)
  • As Amended Through 15 February 2016 JP 1-02 251 United States message text format - A program designed to enhance joint and combined combat effectiveness through standardization of message formats, data elements, and information exchange procedures. Also called USMTF. (ref JP 3-50)
  • United States Naval Ship - A public vessel of the United States that is in the custody of the Navy and is: a. Operated by the Military Sealift Command and manned by a civil service crew; or b. Operated by a commercial company under contract to the Military Sealift Command and manned by a merchant marine crew. Also called USNS. See also Military Sealift Command. (ref JP 4-01.2)
  • United States Signals Intelligence System - The unified organization of signals intelligence activities under the direction of the Director, National Security Agency/Chief, Central Security Service. It consists of the National Security Agency/Central Security Service, the components of the Military Services authorized to conduct signals intelligence, and such other entities (other than the Federal Bureau of Investigation) authorized by the National Security Council or the Secretary of Defense to conduct signals intelligence activities. Also called USSS. See also counterintelligence. (ref JP 2-01.2)
  • unit identification code - A six-character, alphanumeric code that uniquely identifies each Active, Reserve, and National Guard unit of the Armed Forces. Also called UIC. (ref JP 1-0)
  • unit line number - A seven-character alphanumeric code that describes a unique increment of a unit deployment, i.e., advance party, main body, equipment by sea and air, reception team, or trail party, in the time-phased force and deployment data. Also called ULN. (ref JP 3-35)
  • unit movement control center - A temporary organization activated by major subordinate commands and subordinate units during deployment to control and manage marshalling and movement. Also called UMCC. See also deployment; marshaling; unit. (ref JP 3-35)
  • unit movement data - A unit equipment and/or supply listing containing corresponding transportability data. Tailored unit movement data has been modified to reflect a specific movement requirement. Also called UMD. (ref JP 3-35)
  • unit personnel and tonnage table - A table included in the loading plan of a combat-loaded ship as a recapitulation of totals of personnel and cargo by type, listing cubic measurements and weight. Also called UP&TT. (3-02.1) unit type code - A Joint Chiefs of Staff developed and assigned code, consisting of five characters that uniquely identify a ďtype unit.Ē Also called UTC. (ref JP 4-02)
  • As Amended Through 15 February 2016 252 JP 1-02 unity of command - The operation of all forces under a single responsible commander who has the requisite authority to direct and employ those forces in pursuit of a common purpose. (ref JP 3-0)
  • unity of effort - Coordination and cooperation toward common objectives, even if the participants are not necessarily part of the same command or organization, which is the product of successful unified action. (ref JP 1)
  • Universal Joint Task List - A menu of capabilities that may be selected by a joint force commander to accomplish the assigned mission. Also called UJTL. (ref JP 3-33)
  • universal polar stereographic grid - A military grid prescribed for joint use in operations in limited areas and used for operations requiring precise position reporting. It covers areas between the 80 degree parallels and the poles. (ref JP 2-03)
  • Universal Time - A measure of time that conforms, within a close approximation, to the mean diurnal rotation of the Earth and serves as the basis of civil timekeeping. Also called ZULU time. (Formerly called Greenwich Mean Time.) (ref JP 5-0)
  • unknown - 1. A code meaning ďinformation not available.Ē 2. An unidentified target. An aircraft or ship that has not been determined to be hostile, friendly, or neutral using identification friend or foe and other techniques, but that must be tracked by air defense or naval engagement systems. 3. An identity applied to an evaluated track that has not been identified. See also assumed friend; friend; neutral; suspect. (ref JP 3-01)
  • unmanned aircraft - An aircraft that does not carry a human operator and is capable of flight with or without human remote control. Also called UA. (ref JP 3-30)
  • unmanned aircraft system - That system whose components include the necessary equipment, network, and personnel to control an unmanned aircraft. Also called UAS. (ref JP 3-30)
  • unplanned target - A target of opportunity that is known to exist in the operational environment. See also operational area; target; target of opportunity. (ref JP 3-60)
  • unrestricted reporting - A process that a Service member uses to disclose, without requesting confidentiality or restricted reporting, that he or she is the victim of a sexual assault. (ref JP 1-0)
  • unstable patient - A patient whose physiological status is in fluctuation and for whom emergent, treatment, and/or surgical intervention are anticipated during treatment or evacuation; and the patientís rapidly changing status and requirements are beyond the standard en route care capability and requires medical/surgical augmentation. (ref JP 4-02)
  • unstuffing - The removal of cargo from a container. Also called stripping. (ref JP 4-09)
  • As Amended Through 15 February 2016 JP 1-02 253 use of force policy - Policy guidance issued by the Commandant, US Coast Guard, on the use of force and weapons. (ref JP 3-03)
  • US forces - All Armed Forces (including the Coast Guard) of the United States, any person in the Armed Forces of the United States, and all equipment of any description that either belongs to the US Armed Forces or is being used (including Type I and II Military Sealift Command vessels), escorted, or conveyed by the US Armed Forces. (ref JP 1)
  • US national - US citizen and US permanent and temporary legal resident aliens. (ref JP 1)
  • US person - For intelligence purposes, a US person is defined as one of the following: (1) a US citizen; (2) an alien known by the intelligence agency concerned to be a permanent resident alien; (3) an unincorporated association substantially composed of US citizens or permanent resident aliens; or (4) a corporation incorporated in the United States, except for those directed and controlled by a foreign government or governments. (ref JP 2-01.2)
  • As Amended Through 15 February 2016 254 JP 1-02 Intentionally Blank As Amended Through 15 February 2016 V JP 1-02 255 validate - Execution procedure used by combatant command components, supporting combatant commanders, and providing organizations to confirm to the supported commander and United States Transportation Command that all the information records in a time-phased force and deployment data not only are error-free for automation purposes, but also accurately reflect the current status, attributes, and availability of units and requirements. (ref JP 5-0)
  • validation - 1. A process associated with the collection and production of intelligence that confirms that an intelligence collection or production requirement is sufficiently important to justify the dedication of intelligence resources, does not duplicate an existing requirement, and has not been previously satisfied. (ref JP 2-01)
    2. A part of target development that ensures all vetted targets meet the objectives and criteria outlined in the commanderís guidance and ensures compliance with the law war and rules of engagement. (ref JP 3-60)
    3. In computer modeling and simulation, the process of determining the degree to which a model or simulation is an accurate representation of the real world from the perspective of the intended uses of the model or simulation. (ref JP 3-35)
    4. Execution procedure whereby all the information records in a time-phased force and deployment data are confirmed error free and accurately reflect the current status, attributes, and availability of units and requirements. See also time-phased force and deployment data; verification. (ref JP 3-35)
  • vehicle-borne improvised explosive device - A device placed or fabricated in an improvised manner on a vehicle incorporating destructive, lethal, noxious, pyrotechnic, or incendiary chemicals and designed to destroy, incapacitate, harass, or distract. Also called VBIED. (ref JP 3-10)
  • vehicle cargo - Wheeled or tracked equipment, including weapons, that require certain deck space, head room, and other definite clearance. (ref JP 4-01.2)
  • vehicle summary and priority table - A table detailing all vehicles by priority of debarkation from a combat-loaded ship. Also called VS&PT. (ref JP 3-02.1)
  • verification - 1. In arms control, any action, including inspection, detection, and identification, taken to ascertain compliance with agreed measures. (ref JP 3-41)
    2. In computer modeling and simulation, the process of determining that a model or simulation implementation accurately represents the developerís conceptual description and specifications. See also configuration management; validation. (ref JP 3-13.1)
  • vertical envelopment - A tactical maneuver in which troops that are air-dropped, airlanded, or inserted via air assault, attack the rear and flanks of a force, in effect cutting off or encircling the force.. (ref JP 3-18)
  • vertical replenishment - The use of a helicopter for the transfer of materiel to or from a ship. Also called VERTREP. (ref JP 3-04)
  • As Amended Through 15 February 2016 256 JP 1-02 vertical stowage - A method of stowage in depth within a single compartment by which loaded items are continually accessible for unloading, and the unloading can be completed without corresponding changes or prior unloading of other cargo. (ref JP 3-02.1)
  • vetting - A part of target development that assesses the accuracy of the supporting intelligence to targeting. (ref JP 3-60)
  • visual information - Various visual media with or without sound that generally includes still and motion photography, audio video recording, graphic arts, and visual presentations. Also called VI. (ref JP 3-61)
  • visual meteorological conditions - Weather conditions in which visual flight rules apply; expressed in terms of visibility, ceiling height, and aircraft clearance from clouds along the path of flight. Also called VMC. See also instrument meteorological conditions. (ref JP 3-04)
  • Voluntary Intermodal Sealift Agreement - An agreement that provides the Department of Defense with assured access to United States flag assets, both vessel capacity and intermodal systems, to meet Department of Defense contingency requirements. Also called VISA. See also intermodal (ref JP 4-01.2)
  • voluntary tanker agreement - An agreement established by the Maritime Administration to provide for United States commercial tanker owners and operators to voluntarily make their vessels available to satisfy the Department of Defense to meet contingency or war requirements for point-to-point petroleum, oils, and lubricants movements. Also called VTA. (ref JP 4-01.2)
  • vulnerability - 1. The susceptibility of a nation or military force to any action by any means through which its war potential or combat effectiveness may be reduced or its will to fight diminished. (ref JP 3-01)
    2. The characteristics of a system that cause it to suffer a definite degradation (incapability to perform the designated mission) as a result of having been subjected to a certain level of effects in an unnatural (man-made) hostile environment. (ref JP 3-60)
    3. In information operations, a weakness in information system security design, procedures, implementation, or internal controls that could be exploited to gain unauthorized access to information or an information system. See also information operations. (ref JP 3-13)
  • vulnerability assessment - A Department of Defense, command, or unit-level evaluation (assessment) to determine the vulnerability of an installation, unit, exercise, port, ship, residence, facility, or other site to a terrorist attack. Also called VA. (ref JP 3-07.2)
  • As Amended Through 15 February 2016 W JP 1-02 257 walk-in - An unsolicited contact who provides information. (ref JP 2-01.2)
  • warden system - An informal method of communication used to pass information to United States citizens living in affected areas overseas during emergencies. See also noncombatant evacuation operation. (ref JP 3-68)
  • warning intelligence - Those intelligence activities intended to detect and report timesensitive intelligence information on foreign developments that forewarn of hostile actions or intention against United States entities, partners, or interests. (ref JP 2-0)
  • warning order - 1. A preliminary notice of an order or action that is to follow. 2. A planning directive that initiates the development and evaluation of military courses of action by a supported commander and requests that the supported commander submit a commanderís estimate. 3. A planning directive that describes the situation, allocates forces and resources, establishes command relationships, provides other initial planning guidance, and initiates subordinate unit mission planning. Also called WARNORD. (ref JP 5-0)
  • war reserve materiel requirement - That portion of the war materiel requirement required to be on hand on D-day. This level consists of the war materiel requirement less the sum of the peacetime assets assumed to be available on D-day and the war materiel procurement capability. (ref JP 4-02)
  • war reserve stock - That portion of total materiel assets designated to satisfy the war reserve materiel requirement. Also called WRS. See also reserve; war reserve materiel requirement. (ref JP 2-03)
  • wartime reserve modes - Characteristics and operating procedures of sensor, communications, navigation aids, threat recognition, weapons, and countermeasures systems that will contribute to military effectiveness if unknown to or misunderstood by opposing commanders before they are used, but could be exploited or neutralized if known in advance. Also called WARM. (ref JP 3-13.1)
  • Washington Liaison Group - An organization consisting of members of Department of State and Department of Defense, chaired by a representative of Department of State, which has basic responsibility for the coordination and implementation of plans for the protection and evacuation in emergencies of persons abroad for whom the Secretaries of State or Defense are responsible. Also called WLG. (ref JP 3-68)
  • waterspace management - The allocation of waterspace in terms of antisubmarine warfare attack procedures to permit the rapid and effective engagement of hostile submarines while preventing inadvertent attacks on friendly submarines. Also called WSM. (ref JP 3-32)
  • As Amended Through 15 February 2016 258 JP 1-02 wave - A formation of forces, including ships, landing craft, amphibious vehicles or aircraft, required to beach or land about the same time. (ref JP 3-02)
  • weaponeer - An individual who has completed requisite training to determine the quantity and type of lethal or nonlethal means required to create a desired effect on a given target. (ref JP 3-60)
  • weaponeering - The process of determining the quantity of a specific type of lethal or nonlethal means required to create a desired effect on a given target. (ref JP 3-60)
  • weapon engagement zone - In air defense, airspace of defined dimensions within which the responsibility for engagement of air threats normally rests with a particular weapon system. Also called WEZ. (ref JP 3-01)
  • weapons control status - An air defense control measure declared for a particular area and time by an area air defense commander, or delegated subordinate commander, based on the rules of engagement designed to establish the freedom for fighters and surface air defense weapons to engage threats. Also call WCS. (ref JP 3-01)
  • weapons free zone - An air defense zone established for the protection of key assets or facilities, other than air bases, where weapon systems may be fired at any target not positively recognized as friendly. (ref JP 3-01)
  • weapons of mass destruction - Chemical, biological, radiological, or nuclear weapons capable of a high order of destruction or causing mass casualties, and excluding the means of transporting or propelling the weapon where such means is a separable and divisible part from the weapon. Also called WMD. See also special operations. (ref JP 3-40)
  • weapons of mass destruction proliferation - The transfer of weapons of mass destruction or related materials, technology, and expertise from suppliers to state or non-state actors. (ref JP 3-40)
  • weapons readiness state - The degree of readiness of air defense weapons which can become airborne or be launched to carry out an assigned task and normally expressed in numbers of weapons and numbers of minutes. (ref JP 3-01)
  • weapons release authority - The authority originating from the President to engage or direct engagement of ballistic missile threats using ground-based interceptors of the ground-based midcourse defense. Also call WRA. (ref JP 3-01)
  • weapons technical intelligence - A category of intelligence and processes derived from the technical and forensic collection and exploitation of improvised explosive devices, associated components, improvised weapons, and other weapon systems. Also called WTI. (ref JP 3-15.1)
  • As Amended Through 15 February 2016 JP 1-02 259 weapon system - A combination of one or more weapons with all related equipment, materials, services, personnel, and means of delivery and deployment (if applicable) required for self-sufficiency. (ref JP 3-0)
  • wellness - Force health protection program that consolidates and incorporates physical and mental fitness, health promotion, and environmental and occupational health. See also force health protection. (ref JP 4-02)
  • wing - 1. An Air Force unit composed normally of one primary mission group and the necessary supporting organizations. 2. A fleet air wing is the basic organizational and administrative unit for naval-, land-, and tender-based aviation. 3. A balanced Marine Corps task organization of aircraft groups and squadrons, together with appropriate command, air control, administrative, service, and maintenance units. 4. A flank unit; that part of a military force to the right or left of the main body. (ref JP 3-09.3)
  • withdrawal operation - A planned retrograde operation in which a force in contact disengages from an enemy force and moves in a direction away from the enemy. (ref JP 3-17)
  • witting - A term of intelligence art that indicates that one is not only aware of a fact or piece of information but also aware of its connection to intelligence activities. (ref JP 2-01.2)
  • wounded warrior programs - A system of support and advocacy to guide and assist the wounded, ill, and injured Service members and family or designated caregiver through treatment, rehabilitation, return to duty, or military retirement into the civilian community. Each Military Department has a unique wounded warrior program that addresses its Service members' needs. (DODI 6025.22) working capital fund - A revolving fund established to finance inventories of supplies and other stores, or to provide working capital for industrial-type activities. (ref JP 1-06)
  • working group - An enduring or ad hoc organization within a joint force commanderís headquarters consisting of a core functional group and other staff and component representatives whose purpose is to provide analysis on the specific function to users. Also called WG. (ref JP 3-33)
  • zone of action - A tactical subdivision of a larger area, the responsibility for which is assigned to a tactical unit; generally applied to offensive action. (ref JP 3-09)
  • zone of fire - An area into which a designated ground unit or fire support ship delivers, or is prepared to deliver, fire support. Also called ZF. (ref JP 3-09)
  • ZULU time - See Universal Time.